Skip to main content

Full text of "Monaco and Monte Carlo"

See other formats


Ex Libris 













With Eight Reproductions in Colour from Drawings 

by Charles Maresco Pearce, and with 

Forty-eight Illustrations in 

Black and White 







To describe the economic, social mid political condi- 
tions of a count 7- If, the good ivill and assistance of the 
authorities responsible for its govej-nment must be secu?-ed. 

Fortunately, a lifelong accjuaintance xvith the Principality 
of Monaco has placed me in a favourable position. So far 
back as 1882, I tvas xvell knoivn to the officicds as colla- 
borating zvith the late Doctor Pickering, in wnting and 
publishing a small book entitled " 3Ionaco, the Beauty Spot 
of the Riviera." Sidjsequently I was deputed to investigate 
various epidemics on the Riviera, notably the cholera epi- 
demics of 188 Jt, 1885 and 1893. The energetic denunciations 
and scie?itific reports I then contribiited to The Lancet, 
describing the insanitary conditions prevcdling at the so- 
called health resorts, contributed in no small mcas^ire to 
bring about the notable improvements now realised along 
the whole Rivie7'a, and especially at Monaco. More recently, 
dwing the Conference of the Internationcd Association of 
tlie Medical Press, which met at Monaco in 1902, I was 
appointed spokesman of the eight ?iationalities ?-ep?'esented. 
hi the name of the leading medical journals published by 
tlie principal nations of Eiirope, I had to address his 
Serene Highness, Piincc Albert /., and explained that 
we were doubly honoured. We were honoured by the regal 
reception and bounteous hospitality accorded to us by his 
Highness as Pi-ince of Monaco. But there was a 7nore 
intimate link. We attached still greater value to the p?ivi- 
lege of being the guests of a man of science who had 
rendered the world sei'vice by his original I'esearch and 

In tlie same year I acted as interpretei- from French 


into JEnglish and from English into French of all the 
speeches delivered at tlie Internatio?ial Peace Co7igress, 
likeivise held i?i Monaco. This again brought me into per- 
sonal contact with the reigning Prince. Finally, I am also 
indebted to the friendly suppoi't given me by Professor 
Charles Richet of the Pa?is Academy of Medicine. Professor 
Richet accompanied the Prince on one of his deep-sea 
exploiting expeditions, and is a feUow-ivoj-ker in the Inter- 
national Peace 3£ovement to xvhich Prince Albert is 
so earnestly attached. Such, I presume, are the principal 
reasons xvhich account for the gracious reception accorded 
to me at the Court of Monaco, and for the fact that every 
assistance has been tendered me to facilitate the accomplish- 
ment of my task. 

During a long audience with the Prince, I endeavotired 
to explain that the book I pi'oposed to zcrite would 
deal partly with past history, but more especially with 
moderri problems. These comprised many economic, social, 
political and psychological subjects. Then there were the 
arts and sciences tliat could be studied with special advantage 
in the principality. In conclusion I inquired whether his 
Highness could recommend some similar work. To my 
surprise, and ivithout a momenfs hesitation. Prince Albert 
7'eplied that there ivas no such book in existence. There were 
some excellent ivorks, each dealing tcith one special subject, 
such as that writteti by the historian, Gustave Saige, on 
"Monaco: Its Origins and History." There xvere the 
reports and books on the anthropological researches and 
oceanographic explorations made by, or under the direct 
supei'vision of, the Prince himself. But neither in French 
nor any other language had any general book on Monaco 
been published. 

A fetv days later I ivas convei'sing with Mr Fredeiic 
Jf^cht, the General Director of the Casino, and I put to 
him exactly the same question ; only to recdre precisely the 
same reply. Such a work as I proposed, though much needed, 
had never been attempted. There xvere doubtless hundreds, 
indeed thousands, of books and pamphlets on Monaco or 


Monte Carlo. Some of these were obvious advertisements, 
others meirhj pocket guides \ but the majority xvere scurrilous 
sensational publications issued in the hope of extorting 
blackmail. A. serious study of the many problems at issue, 
nrittefi impartially, had not seen the light of day. If I felt 
the strength to grapple xvith such a variety of subjects the 
Directoi's of the Camio, as well as the Government, would 
put at my disposal every facility. 

What this meant no one can well imagine till taught 
by experience. To liave access to headquarters for all 
the information needed is indeed a great advantage and 
privilege ; but who could foresee that in so small a princi- 
pality there would be so many headquarters ? Each of these 
departments has its technical chief, tvho naturally imagines 
that those who call upon him knotv something about his 
technique. My long experience as an investigator of all 
matters concerning the public health of many nations in 
Europe, Africa and America had fortunately rendered 
me familiar with numerous technical problems of local 
government, but at Monaco some of the subjects tvere of 
necessity quite new. On these occasions, I had to confess 
my ignorance and plead for patience and kindness so that 
I might be allozved to learn. On the high rock of 3Ionaco 
we have the sciences, notably Oceanography and Anthro- 
pology. Mostly on the loxvcr levels and down by the Conda- 
mine there are industries, such as art pottery, panification, 
h-ewijig, the building of the port and its groimng trade, the 
gas-works, the market, the scent distillery, etc. Finally, at 
Monte Carlo we luive a haven for the fine aiis, especially 
those connected with music and the stage. Throughout 
fio?iculture and horticulture receive the most lavish and 
scientific attention. Every one of these {and many other) 
forms of activity has its fully qualified technical chief, ready 
to give forth a wonderful account of hoiv his experience 
has been enriched by the munificent manner in which his 
special pursuit is encouraged and developed. In other 
countries, insufficient financial resources, the difficulty of 
making ends meet, cripple the xvork, and check the happy 


results that only need sufficient encouragement to hid forth 

Here, on the contrary, is a small principality where, pro- 
portio7iately speaking, more money is spetit on local govei'n- 
ment, on public tt'0?"/is, on the promotion of original research, 
on the arts and sciences, than is the case in any other part 
of the tvorld. This will appear the more remarkable vchen it 
is noted that it has all been done without awakening irate 
taxpayers or leading to the creation of a Ratepayer's' 
Protective League. The fact is that the principality has 
applied tvith such remar-kable success the principle q/ 
" taxing the foreigner " that there is no necessity for any 
home tax xmatsoever. It is true that indirect taxation is 
maintained : customs duties on tobacco, matches and stamps, 
exactly as in France. But this is not done for the sake of 
the revenue resulting, xvhich after all amounts only to the 
comparatively insignificant sum of 700,000 francs. Its sole 
object is to prevent Monaco becoming to France what 
Gibraltar has been to Spain — namely, a great smuggling 

With the exception, then, of the small sum derived from 
indirect taxation, the vast revenues of the principcdity are 
obtained solely from the foreigner and the alien. Nw is 
there any compulsion about this very convenient form of 
taxation. On the conti'ary, not ordy are none cdlozved to 
contribute imless they pr'ove, xvith papers and passports in 
hand, that they are foreigners, but, it is at least the theory 
that if they are poor and cannot afford it, even though they 
are foreigners their contribution is not accepted. 

No history of the principality would be complete tvithout 
a very full and carefully .studied account of the organisation 
of the casino and its gaming-tables, xvher'e,from all parts 
of the world, millions of people come and voluntarily risk 
their money. That they thus without murmur or question 
defray cdl the cost of local government, the cost of the 
festivals, concer'ts, performances, balls, sports, etc., organised 
by the casino, and further yield fat dividends to the share- 
holder's is a social, economical and psychological phenomenon 


of the most far-reaching significance and of absorbing 

What is this fascinating game, erroneously attributed to 
a priest, the great mathematician, Pascal ? What particle of 
trtith is there in all the wild stoiies related ? What about the 
ijifallible systems, tvhich somehow are mainly infallible only 
in the regularity with which they prove failures 1 To judge 
of these things it is necessary to examine into the details 
xiery minutely. It tvas only when I was introduced into the 
gaming saloons before they were opened to the public, 
witne.'ssed hoio the four different functionaries appointed 
inspected and tested each table, when I was permitted to lift 
the wheel off', and see its internal structure, and make some 
few eocperiments with my own hands, that I realised hoiv 
little foundation there is for the stories told about playing 
to defects, and controlling the results. Absolute honesty, 
combined with all the precision of a scientific instrument, 
explains the constant influx of speculators ready to risk their 
money inhere they knoiv exactly ivhat prospect of winning 
is before them. If so many lose, it is because so few a?-e 
content with a moderate gain : and here also we have an 
observatory for the contemplation of human weakness and 
overreaching avarice. This is often accompanied by the 
most extraordinary, and at times very amusing, develop- 
ments of absolutely unreasoning superstitions. On the other 
hand, mathematicians of great distinction have burned the 
midnight oil to study the laivs of chance as illust7-ated by 
the records of the roulette-table. 

It would be dull work to convert this preface into a 
catalogue of the subjects treated i7i the present volume. My 
only object is to explain hoiv I have been able to collect the 
information, and wliat, on broad lines, is the scope of the 
book. The great variety of important and insti'uctive 
problems opened out will, I ti-ust, awaken interest in the 
principality. The reader will realise that this little state 
has served as a laboratory where practical legislative and 
other experiments have been, and are being, made, that serve 
as educational demonstrations for the benefit of many 


nations. Then the chief of the state also enjoys exceptional 
opportunities of rendering humanity inestimable service. 
It is well knoicn that Prince Albert I. has availed 
himself of his privileged position ; and on more than one 
occasion his unofficial and friendly intervention has con- 
tributed, at very critical moments, to preserve the peace 
of Europe. 

The little principality is thus not me?'ely the 7nost popular 
pleasure resort of Europe, but a laboratory where some of 
the greatest problems of the day are studied a?id oiiginal 
research carried forward tinder very favourable con- 
ditiojis. This double part ?night be defined as — Monaco for 
pacific diplomacy , for scientific research arid for humanitarian 
endeavours ; Monte Carh for art, beauty, luxury, pleasure, 
extravagance and folly : such is the dual life, the dual aspect 
of the principality. The least worthy side is the best-known 
to the public at la?ge. The object of this wo?k is to make 
both aspects equally familiar. 








ENGLAND ..... 49 

TION ...... 81 










CIPALITY ..... 202 


AND THE LAWS ..... 213 





XVn. THE POLICE ..... 




















INDEX .... 














ROAD ..... 

PALACE ..... 



Facing page 106 






















CAVERN ...... 212 



BEST JOKESJ . . . . „ 218 

FRENCH REPUBLIC . . . . „ 220 






TERRACE ...... 244 





ROULETTE ...... 292 






FACING THE SEA . . . . ,, 308 



ROOM BEFORE 1878 . . . Foctng page 310 


STAGE ...... 314 






CASINO ...... 326 





THE SALLE TOUZET . . . . „ 338 


DRAWING . . . . . ,, 364 

RATE ,....„ 398 


DUTY ...... 420 





" IVAN THE TERRIBLE " . . . „ 432 










Facing page 













ANTHROPOLOGY and mythology rather than 
history supply the earliest beginnings of our 
knowledge concerning Monaco and its peoples. 
History does not go so far back, and is certainly not more 
reliable. In any case, it seems as if histories that passed 
current half-a-century ago have to be rewritten in the 
light of modern critical analysis. The history of 
Monaco has not escaped this common fate. The old 
traditions have been challenged. Only that which is 
proved on evidence after careful examination can now 
be accepted. The very pedigree of Monaco's princes is 
exposed to the meticulous scrutiny of the modern critics, 
who refuse to treat tradition with unquestioning reverence. 
Fortunately Monaco has become a centre for the pro- 
motion of science, especially the sciences which deal with 
the earliest manifestations of life. Thus it does seem 
as if the ancient worship established on this rock is now 
bearing fruit. If the plankton — that is, the fine living dust 
which floats on the face of the deep — be the first or 
earliest manifestation of life, the materialisation of the 
spirit that moved on the waters, then assuredly the 
science of oceanography will constitute the first chapter 
in the history of the living woi'ld, and Monaco is now 
the world's chief centre for the study of this new science. 
Monaco is also a centre, though of less importance, 
for another new science which may be considered as the 
second chapter in the history of life. Monaco has its 
Archaeological Institute, with its scholars, its explorers, 
its museum and its funds for the endowment of original 


research. Here are collected rare palceontological treasures 
that disclose the ingenuity, the artistic aspirations, the 
modes of existence prevailing in prehistoric times. 
Finally, we have also at Monaco archives which are 
among the richest in Europe, and where a vast accumu- 
lation of original documents and state correspondence 
give real and interesting testimony bearing on important 
historical events of recent and of medieeval times. Thus 
while enjoying unusual climatic advantages in the midst 
of beautiful scenery coupled with all the comforts of 
modern town life, the lover of science and history finds 
at Monaco exceptional facilities for study. Dividing his 
investigations into three parts we have first biology in 
the library, the laboratories, the small experimental 
aquaria, the large public aquarium and the palatial 
museum of the Oceanographic Institute : secondly pre- 
historic archeology at the Anthropological Institute and 
Museum which, like the Oceanographic Museum, over- 
looks the sea and the beautiful Gardens of St Martin 
at Monaco : thirdly the written and printed evidence 
bearing on modern history now carefully stored and 
catalogued in the Archives of the Palace and placed 
under the scholarly control of Monsieur L. H. Laborde, 
chief archivist. 

In attempting to summarise history the abundance 
of materials is, however, of more encumbrance than 
assistance ; nor does the fact that the Principality is 
a small place shorten the length of its history. There are 
as many days in the JMonegasque calendar as in that 
of any other country. Indeed, the history of Monaco 
is in part the history of France, of Spain, of Italy and 
sometimes England. Its princes, who were related to the 
kings and princes of these countries, intrigued at the 
different courts and became the heroes of love ad- 
ventures, notably at the courts of Versailles and of 
St James. Fortunately in the difficult task of abbreviating 
and even of omitting altogether inany portions of this 
history there is the authority of Lentheric for skipping 


over no less than five centuries. " La Provence Maritime, 
Ancienne et Moderne," by Charles Lentheric, is a learned 
and fascinating description or history of the natural 
development of the French Riviera. In his opinion 
positive reliable history relating to this part of the world 
does not begin before the sixth century. Out of the 
impenetrable chaos of confused legends no facts stand forth 
that can supply the elements of a serious discussion. 
All we know is that ceilain peoples lived here and certain 
other peoples periodically overran the country without 
actually settling and forming permanent colonies. There 
seems to have been a hinterland with a permanent — or, 
in any case, a comparatively stable — population ; and 
an ever-recurrent flow of traders or invaders visiting or 
attacking the coast-line. If this was not inscribed in 
history it could be deduced as a reasonable probability 
arising froin the geographical conformation of the country. 
The more recent hinterland populations were of Aryan 
origin, consisting of Celts, otherwise called Gauls. 

Before the advent of the Gaul, however, a still older 
race peopled the land stretching from the mouths of the 
Rhone to the further limits of Etruria. They were a 
much lower race, though hardy warriors ; small of stature 
but strong, active and brave. Not much is known about 
them, they left neither monuments nor literature, but 
they survived many an invasion, notably that of the 
Phoenician fleets. Indeed, the overcoming of this resist- 
ance has been by some regarded as having given rise 
to the Heraklean legends. Such myths are often more 
important than the bare facts of history. Whether a 
certain chief governed a certain tribe for a long or a short 
time during the first or second century matters very 
little to us to-day ; the further we go back the less the 
chronology of generals or chiefs seems to affect us. What 
is of interest, and still of importance, for it continues to 
influence our daily life, is the flow and ebb of races and 
peoples bringing with them certain customs and beliefs, 
unconsciously embodying conceptions of human and 


cosmic relations. In this manner have the souls of peoples 
been moulded and modern nations are but the children 
of these ancient races. It is not because we are told such 
a tribe defeated another tribe on a given spot and on 
a particular day that we shall understand the dim trend 
of thought and aspiration which brought about the 
mental and material evolution out of which we ourselves 
are born. Contemplating history in this manner, the 
myths representing the ideals and veiling the truth in 
the fantasy of a symbolic fable are often more fruitful 
and instructive than the poor and unreliable records called 
early history. The adventures of the gods, related as of 
a time when gods and men lived in close communion 
with each other, constitute a dramatisation that presents 
us with an unconsciously personated manifestation of 
forces arising out of economic necessity. Therefore move- 
ments of tribes and peoples striving for better conditions 
of life appear as the arbitrary actions of individual heroes, 
their eponymous ancestors, subsequently deified or at 
least raised to the position of superhuman " heroes." 

Thus, but a short time ago, for the greatest fete and 
pageant ever given in the Principality, it was not a page 
of history the organisers invoked. The largest and also 
the most distinguished crowd ever assembled on the 
rocks and shores of the old port came to see the personi- 
fication of the sun-god Herakles wage battle with the 
powers of darkness ; and, triumphant, install in Monaco 
the arts and sciences, while conferring the gift of perpetual 
spring. As Apollo, the sun-god, with the aid of the 
Muses, represents music and the arts, which are gener- 
ously subsidised and encouraged in the Principality, so 
the Roman Hercules also was associated in Italy with 
the Muses. On those occasions Hercules was named 
Musagetes, and pictured holding a lyre. This interpreta- 
tion, however, was purely Roman ; there was no trace 
of it in Greece. To-day the muscular strength Herakles 
personified is superseded by the much greater force 
acquired through the scientific control of the elements 


of nature. It is this modernised conception of strength 
that is studied by the government of the Principality. 
In deciding problems of local administration the teaching 
of science is more and more closely observed, and it may 
thus be said that by utilising the force science confers 
Hercules is still honoured. 

It is not, however, the Grecian Herakles or the 
Roman Hercules who is specially connected with Monaco. 
The most brilliant of all public rejoicings was held in 
April 1910 to celebrate the inauguration of the Oceano- 
graphic Museum. The chapter dealing with this unique 
institution will describe the water festival. For the 
moment it suffices to state that this aquatic spectacle 
recalled the old legend according to which Monaco was 
founded sixteen or seventeen hundred years before the 
Christian era by the Phoenician Melkarth, or sun-god, 
born of Baal and Astarte, who were recognised at Tyre 
and Sidon as the father and mother of all things. Dupuis, 
in his great work "L'Origine de Tous les Cultes" and other 
eighteenth-century authorities, interpreted myths in an 
astronomical sense which, if considerably modified by 
more modern I'esearch, is not even to-day entirely super- 
seded. According to this school man had no sooner given 
a soul to the world and an intelligence guiding and 
vivifying the various forces of nature than these were 
promptly represented in poems and chants as living 
personalities. The sun as the redeemer from the evils 
of winter appears to us embodied in different legends 
under the names of Hercules, Bacchus, Osiris, Helios, 
Jason, etc., etc. ; in all these myths there is a similar 
conception differently expressed. With Herakles the 
myth represented strength, primarily solar strength, then 
human endeavour travailing and struggling for the 
accomplishment of a given task. This harmonises very 
accurately with the legendary twelve labours of Hercules 
piously and fittingly painted in the galleries that sur- 
round the Court of Honour of the palace of Monaco. 

The legend is sometimes appropriated bodily by a 


people who flatter themselves into the belief tliat the life 
history of the god as their eponymous ancestor is the 
history of their nation. Thus it was not the Phoenicians 
who came to Monaco ; it was Herakles, or Melkarth, 
Menouakh as they entitled their principal god. The latter 
word, according to I'Abb^ Burges (" Antiquitates Grecae," 
v., p. 2831), means that which gives asylum or rest, and 
this is certainly applicable to a natural harbour such as 
the port at Monaco. The Greeks, the Abbe maintains, 
erroneously interpreted the term as signifying sole occup- 
ant or inhabitant ; but certainly in the temples built to 
Herakles no other god was worshipped. Thus we come 
to the Partus HerakUs Blonoeki where the Phoenicians 
raised a temple in which Melkarth was alone to be 
\vorshipped as the god of strength, the symbol of the 
sun, that dissipates darkness, gives light, life, harvest, 
fruit, sweetness, health and increase. According to one 
version the word Monaco was connected with a form of 
monotheism, and according to another authority with the 
sense of hospitality, of rest and security that a good 
harbour offers to the weary mariner. It may be argued 
that there is not much in a name, especially in this case, 
for, according to Varro, Hercules rejoiced in no fewer 
than forty-four aliases. On the other hand these forty- 
four Herculeses all achieved similar exploits, whether it 
was Hercules at Gabez or Samson at Gaza. For the most 
part they killed lions and procured golden apples. 

It would be interesting to know during which of his 
twelve labours Monaco was discovered by its titular god. 
The legend says he conferi'ed eternal spring on this favoured 
spot ; a poetical conceit, confirmed, in a measure, by the 
springlike climate that prevails there during the winter. 
The probabilities are that Herakles would be described 
as passing by Monaco while coasting the Mediterranean 
on his way to the Gardens of the Hesperides, for they 
were alleged to be near Mount Atlas and to the extreme 
west. But all along the Riviera people claim that the 
golden apples were none other than the oranges they 


grew in their gardens. Ignoring the sweet and large 
oranges of Jaffa, and other places close to Tyre, they 
imagine that the sour oranges of the French Riviera were 
the first and nearest that would be found by travellers 
coming from Tyre or Sidon. Thus the islands close to 
Toulon are called Les Iks d'Or, because the inhabitants 
thought that Herakles must have found the golden 
apples or oranges in this neighbourhood. At the winter 
station of Hyeres, facing these islands, the first hotels 
built adopted names in keeping with this tradition. There 
were the Hotel des lies dOr and the Hotel des Hesper- 
ides. Other places along the Uiviera, notably the islands 
opposite Cannes, also claim to have provided Herakles 
with the golden apples he needed. Monaco alone, however, 
was named after Herakles and known in history as the 
Porfus Hei-aklis Monaki or Partus Herculis 3Ioncec/. 
But the reader may inquire was it when pursuing Geryon 
or when seeking for golden apples that he paused at 
Monaco ? On this point the myth is silent. 

To-day the zodiacal sign Leo means the end of July 
and the first twenty-two days of August. If the year of 
Melkarth began in Leo, the sun has precessed through 
five signs since that time, so that all this must have 
happened some thirteen thousand years ago. Without 
attempting the lengthy task of describing the twelve 
labours of Hercules, we may take the twelfth as an example, 
particularly as it deals with the golden apples said to 
have been found on the Riviera. Dupuis, in the manner 
of his day, summarises the fable and compares it with the 
astronomical reality. It may also be noted that after his 
ascension into heaven, in a cloud of glory. Herakles is 
stated to have wedded Hebe, or eternal spring ; a detail, 
a later poetical version of the myth, which may haAC 
inspired the idea of associating the springlike climate of 
Monaco with tliis legend. 

Thus explained, these legends lose none of their poet- 
ical value, tliough they have acquired a scientific interest. 
When armed with this knowledge, we shall see how 


appropriate are the frescoes depicting the labours of 
Hercules painted round the gallery of the Court of 
Honour in the palace of Monaco. They give the princi- 
pal legend out of which Monaco has grown. Herakles, 
having secured the golden apples of Hesperides, is inade 
immortal and marries Hebe, or eternal spring. Remember- 
ing that the gardens of the principality are worthy of 
comparison with the Gardens of the Hesperides, it is 
equally easy to admit that golden apples have been 
discovered. In this modern version of the classic abode 
where the dragon and the three nymphs known as the 
Hesperides were set to guard the golden apples Juno 
gave to Jupiter, the nymphs are to-day more numerous. 
The dragon still guards the golden apples and it requires 
the strength of Herakles to snatch any of them away. 
But Herakles does not represent the foreigners who come 
and get into trouble with the nymphs or are devoured by 
the dragon. He is the titular god of Monaco ; he killed 
the dragon and took the apples. 

Again it must also be borne in mind that Herakles, 
as already mentioned, was united to the spring, to Hebe, 
who was fair and always in the bloom of youth. She was 
cupbearer to the gods, and could restore men to the 
vigour of youth. Hebe was well suited to accompany the 
sun-god, the god of strength, the giver of life and light, 
who nevertheless is defeated annually and has to descend 
to the underworld, there to be born again and rise 
triumphantly in the springtime. Though this endless 
battle between Ormuz and Ahriman, between Osiris and 
Typhon, between Good and Evil, between Summer and 
Winter, is waged in all parts of the world, there is scarcely 
another spot where the fruits of the sun's victory are 
more superbly displayed than on the Riviera, and especi- 
ally at Monaco. Well may the titular god of even such 
a travelled people as the Phoenicians have paused before 
this entrancing panorama, this amphitheatre of majestic 
mountains sheltering the subtropical vegetation and the 
general abundance of fruit and flowers that encircles 


the port Melkarth was supposed to make his 

This assuredly was the moment for a miracle. Rarely 
had the benefits the sun confers, the beauty it creates, 
been so harmoniously manifested. Nature, like the faithful 
in the days of credulity, seemed to cry out for a miracle. 
But early man had not as yet begun to draw the distinc- 
tion between the miraculous and the natural. At a later 
stage the longing for the miraculous is the incentive to 
gi'cat works ; and, after all, how small are the miracles in 
the legends of the past compared with the every-day feats 
of modern science. 

Herakles performed his deed of might, and this deed is 
equal to the greatest, for it renders, and will continue to 
render, inestimable service to countless millions of beings. 
The great sun-god was indignant to think that the ac- 
cumulation of his best achievements clustering together 
at Monaco was to be injured or destroyed by his old 
adversary the Evil One, the Winter, the constellation of 
the Serpent that to-day holds the sun captive during the 
months of November, December and January. Therefore 
the Herakles known as Melkarth or Herakles Monoekos 
raised his mighty arms and bent nature to his will. 

Needless to say no gods break their own laws. A 
miracle has been well defined as the overthrowing of a 
general and well-known law of nature by applying another 
natural law that is not so well known. According to the 
usual and better-known law governing countries situated 
in about the 43rd degree of latitude they should experi- 
ence such severe winters that they cannot grow tropical 
vegetation. It is necessary, generally speaking, to go a 
good distance south of Monaco, to Andalusia in Spain, 
for instance, to cultivate the lemon and the orange or 
plant palm-trees in the open. But Herakles performed 
the miracle ; he bestowed on Monaco perpetual spring. 
The winter months provide springlike weather, and the 
summer is cooler in Monaco than in other countries of the 
same latitude. Thus, comparatively speaking, springlike 


weather prevails all the year round. The miracle, if we 
may call it a miracle, was achieved. The general law regu- 
lating the correspondence between latitude and climate 
was overthrown by applying another law that cannot be 
often brought to bear, the law of shelter and i-eflection. 
The shelter from cold northerly winds is afforded by the 
Maritime Alps, and what but the strength of Hercules 
could have so raised the earth as to form this lofty and 
mighty range of mountains ? Attracted to the Alps the 
rainclouds leave the sky at Monaco undisturbed and the 
sun, without interruption, pours his heat rays on the lime- 
stone of the mountains. Here the warmth is stored and 
then reflected on the principality even after the sun has 
set. On the other hand the fact that the greater part of 
the principality, though close to the cold waters of the sea, 
is 300 feet and more above the shore, produces a cool 
refreshing movement of the air which mitigates the heat 
of the summer. In this manner is Monaco blessed by the 
sun-god, who personified the renowned mariners of Tyre. 
Since then, and from all quarters of the world, people have 
come to this privileged spot to enjoy the climate and wait 
till Hebe restored their impaired youthfulness. It may 
therefore be said that unto this very day are the old sun- 
god and his youthful bride worshipped at IVlonaco. While 
the foreigners enjoy the climate, the natives gather the 
golden apples that grow more and more plentifully in this 
modern Garden of Hesperides ; but they devote part of the 
proceeds to advance the arts and sciences the sun-god has 
ever favoured. 

Another myth that plays an important part in the story 
of Monaco is the story of St D(^vote. This legend has been 
well preserved, for it is told with differences that only 
affect matters of detail. It may be related briefly or at 
length, the main facts remain the same. But, like Herakles, 
St Devote does not belong exclusively to Monaco. The 
saint has also her chapel and votaries in Corsica. Thus 
when in 1747 a revolt broke out in that island, its chief 
leader, Paolo, instituted an order of knighthood and 


thought he could not better reward those who had served 
him than by conferring on them the title of Chevalier de 
Sdinte Dixote. From this example, set by his fellow- 
countryman, Napoleon is said to have derived the idea of 
creating the Order of the Legion of Honour. 

Perhaps the most complete account and most easily 
accessible will be found in the Acta Saiictoriiini, 
Jannuai-rii, t. 2, pp. 770 and 771, of the Ex Chroiiologia 
Ecrinensi. Without reproducing this document in full it 
may be briefly stated that in the time of the Emperor 
Diocletian and JNIaximian a pious Christian girl living 
in Corsica took refuge in the house of a senator named 
Euticus to escape from persecution. This was St Devote. 
She is described as passing an ascetic and contemplative 
life, fasting on all days but Sunday and inflicting severe 
bodily punishment on herself. In vain did Euticus en- 
deavour to dissuade her from such austerity. St Devote 
replied : "I do not ill treat my body ; on the contrary, 
I indulge in diverse delights, because God in heaven 
surfeits me every day with his gifts and his goodness " : 
and Euticus, we are further told, dared not persist be- 
cause he was unable to face the radiance of her visage. 
Then follows the story of the arrival of the wicked 
prefect sent from Home to persecute the Christians. 

Euticus invited the prefect to dinner, and while he 
was at table someone informed the prefect that a young 
girl who despised the gods was concealed in the house. 
As, however, the senator refused to give her up, the 
prefect caused him to be secretly poisoned. St Devote 
was then seized and called upon to sacrifice to the gods. 
When she refused a stone was dashed upon her mouth, 
to prevent her from blaspheming against the gods. 
Then her feet were tied together and she was dragged, 
naked, by a horse over rough stones. In the midst of her 
sufTering she cried out : " I^ord, hear thy servant's prayer, 
and number among the elect Euticus, who has been 
killed on my account by the barbarous prefect." There- 
upon a voice was heard from heaven saying, "My 


daughter, thy prayer is granted and all that thou de- 
mandest thou shalt obtain," upon which a dove came 
out of her mouth and flew to the skies. The prefect 
wished to burn her body on the morrow so that it should 
not go to heaven, but during the night the priest 
Benenatus, from Savoy, and the deacon Apollinaris (who 
had been hiding in a cave), having been warned by a 
vision, carried the body to the boat of the mariner 
Gratien. They started for the coast of Africa, but a fear- 
ful storm blew them towards Europe. The exhausted 
Gratien fell asleep. St Devote then appeared to Bene- 
natus and told him that the storm would soon be over, 
that a dove would come from the mouth of her body, 
and the boat must follow the dove till they reached 
a place the Greeks named Monacho and the Latins 
Singulare : there, in a valley called Gaumates, the 
remains were to be buried. This was all fulfilled, and 
the burial took place on the 27th of January, presumably 
of the year 304. 

There are, as has been said, other versions of the 
story. According to one of these the ship was completely 
wrecked and all on board were drowned. The body of St 
Devote floated about on a plank till it reached the port 
of Hercules. Here it was found that someone had 
thoughtfully written on the plank full explanations and 
instructions, so that the saint was duly buried in the vale 
— or, as it would be more correct to say, the gorge — of 
the Gaumates. The details of the various versions vary. 
According to some accounts, St Devote was only sixteen 
years old and very beautiful. Her protector Euticus was 
poisoned by the prefect's cook, sent for that purpose, 
and the poison consisted of herbs with which the cook 
pretended to flavour an eel-pie. This he did so skilfully 
that Euticus died rapidly and without difficulty. Many 
details are given concerning the martyrdom of the saint. 
According to one story she was to have been crucified but 
died in time to escape this last torture. Where the story 
is weak is in respect to what happened after the body had 


reached the shore at Monaco. It is rather disconcerting 
to find that what was apparently the first church built on 
the spot where the saint is supposed to have been buried 
was dedicated to St George, who, it seems, took not 
only England but also Genoa under his patronage. 

All that we know on which positive reliance may be 
placed is that there are extant title-deeds concerning 
Monaco which were drawn up in the eleventh century, 
and these mention the existence of an oratory in the 
ravine of the Gaumates which was a dependence of the 
Abbey of Saint-Pons at Nice. But this is seven hundred 
years after the martyrdom is supposed to have taken 
place. We do know, however, that the Abbey of Saint- 
Pons belonged to the Order of St Benoit and that this 
order did at some time or other propagate the cult of St 
Devote. The ruling princes of Monaco also supported 
this worship and agreed that St Devote should be the 
patron saint of the principality. Finally the popes gave 
their approval. In the well-stocked archives of Monaco 
several pontifical bulls are to be found on this subject. 
There is one dated 1475 from Sixtus IV., and another 
from Benoit XIII. of 1725, granting a two years' 
indulgence to the faithful who observe St Devote's fete 
day and contribute to the restoration of her chapel. 

Though many centuries elapsed before the virtues of 
this saint and martyr were recognised, it is not surprising 
that with the aid of the august patronage ultimately forth- 
coming, St Devote finally gained great ascendancy over the 
minds of the Monegasques. In the course of time, there- 
fore, St Devote became the object of ardent worship, and 
the faith now firmly established had a suflicient hold on 
susceptible minds to suggest apparitions and miracles. 
In 1070 a pirate named Antinope having anchored 
within the port, succeeded dui'ing the night in forcing 
the doors of the chapel, and stealing the reliquary 
containing the remains of St Devote. Next day, however, 
it was noticed that, though the wind was favourable, 
Antinope was unable to manoeuvre his boat so as to quit 


the harbour. This awakened suspicion. The theft had been 
discovered, and it was thought that the saint was thus 
endeavouring to indicate the thief. Boats were sent out. 
Antinope was captured and the rehcs recovered. He was 
brouglit before the Itahan Prince Hugo, who contented 
himself with having his nose and ears cut off and then 
allowed him to return to his boat. 

This incident accounts for the fact that the relics were 
removed to the Church of St Nicholas, up at ISIonaco, 
where there is the protection of the fortifications that 
surround the old town. But every year on the 27th of 
January these relics are brought down to the Vale of 
the Gaumates. There is a grand procession, and when 
the priests arrive at the Condamine, and in front of 
the chapel dedicated to St Devote, they turn towards the 
port and bless the sea and the ships with her relics. In the 
evening a bonfire is lit by the captain of the port and 
is answered by another bonfire at Monaco in front of the 
palace. Monaco, itself, however, has been frequently be- 
sieged and sometimes captured. The most important of 
these sieges began in December 1506 and lasted 102 days. 
On that occasion the town was attacked by the Genoese, 
and, according to an old tradition, would certainly have 
fallen if St Devote had not appeared to the besiegers 
wrapped in a cloud. This awe-inspiring vision disheartened 
the Genoese and they raised the siege. Later, in 1585, a 
small body of Corsican and French soldiers attempted to 
surprise the garrison, a Corsican living in Monaco having 
undertaken to help in betraying the town. With ladders and 
some petards the audacious invaders, though numbering 
only 150 fighting men, attempted to storm one of the outer 
gates. They failed, however, to blow up the gate with 
their petards, and a few shots, followed by a shower of 
stones from the walls, sent the small band of adventurers 
flying for their lives. This, however, is only the dry 
version given by historians, who are so very unsympathetic 
as to require proofs or evidence before recording popular 
beliefs as if they were facts. The reason of course why 


this assault failed was the intervention of St Devote. 
What could be more plausible than that the saint should 
appear on the walls of Monaco and reprove the Corsicans 
for attacking a town where the relics of their own 
Corsican saint and martyr were so carefully guarded and 
cherished. Such a reproach would be irresistible, and well 
may the assailants have desisted and hastened back to 
their ships. 

By such stories and traditions is the impression created 
that Monaco was brought into being by Melkarth, the 
Herakles of the Phoenicians, and preserved as an inde- 
pendent state for many centuries by its patroness St 
Devote. The question might then be put whether there 
is not with regard to the St Devote legend a rational 
explanation such as that I have just given with respect to 
Herakles. It would indeed be strange if it were not so ; 
but while no one still desires to believe Herakles really 
did exist, killed a real lion, swept out a real stable, and 
picked genuine golden apples, there are many people 
whose feelings would be hurt if they were undeceived 
with regard to the dove issuing from St Devote's mouth. 



DURING the first year of the forty-fifth Olympiad 
— ^that is, about six hundred years before the 
Christian era — a tribe was making merry in a 
sheltered bay of Southern Gaul. Their chief, named Nann, 
was about to give his daughter Gyptis in marriage when 
a Phocian galley approached the shore. The strangers 
were invited to land and participate in the rejoicings. 
Toward the end of the feast the chief, giving a cup to 
his daughter, ordered her to present the wine it contained 
to the man present whom she would select to wed. It so 
happened that the captain of the Phocian galley was tall, 
handsome, distinguished, and the chieftain's young daughter 
offered him the matrimonial cup. Some say his name was 
Protis ; others, Euxenes : in any case the Ligurians gave 
him sufficient land for building a town. Massalia, or 
Marseilles, thus came into existence. To this day the in- 
habitants of Marseilles boast that they are descended from 
the Phocians. 

Before this happy event we know that Ligurians, 
hailing from the banks of the Danube, invaded the north 
of Italy ; and, travelling along the narrow shores from 
what is now Genoa to Marseilles, encountered other 
invaders — the Iberians coming from Spain and travelling 
in the contrary direction. The Ligurians seem to have 
been a little more civilised than the Iberians : at any rate 
the latter were early driven away. At all events the 
Ligurians knew how to cultivate grain. They had some 
sort of tribal organisation and possessed better weapons. 
The Phocians who had reached Marseilles just in time for 



the wedding feast came from Phocsea, a maritime town 
of Ionia, between Cumaj and Smyrna, where the Athenians 
had founded a colony. They therefore represented a much 
higher degree of civihsation ; but, if they found the 
Ligurians a somewhat barbarous people, they were greatly 
impressed by the natural advantages of the gulfs formed 
by the estuary of the Rhone. Here was an opportunity 
of exchanging the merchandise of the East for the agri- 
cultural produce of the Rhone Valley. To increase the 
value of the latter, the Phocians brought olives, vines, seeds 
of all sorts, better weapons and better clothes. They 
planted vineyards and fig-trees. The Celtic hovels and 
mud walls made room for Greek temples and Corinthian 
fa(,"ades. Nevertheless the Phocians were not the first 
civilised people to trade with and colonise these shores. 

The Phoenicians ^ — the palm-tree people — are stated 
to have founded colonies even beyond the Pillars of Her- 
cules, and this some eleven or twelve hundred years before 
our era. They it was who named the mountains on each 
side of the Straits of Gibraltar the Pillars of Hercules, 
and whose history, we have seen, is the basis on which 
rests the myth of Melkarth or Herakles, the Phoenician 
Hercules. The Phoenicians not only preceded the Phocians 
by many hundred years, but their road from Tyre and 
Sidon was not via Marseilles. They preferred to travel via 
Monaco, consequently named the Port of Hercules. Here 
it was that the Phoenician ships, easily recognisable by 
the horse's head at the prow and the fish's tail at the 
stern, first touched the shore. A thousand years and more 
before the dove guided St Devote's little bark to this 
spot, the Phoenicians had also landed in the Condamine 
under the shelter of Monaco on one side and Monte 
Carlo on the other. How long the Phoenicians remained, 
when precisely they first arrived, antiquaries and his- 
torians must be left to discuss. It may suffice for present 

1 Phoiitix : Greek for phoenix and for palm-tree. Phoenic has become 
the generic name for palm-trees ; thus phomic dactylifera is the date- 


purposes to record that they colonised this part of the 
world for several centuries. Their rivals the Phocians w^ere 
known to history only about 800 B.C. ; but they early 
acquired a good reputation as able navigators, keen 
tradesmen. They were, withal, a noisy, merry people, 
characteristics still to be found at Marseilles and in 
Provence. Fen de brut — Proven9al for " make a noise " — 
as " Tartarin de Tarascon " shows us, is still a joy in 

After the downfall of Tyre in 574 b.c. — wrought by 
the Persians under Cyrus — its principal colony, Carthage, 
inherited the western possessions of the Phoenicians. This 
gave a superiority to Carthage which was not approved 
by the Phocian element then predominating at Marseilles. 
A maritime war ensued between the rival ports, by that 
time a number of havens and strongholds had been created 
along the coast, such as Athenopolis, Antipolis, or Antibes, 
Niccea, or Nice, but JMo/neces, or Monaco, was among the 
most ancient and the most important. True to its pure 
Phoenician origin, Monaco took sides with Carthage 
against IMarseilles, and to this day there is an occasional 
revival of the ancient antagonism. Monaco occasionally 
served as a basis for the operations of the Carthaginian 
fleet ; and to-day the people of IVIarseilles have not ceased 
watching lest ^lonaco, as an independent principality, 
should use its port to the disadvantage of INIarseilles 

AVhen the Phoenicians associated Monaco with their 
great divinity Melkarth, or Herakles, they meant the whole 
mass of the mountains which shelter the coast, and which 
only a giant of strength, a Hercules, could have surmounted 
or conquered. It is generally believed that a temple was 
raised to the Phoenician Hercules and built on the rock 
where the old town of Monaco now stands, probably on 
the site of the present cathedral. But others think the 
temple stood on the Moneghette height, farther inland 
and behind the rock of Monaco town. On the site of the 
present town no Phoenician remains have been found. The 


earliest traces of human efforts to build were discovered 
farther inland and higher up ; and these are prehistoric, 
for they belong to the time when the use of mortar and 
plaster had not been discovered. The nearest is the castrwn 
in the Castelleretto quarter, near the Ophthalmic Institute, 
founded by the Princess Alice ; though, of late, the cutting 
of quarries has largely destroyed the site where stones 
were piled together to form a castle. Better remains of 
this description are to be seen away up toward the 
highest point dominating the coasts. On the summit of 
Mount Agel there is a levelled plateau that suggests the 
ground on which a sanctuary stood. Probably there was 
also an entrenched camp. A sixteenth-century map, drawn 
during the Spanish occupation, speaks of las muras, the 
walls. Behind JNIount Agel, as a defence of the pass or 
road from Turbie to Peille, there are some well-preserved 
remains called Lou Casteii. Here the wall in some parts is 
still about sixteen feet high, though built only by fitting 
stones one on the other. There was no cement, mortar or 
plaster in those days. Probably several temples were 
raised in honour of Hercules in these fortified positions. 
Strabo says a temple was built at the port itself : though 
no sign of it remains here there are traces elsewhere. 

Nothing precise is known as to what happened at 
Monaco when the power of Carthage was on the wane. 
There can be no doubt, however, that the people of 
Marseilles clung tenaciously to the great Heraklean road 
the Phoenicians had constructed. For many centuries it 
supplied the life-blood of the whole coast. Many authors 
mention this lengthy road and describe how it bore most 
of the traflfic from Italy to Spain. When, after the Second 
Punic War, the Romans conquered Spain, Marseilles was 
brought into close contact with Rome. Perhaps it was 
because the Heraklean road was so good that the Romans 
expanded their road-building faculties in other less 
favoured directions. But the turbulent liigurians who 
remained of the aboriginal stock showed atavistic 
tendencies. Though the civilisation brought from Tyre 


and Sidon had predominated from 1000 to 600 or 500 B.C., 
and was then reinforced by Grecian civihsation, coming 
from the Grecian islands in the wake of the Phocians, 
the Ligurians still indulged in occasional brigandage. 
The Roman influence was now substituting itself for 
that of the Greeks, but does not seem to have been alto- 
gether welcome. Livy relates that in 189 b.c. the Praetor 
L. Boebius when travelling to Spain was attacked by 
Ligurians and died from his wounds at Marseilles. A 
similar fate befell the Prtetor Fabius in 173 B.C. Consul 
A. Opimius, therefore, headed a punitive expedition and 
inflicted heavy losses on the Ligurians near Antibes. 

After this lesson, the Heraklean road once more 
became secure and useful. It was frequented by many 
Roman legions going to and from Spain. They marched 
from Italy to Monaco and there embarked in galleys. 
History mentions the arrival at Monaco of many 
Roman generals, and the port became an important 
strategical position on the Italian frontier. Julius Ca;sar 
himself, at the beginning of the civil war, came to 
Monaco from Gaul, and there embarked on the vessel 
that took him to fight Pompey. On this occasion the 
Ligurians enrolled themselves under Ca;sar, though 
they were ever ready to fight against the Romans when 
the latter became oppressive. Indeed, they were not 
thoroughly subjected till the year 7 b.c, when Augustus 
Csesar won the great victory commemorated to this day 
by the imposing though ruined monument at La Turbie. 
This Augustan trophy, raised high on the AIpe Summa or 
Alpe Maritima, stands on the limit of Italy and ancient 
Gaul. It was built by order of the Roman Senate as a 
mark of gratitude for the decisive victory won over the 
Gauls. This work was begun in the year 758 of Rome. 
Stone quarries were opened for the purpose, and quarrying 
has continued as a local industry to this day. Prisoners 
of war were forced by the Roman soldiers to cut stones 
from the side of the Alountain of Battles, as the Turbie 
is sometimes called. It was thought advisable to erect a 


monument of such dimensions as would thoroughly 
impress the semi-barbarous native populations. A firm 
square basis was first constructed, and this served as a 
pedestal for a lofty tower. Superimposed columns orna- 
mented and surrounded the tower. Between each column 
was a niche to hold the efhgy of a Roman officer or other 
celebrity, and on the summit stood a gigantic statue of 
Augustus Caesar. To judge from the size of the head, 
discovered in 158.5 by Father Boyer, whose MS. de- 
scription still exists in the I^^rins Library, the statue 
must have been about twenty-two feet high. 

This ostentation and pride of conquest lasted but a 
day. The very populations whose defeat was thus recorded 
in stone swept by this very spot on their victorious march 
to Rome. They might have revenged themselves by 
destroying the monuinent, but this was left for vandals 
of a much more recent date. Meanwhile the name of 
the proud Roman trophy degenerated as the power of the 
Roman Empire declined. From Trophi Augusti we have 
Torpea or Torpia, and finally the modern village and 
commune of La Turbie. 

Under the Ctesars, Monaco became a very important 
place and the Roman jewellery found shows that it was 
inhabited by influential and wealthy Romans. A remark- 
able collection of this jewellery is at present to be seen at 
the Anthropological INIuseum in Monaco town. 

The Roman Emperor Pertinax was born between Nice 
and Monaco. In early life he was a charcoal-maker, but 
when he enlisted in the Roman army he distinguished 
himself first in Syria, then in Britain, defeating the 
Caledonians. In reward for his services Marcus Aurelius 
raised him to the Senate, and at the death of Commodus 
he was proclaimed Emperor. The charcoal-burner who 
hailed from Monaco and Nice became a most estimable 
ruler, both modest and humane. 

During the civil war that followed the death, in G9, of 
Nero, the rival claimants for the imperial purple, Otho 
and Vitellius, met in battle near Monaco. Otho won 



three battles. Nevertheless he is ci'edited with having 
nobly put an end to his own life rather than continue 
such bloodshed to secure his personal promotion. Unfor- 
tunately, Vitellius, for whose benefit this sacrifice was 
made, proved unworthy of it. He led so degraded a life 
that he was dragged to the Gemonian stairs by his own 
soldiers and thrown to die among the carcasses of criminals. 
Roman soldiers were sometimes apt to treat the chief of 
the state with but scant courtesy. 

According to some authorities, Christianity was first 
preached on the Riviera by St Barnabas, who had worked 
with St Paul. Others attribute the conversion of the 
Ligurians to St Nazaire and St Celsius. In any case, they 
were both arrested at Vintimille and martyred at Rome 
in the time of Nero. On the other hand, the Jews are said 
to have placed Mary IVIagdalene, Salome, Lazarus and 
Joseph of Arimathea in a boat from which the rudder 
was removed. Thus left helpless on the waves, the wind 
took them over to the Riviera, and the River Magnum 
is named after the Magdalene. Nevertheless but scant 
details are forthcoming concerning the early propaganda 
of Christianity till we reach the story of St Dev'ote, to 
which the date of a.d. 304 is given. The downfall of the 
Roman Empire and the spread of Christianity were 
accompanied by the destruction of much evidence that 
might have served to constitute history. As little care was 
bestowed on I'ecording current events as in preserving 
the history of the past. Hence for several centuries it is 
almost impossible to say what happened. 

The wild hordes that followed the Gauls into Italy 
passed through or near Monaco. The Vandals, the Goths, 
the Suabians, the Burgundians and others did not fail to 
ravage Liguria on their road to Rome. 

It was not till a pagan once more occupied the imperial 
throne that the name of Rome was again respected. The 
victories of Belisarius, the general sent by the Emperor 
Justitian, restored order on the coast-line, where Monaco 
was losing all its former importance and prosperity. Un- 


fortunately this order was maintained only for a few 

Now came another race of tormentors, the Lombards, 
from the valleys of the Drave and the Save. They had al- 
ready begun to occupy those northern provinces of Italy 
which are now called Lombardy. Other Lombards came 
from North Germany, from Lcuige Biirdc, a fertile plain 
by the Elbe. But the Italians translated the name into 
Langobardi. longues Ixa-bcs, longbeards, aud finally Lom- 
bards. From Italy the Lombards naturally passed over 
the Maritime Alps, sacked Nice and utterly wiped out 
Cimiez. Soon, however, a new power arose, this time in 
the west. The rois faineants, or " idle kings," of the Franks, 
whose names historians hardly like to drag forth from a 
well-merited oblivion, entrusted the cares of government 
to a functionary called the Mayor of the Palace. The 
most celebrated of these rulers was Charles M artel, so 
named after the word ma?-feau, or hammer. He had 
hammered down his enemies, and notably the Saracen 
invaders of the south of France. At the same time a cele- 
brated Pope, Gregory I., was busy quarrelling with the 
Lombards, for they had rendered themselves very unpopu- 
lar in Italy. To obtain help, the Pope offered to make Pepin, 
the son of Charles ]\Iartel, King of the Franks. This was 
the beginning. The work continued when Pepin was recog- 
nised as the first Carlovingian king of the Franks and 
only concluded when Charlemagne, Charles Martel's 
grandson, definitely destroyed Lombard rule. Charle- 
magne was then proclaimed King of the Lombards and 
the Franks. This Avas in 774, and six years later Charle- 
magne became Emperor of the Romans, thus attempting 
to reconstitute the Roman Empire of the Caesars. In this 
manner did the Riviera come under his rule, and it was 
Charlemagne who, out of the ruins of Cimiez and its 
ancient dioceses, founded the Abbey of Saint-Pons, just 
above Nice. This abbey has remained one of the most 
important ecclesiastical institutions in the neighbourhood 
of Monaco. 


During the glorious reign of this great conqueror, 
organiser and administrator, numerous war galleys had 
been built. These Charlemagne employed to drive the 
Danes away in the north, and the Saracens in the south. 
The Riviera had been more or less exposed to Mussulman 
iucursions since 729. It was necessary to institute a 
system of fire signals at night and smoke signals in the 
day along the entire coast. Traces of the towers then 
built and of rusty fire-grids are still to be found on 
prominent heights commanding the coasts. Those signals, 
however, did not prevent the sacking of Nice and of 
many other towns on the coasts, the Saracens and Moors 
carrying off all the women they could find to people their 
harems. On the other hand, some of these landing parties 
occasionally came to grief and were themselves captured. 
At first employed as slaves, they ultimately assimilated 
with the native population of the Riviera, among whom 
to this day very evident traces of Moorish blood may easily 
be detected. 

With the reign of Charlemagne there came a period 
of peace, and even the Saracens were kept at a respectful 
distance. But the great emperor died in 814, and his 
empire was divided up in 843. His various successors soon 
quarrelled among themselves or were attacked by other 
pretenders. This gave the Saracens their chance, and they 
did not fail to return to the Riviera, where they once more 
sacked towns and plundered on all sides. The mountains 
west of the Esterelle, reaching as far as Toulon, are still 
called the ISIoor or 3£aures mountains. The principal 
Moorish strongholds were at Fraxinet, overlooking St 
Tropez, and the peninsula of St Hospice, sheltering one 
side of Villefranche harbour. The latter port communi- 
cated with a fort perched on the lofty pinnacle of Eze. 
The Saracens had also a fortress at the top of Mount 
Agel, above Cap Martin. Thus INIonaco was hedged in. 
For more than a hundred years it would have been diffi- 
cult to say whether the Christians or the JNIussulmans 
were masters of the Riviera. It is true that in the year 


963 the great Emperor Otho swore an oath that he 
would drive all the Moors away, but he died very soon 
after this rash resolve. It was not till 975 that a much 
more modest personage. Count William of Provence, 
really accomplished the task. The Moors at that time 
seem to have been masters of the whole coast-line from 
Monaco to St Tropez. William I., Viscount of Marseilles, 
Count of Aries and sovereign of a large part of Provence, 
set out against them. Izarn, Bishop of Grenoble, Boniface 
of Castellane, the Lords of Vintimille, and one Giballin 
Grimaldi joined their forces to his to wage war against the 
Moors. They soon achieved a great triumph by capturing 
the principal Moorish fortress at Fraxinet. 

It is in connection with this memorable victory that 
some historians make the first mention of a Grimaldi. 
He was a Genoese patrician called Giballin Grimaldi. 
It is related that with a handful of devoted followers he 
climbed up a precipitous rock in the rear of the Fraxinet. 
Supposing such a feat impossible, the INIoors had not 
attempted to defend that side of their position. Thus they 
were taken by surprise, and this diversion enabled the 
main force to deliver a successful frontal attack. As a 
reward for his courage and skill Grimaldi was given land 
in the immediate neighbourhood of his victory stretching 
from St Tropez to Frejus. To this day it still preserves 
his name, for it is called the Golfe de G?i>naud, while the 
Grand Fraxinet of the Moors is now known as the Ga?'d€ 

This early and somewhat legendary chief seems to 
have been the Garibaldi of the epoch, for he was called 
upon to deliver the whole country from foreign oppression, 
and is credited with having driven the Moors out of Nice 
and the Petit Fraxinet, now St Honore, at ^^illefranche. 
He was the second son of Grimaldi I., Lord of Antibes, 
who is reputed to have driven the Moors out of Monaco ; 
some say in 920 others in 962 or 968. As a recompense 
for this victory the father of Giballin is said to have 
received the sovereignty of Monaco from the Emperor 


Otho I. Thus the belief was widely entertained that, with 
but temporary interruptions, the Grimaldis have reigned 
at Monaco ever since 968. Here, then, we would have a 
dynasty older than the Norman Conquest of England 
and more ancient than any reigning family in Europe. If 
we turn to the older official annals of the principality, we 
shall find that the brief historical pedigree of the house 
of Grimaldi begins with Grimaldi I. in the year 968. 

Tlie modern and more scientific methods of writing 
history have destroyed this legend. The victory of 
Giballin at the Gi-aiid Fraxinci is not denied, but the 
proof that his father reigned at INIonaco is not forth- 
coming. There was, however, a prominent Genoese 
family of the name of Grimaldi. Even modern historians, 
in spite of their sceptical and critical methods, recognise 
that an Otto Canella, an ancestor of the Grimaldis, was 
Consul of Genoa in the middle of the eleventh century. 
This third son, Grimaldo, was three times Consul from 
1162 to 1184. He it was who definitely decided that 
Grimaldi should be the family name. JNlembers of this 
family had on several occasions occupied Monaco, when 
they fought for the Guelfs, but it was as frequently 
recaptured by their adversaries. 

The Genoese always recognised the strategical im- 
portance of the port of Monaco, and the Emperor 
Henry VI. conceded Monaco to the Genoese in 1191 on 
condition they built a fortress there so as to help him 
against the counts of Provence. Nevertheless twenty 
years elapsed before any attempt was made to erect this 
fortress. Between 1215 and 1239, when Frederic II, 
succeeded to the empire, Monaco was fortified. But it 
did not serve the emperor, for Frederic II. quarrelled 
with the Pope, a dispute which separated him from the 
Genoese, who now sought the alliance of the counts of 
Provence. Important consequences ensued, for the Genoese 
included in their conditions that the claims of Provence 
on Monaco should be abandoned. This they obtained 
fiom Raymond, Count of Toulouse and Provence, by the 


Treaty of the 22nd July 1262. Thus it was half-a-century 
after its fortress had been built that the position of 
Monaco was definitely recognised by treaty. The fortress 
consisted of a castle dominating the land approaches, 
built where the Prince's Palace now stands. At the other 
extremity of the rock there was a second fortress over- 
looking and commanding the port, called the Chateau 
Neuf. A rampart united the two and the place was 
rendered the more unassailable by the fact that there was 
no road. A narrow steep path alone led from the port up 
to the castle. 

The Republic of Genoa conferred on Monaco a 
commune similar to that of its other possessions. The 
commander of the castle was the chief of the commune. 
Sometimes there were two castles and two commanders. 
In that case the first was called Podestli and had judiciary 
authority. The second was called Castellan, and had only 
military authority. For administrative purposes all the 
inhabitants formed part of a general Parliament, but for 
detail work they elected a Council of ten members. This 
did not mean that the people in any way abdicated their 
right to legislate. There are records that in 1246 the 
people of Monaco, in Parliament assembled, discussed 
their relations with the neighbouring lords of La Turbie. 
It was then decided that those inhabitants of Monaco — 
Monegasques, as they are called — who held land on the 
estates of these lords must obey them, but that no 
Monegasque could be allowed to buy land at the Turbie 
unless special permission were given. This was the be- 
ginning of the quarrels that lasted for many centuries 
between Monaco and La Turbie, disputes which may yet 
be revived, though of course in a modern form. It will be 
seen that the early Monegasques enjoyed a large measure 
of home rule or self-government. 

The time now approached when Monaco was to 
become a bone of contention between the Guelfs and 
the Ghibellines. The former were driven out of Genoa 
in 1270. They reoccupied the town six years later, but 


in 1296, after street fighting that lasted unceasingly for 
forty days and forty nights, were once more forced away 
from the town. The Ghibellines, again masters of Genoa, 
took possession of Monaco also. At that time the county 
of Provence had been incorporated into the kingdom 
of Charles II. of Anjou. This king claimed that his 
Provencal dominions included Monaco and Vintimille. 
The Guelfs when in power had been good allies of 
Charles d'Anjou, brother of St Louis, King of France ; 
but when his son, Charles II., succeeded to the throne of 
Anjou, Provence and Sicily the new king was so anxious 
to preserve the support of the Genoese Republic that 
he turned against the old friends of his family, the 
defeated Guelfs. This ingratitude was not, however, 
agreeable to the inhabitants of the county of Nice. 
They allowed the Guelfs to prepare an audacious expedi- 
tion. For this purpose they selected Franceschino or 
Francis Grimaldi as their chief, and he boldly offered his 
person to secure the success of the enterprise. 

On the 8th of January 1297 a monk approached the 
gates of IMonaco. Apparently the guards were not very 
observant for they should have noticed that the monk 
wore shoes or boots. But they did not think of such 
details ; and, deceived by the saintly garb of peace, let 
the monk enter. No sooner was the gate open tlian the 
monk drew a sword fi'om under his robes and, having 
taken the guards completely by surprise, was able, 
fighting desperately, to keep the gate open till his 
followers, concealed close by, came rushing up and 
poured into the town. The monk was Francis Grimaldi, 
and thus Monaco was captured by Guelf partisans and 
a member of the Grimaldi family. This explains the 
presence of monks with drawn swoids defending the arms 
of the house of Grimaldi. 

Though I am aware that all is fair in love and war, 
it does not seem to me, having read something of the 
history of the Grimaldi family, that this stratagem was 
one of their finest achievements. It is true that the 


doctrines of peace and good will to all men, associated with 
the religion to which monks are supposed to devote their 
lives, were singularly neglected in these days. Nevertheless 
monks' robes were not oi-iginally designed to conceal 
swords carried with murderous intent. When, however, 
I confided these doubts and scruples to the learned 
archivist of the palace I found he was also well armed — 
with a ready reply : 

" You have not noticed," he observed, " that the monks 
wear a sort of boot or shoe, and a monk who is not 
barefooted is a fighting monk. He is simply a soldier who 
is able to perform some priestly functions, and it is quite 
fair for a soldier to penetrate into a fortress by any 
stratagem he can devise." 

Unfortunately some persons, ignoring this distinction, 
have drawn the monks barefooted, which is very wrong 
indeed. The morality of the story depends on the shoes. 
The proud Scotch saying : " JMy foot is on my native 
heath, and my name it is Macgregor," would therefore be 
translated into Monegasque as, " My foot is in my shoe : 
and my name is Grimaldi." The Macgregor plaid, formed 
by simple alternate squares of red and black, becomes 
in Monaco a plaid of alternate lozenges coloured red and 
white. In both cases it is the chieftain who stands, naked 
sword in hand, to secure for his tribe and for himself a 
name and a habitat. 

Modern historians maintain this was the first occasion 
on which it can be proved that a Grimaldi was the master 
of Monaco. In any case a Grimaldi had taken the fortress 
at the point of the sword. No sooner were his followers 
in possession of the stronghold than it became a refuge for 
the remnants of the Guelf fleet. From this strategical 
position they were able to harass the Genoese fleet now 
in the hands of the Ghibellines. But Charles II. of Anjou 
and Provence, who had abandoned the Guelfs, permitted 
the Ghibellines to besiege Monaco. During this siege five 
galleys from Monaco attacked with remarkable dash and 
courage the port of Genoa. They were, however, out- 


numbered, and the landing party captured. A sort of 
compromise peace followed. Some leading Guelfs were 
restored to their lands on condition that they paid tribute. 
But Charles II. had brought from the Guelfs the land 
they possessed at Monaco and handed it over to the 
Spinola family of Geneva, who were partisans of the 
Ghibellines. Though the Spinolas had no lordship rights 
over Monaco they thus became the largest landowners, 
and this made them powerful. Nevertheless Charles II. 
also watched over the Guelf interests, for he now began 
to understand that he should not have neglected those 
Avho had rendered such great service to his father. Thus 
old enemies were made to live side by side till hostilities 
were renewed and the leading families once more led 
their respective forces to war against each other. 

It would require inuch time and space to describe the 
fluctuating fortunes of these combatants, but it is in 
no wise my purpose to write a detailed history of the 
Grimaldis and the rival families with whom they con- 
tended. Ha\dng explained how the Gi'imaldis established 
their claim on Monaco, I will limit this brief historical 
sketch, first, to occurrences that are of more than local 
importance ; and secondly, as this book is written in 
the English language, to such events as especially concern 
English-speaking people. For a complete history of the 
principality, the reader may be referred to the histories, 
such as " Monaco et ses Princes," by Henri Mdtivier, of 
the older school of historians ; and " Monaco, ses Origines 
et son Histoire," by Gustave Saige, representing the 
modern school. There are of course many others, and 
even a few English histories, not always, I fear, free from 
strong prejudices. 



THERE is nothing to indicate that the earUer 
populations inhabiting the Riviera came by sea and 
were navigators. On the contrary, the geological 
evidence goes to show that there was a wide plain stretch- 
ing in front of the mountains before the sea was reached. 
It is also supposed that a land connection existed with 
Northern Africa, and this may account for the negroid 
type of the Troglodyte skeletons found in the caverns at 
Mentone. But putting aside the aborigines, and no one can 
tell to what extent they have been obliterated, it is quite 
certain that the commencement of modern civilisation is 
due to the advent of essentially maritime peoples. First 
the Phoenicians, who brought enlightenment from Tyre and 
Sidon, and then the Phocians, with the glorious philosophy 
and art of ancient Greece. The one race utilised Monaco 
as its principal port, the other Marseilles. The first built 
and the second maintained the great Heraklean Way. Thus 
did they favour by land, as they had done by sea, inter- 
course between the East and the West, between the 
cradle of civilisation and the farthest confines of barbarism. 
In the neighbourhood of Monaco there exists traces of 
this road, now several thousand years old, and no thought- 
ful person can stand where so many peoples and armies 
have passed without feeling the deepest emotion. To 
endeavour to picture all the services rendered by the 
Heraklean road is to evoke the past of Western Europe 
since the beginning of history. 

As the world's interest and enterprise spread out 
beyond the basin of the Mediterranean, the inhabitants, 

D 49 


especially of that part of the Riviera stretching from Nice 
to Genoa, began to feel cramped for want of space. Genoa 
especially, built on the side of arid mountains, seems as if 
nature had planned to throw the town into the sea. In 
front the sea has no boundary and places the whole world 
within reach of the hardy mariner, but behind are only 
inaccessible, steep and barren mountains. Even if the 
Genoese were not by birth a sailor race they would have 
been compelled by geographical and economic necessity 
to become sailors. While the Germans, the French, the 
English had still plenty of virgin soil to cultivate, in- 
dustries to create and towns to build, the inhabitants of 
the Riviera could only expand seawards. It is not surpris- 
ing, therefore, that they devoted themselves principally to 
maritime commerce. Rut if they started out to trade they 
came back having learned how to fight. Valuables could 
not be carried about with impunity. ITnder the pretext of 
a war, or frankly as an act of piracy, such merchandise, if 
not strongly protected, might be plundered. Rut land was 
also infested by robbers. In many cases it was safer to 
travel or to send merchandise by sea, and it was naturally 
to the Mediterranean that the peoples of the world looked 
for capable mariners. Prominent among these were the 

The Crusades more than any other event helped to 
develop the power and importance of the maritime people 
living in the north-west of the Mediterranean. The 
crusaders early learnt to mistrust the perfidious hospitality 
of the Ryzantines, and in spite of storms and wrecks found 
it much safer to proceed to the Holy Land by sea. 
Therefore the various nations of Europe appealed, especi- 
ally to the Genoese, for ships and for crews capable of 
taking their crusaders to Palestine. For their own trade 
purposes, the Genoese had already sailed as far as the 
Levant and knew the road. Among the Genoese we must 
include the Monegasques. Thus in 1104 a fleet of seventy 
galleys was fitted out at Genoa for Hugues, brother of 
Philippe I., King of France, and placed under the 


command of Albert Grimaldi. Another Grimaldi com- 
manded the fleet which conveyed to Egypt Jean de 
Brienne, King of Jerusalem, and Andre II., King of 
Hungary, who were the chiefs of the Fifth Crusade. The 
capture of Damietta in 1219 was due in a large measure 
to the fleet acting under the command of a Grimaldi. 
Thus in the Hall of the Crusades at the palace of 
Versailles the arms of the Grimaldis occupy a place of 

In Europe such armaments as existed were organised 
for war on land. In England, France and Germany the 
feudal lords and noble families fought against each other 
on land and paid but little attention to naval matters. 
The experience acquired during the Crusades taught them 
to look to the Italian republics for ships, to Venice, to 
Pisa and especially to Genoa. Thus it was with mercenary 
sailors and foreign fleets that many of the earlier naval 
battles were fought. England, France and Germany very 
largely depended on the Italian republics for their battle- 

While Francis Grimaldi, in the guise of a monk, had 
succeeded in capturing the fortress of Monaco, another 
Grimaldi was rising to fame. This was Rainier, the son 
of I.,anfranco, the eldest of the three sons of Grimaldo 
Grimaldi, who, it will be remembered, from 1162 to 1184 
held thrice the position of Consul of Genoa, and had 
decided that henceforth Cirimaldi should be the family 
name. Rainier (irimaldi was born in 12G7, and already 
in 1296 had rendered great service to King Cliarles II. of 
Anjou. As a sailor he had so often defeated the Cihibelline 
galleys that his reputation spread far and wide. During 
that time Philippe IV., called le lid. King of France, had 
started a campaign against England worthy of Napoleon. 
He conceived a policy of alliances for the purpose of 
blockading England. From Sicily to the far reaches of the 
Baltic, English trading vessels were to be excluded, and 
he hoped to relegate England to a state of isolation that 
would certainly have nothing glorious about it. 


To a very large extent this policy was successfully 
applied, and the position of England was becoming 
desperate when King Edward I. discerned the weak 
point of the attack. The Continental blockade, by isolating 
England, was also destroying Flemish trade and pro- 
sperity. Therefore in 1297 King Edward I. was able to 
come to terms with Count Guy of Flanders. The Treaty 
of Bruges, then concluded, conferred on English and 
Flemish ships the monopoly of intercourse and trade 
between England and the Continent. Thereupon Calais 
and many French ports began to suffer. This led to 
war. In Flanders a sort of revolution was taking place in 
consequence of the wealth accumulated by the weavers, 
artisans, tradesmen, merchants and industrial classes 
generally. The old nobility were being gradually forced 
into a secondary position and it gave them very great 
offence. Profiting by this state of affairs, Philippe of 
France intrigued with the Flemish aristocracy and 
Edward of England flirted with the Flemish democracy. 
When the rival parties came to blows, in 1302, the 
Flemish people, led by a nobleman, a weaver and a 
butcher, gave the combined Flemish and French aristo- 
crats a good sound beating at Courtray. This was the 
Battle of Spurs, for no fewer than two thousand golden 
spurs were taken from the defeated aristocrats. The 
difficulties caused by this and other defeats prompted the 
French king to seek help on all sides. Rainier Grimaldi, 
having already rendered great service to the French king, 
Charles of Anjou and Sicily, was now asked to serve the 
French king, Philippe. 

Rainier Grimaldi accepted, and arrived off the coasts 
of France with sixteen armed galleys. To these the King 
of France added twenty vessels, imperfectly built and 
manned. Rainier at once set to work to teach the French 
sailors, and practised their 'prentice hands in the capture 
of a few English ships. After such comparatively easy 
exercises he started on the really serious business of en- 
countering the Flemish fleet. The English in those days 


were considered of little account, but the Dutch and 
Flemish were real sailors. It Mas in August 1304 that 
the great encounter took place off Zierikzee, at the mouth 
of the Ooster Schelde. With an inferior fleet, but superior 
seamanship, after prolonged desperate fighting. Rainier 
Grinialdi utterly defeated the Flemish, and took prisoner 
their chief, Guy de Dampierre. For this brilliant victory 
he was appointed Admiral General of France, and given 
the lordship of Villeneuve in Normandy. 

A period of comparative peace ensued, interrupted by 
fights and alarms, in which, however, the Monegasques 
took no prominent part. At home, at Monaco and Genoa, 
during tlie beginning of the fourteenth century it was 
sometimes the Guelfs and Grimaldis and sometimes the 
Ghibellines, with the help of the Spinolas and the Dorias, 
who were the masters. \Vhen Admiral Rainier died, his 
son Charles, who had also greatly distinguished himself 
as a sea captain, assumed the uncontested headship of 
the Grimaldi family. In 1336 a Monegasque fleet set out 
on a remarkable expedition to the East, and captures 
were made off' the coasts of Syi'ia and Egypt, Venetian 
commerce being the objective. At last the Pope, 
Benoit XII., had to intervene, and called upon King 
Robert of Naples to keep the Monegasques in order. 
This event is especially M'orth noting because the King of 
Naples, who was also Ijord of Provence, was obliged to 
admit that he held no jurisdiction and had no power over 
Monaco. Thus we get one of the first official records of 
the independence of Monaco. 

At the same time the people of Genoa, wearied at 
last, revolted against the Guelfs and the Ghibellines. 
" A plague on both your houses ! " became the popular cry, 
and an outsider, Boccanegra by name, was elected Doge. 
With him the (irimaldis had an easier time, and could 
afford to spare Charles Grimaldi, wlio had been called 
upon to assist the French in the opening of what proved 
to be the Hundred Years' War. 

King Philippe V"I. of France, by allying himself with 


the Duke I^ouis of Flanders against his rebelhous 
subjects, ahenated the sympathies of an entire people ; 
while King Edward III. of England showed no better 
judgment by waging war against a popular hero such as 
David Bruce and thus antagonising the Scottish people. 
Philippe of France, under the pretext of yet another 
Crusade, had obtained money and equipped a large fleet in 
the south ; but instead of going to the Holy Land he sent 
it north, to help the Scots. However surprising to the 
modern Englishman, it appears that in those days, 1336, 
the English Government had an excellently organised 
Intelligence Department. They were so well and promptly 
informed of these plans that they forestalled and frustrated 
the French attempt to help the Scots. But if they could 
not effect a landing in Scotland, the south of England 
was open to them. Instead of guarding the coasts, English 
sailors from Yarmouth were fighting and quarrelling with 
their compatriots from the Cinq Ports. By this time the 
French fleet was well organised in every respect except 
that it had no reserve force. In the naval history of France 
by Charles de la Ronciere, printed in 1899 with the aid 
of the French Ministry of JMarine, the help given by the 
Genoese and the Grimaldi family is fully acknowledged. 
To this semi-official history I am indebted for much of 
the following information. We are told that the King of 
France asked help from the Dorias and the Spinolas, who 
had fought for the Ghibellines, as well as from the Grimaldis 
and the Fieschies, who were on the Guelf side. Each 
faction had t^venty-eight galleys, and there were altogether 
8560 men to man these Genoese and Monegasque ships. 
Edward III. also made a bid for their assistance, and sent 
Vice-Admiral Uso di Mari to try to buy them over. 
Doria seemed inclined to treat, and two of the Grimaldi 
ships deserted. There were delays, but ultimately the 
joint Doria and Grimaldi fleets sailed round Gibraltar to 
join the French forces. 

Edward III. was then preparing a fleet of seventy ships 
to invade Guienne, and another of two hundred vessels to 


land troops in Flanders. While these preparations were 
being made, the Genoese and Monegasque fleets, with 
some French ships picked up on the way, appeared off" 
Portsmouth. The inhabitants thought it was an English 
fleet, and Portsmouth was captured without discharging 
an arrow or striking a blow. Edward HI., in a letter to 
the Governor of the Isle of A^'^ight, described the result 
in two words : "incendiarism and pillage." ^ Nothing was 
spared, and all the preparations to send reinforcements to 
the Guienne fleet destroyed. Edward III., with his huge 
fleet of two hundred ships, managed, however, to get over 
to Flanders, and the French had to be content with sacking 
the Anglo-Norman Channel Islands. Then five of the 
best English ships and 1000 men were captured near 
Middelbourg and brought to Calais. Greatly annoyed, 
Jlidward III. called upon the Admirals Bardy and Drayton 
to stop such French piracies. 

In spite of these orders, on the .5th October 1338 
fifty galleys rowed swiftly up the Southampton waters. 
The French admiral. Hue Quieret, had offered a hundred 
pounds tournois to whomsoever would first penetrate into 
the town of Southampton, and his own men eagerly 
clambered up the walls. The civil population of the town 
was praying in the churches ; but on the ramparts the 
soldiers were strong enough to hurl many Frenchmen 
down. The position of the assailants was becoming des- 
perate when Charles Grimaldi and Anton Doria arrived on 
the scene. Shouting the Genoese battle-cry, they swept 
the English off the ramparts. The town was at once given 
ov^er to pillage and many dwellings were burned down. 
After having slept in Southampton, to affirm their victory, 
the French, Genoese and Monegasque sailors loaded their 
ships heavily with booty and leisurely sailed away. Militia 
from Winchester, Salisbury and I^ondon hiuried to 
Southampton, but by the time they arrived the invaders 
were nearing the port of Dieppe, where they landed their 

' Rymer, vol. ii,, part iv., p. 12. 



A few weeks later the French and Monegasque fleets 
were at the mouth of the Thames. While cruising off 
Margate four ships appeared from the south. Pursued, 
the four ships prepared to fight, and the fleet, by which 
they were now surrounded, summoned them to surrender 
if English. But they replied they were not English. They 
were convoying the King of Scotland, David liruce, who 
was going, with some of the principal lords of his court, 
to ask the King of France for help. The French, Genoese 
and Monegasque sailors then respectfully and courteously 
escorted the King of Scotland to Calais. 

Now that the King of England and his fleet were away 
in Flanders the French and Genoese ships were masters of 
the Channel and free to invade England. This dangerous 
state of affairs continued through the autumn of 1338. For- 
tunately for the English, the French were not quick to seize 
the opportunity. It was not till the following 23rd of 
March 1339 that the Convention of Notables, assembled 
at Vincennes, voted in favour of such an invasion. Still 
nothing was done, as it was thought fit to refer this de- 
cision to the States of the Provinces. The latter, however, 
acted with some promptitude, for they had all ratified the 
decision by the 25th of April. Even at that late hour a 
competent leader might have been successful ; but court 
influence rather than competence prevailed. Jean, son of 
the French king, was named chief of the expedition, but 
he was obviously unfitted for such a task. Nevertheless, 
with the aid of the Monegasques and Genoese, the French 
were so completely masters of the sea that they had 
already drawn up a Domesday Book describing generally 
how England was to be divided by its conquerors. 
Among other details, only £20,000 rcA enue was to be left 
to the English Church. But Pierre Royer, Archbishop 
of Rouen, and subsequently Pope, under the name 
of Clement VI., objected to the spoliation of an entire 
people ; and all this talk of what was to be done with 
England when annexed proved very harmful to the 
French. The English did not fail to quote these proposals 


extensively, and used them as a pretext to justify their own 
action when they had an opportunity of invading France. 

In the meanwhile petty attacks continued. English 
ships were cut out of the ports of Bristol and Plymouth 
and captured or destroyed. A landing party set fire to the 
town of Harwich. Some French and 5lonegasque sailors, 
with as many ships as composed the fleet which Charles 
Grimaldi accompanied when he successfully stormed 
Southampton, returned to that port, but they were badly 
received. They were told to land and rest for two days 
and then the English would fight them, ten against ten, 
twenty against twenty, whatever number they might 
prefer. It is said that the French would have accepted 
this proud challenge, but the INIonegasques did not look 
upon it as good business. They contented themselves with 
making descents on Hastings, the Isle of Thanet, Dover 
and Folkestone, which they were able to plunder with 
comparative facility. They returned to Calais on the 
2nd of .June, and were accorded a triumphal entry. But 
these sailors had disgraced themselves by the cruelties 
they perpetrated on the English coasts. They exhibited 
to the people at Calais ears, fingers and other human 
trophies which had been cut off their English victims. 
French historians themselves acknowledge and blame this 
brutality. They even find in this cruelty an explanation 
of the bitterness Edward III. felt towards the people of 
Calais and of his desire to hang six of the most notable 
citizens of that town. 

The time for such revenge was now approaching. The 
French had wasted their opportunity. English ships, no 
longer detained in the Flemish ports, were reappearing 
in the Channel, and the democratic allies of the English 
king were ready to take the offensive. Jacques d'Arteveld, 
the brewer, and popular leader, was willing to lead the 
sturdy Flemish people on to Calais and thus second the 
efforts of the English ships as they lay off Wissant. The 
French fleet by itself was not sufficiently numerous to 
offer much resistance, for the Ghibellines had selected 


this moment to desert the French cause. Thereupon their 
pay was stopped. Of course the sailors protested noisily. 
A few of the more disorderly among them were arrested 
and imprisoned. The Ghibelline Genoese galleys now set 
sail for Genoa, stopping at various ports on their way and 
relating that the French had incarcerated and ill-treated 
some of their comrades. At Boulogne-sur-Mer, however, 
they met some Genoese or Monegasques of the Guelf 
party, the followers of Charles Grimaldi, who took up the 
other side of the argument. The people rose, not knowing 
exactly for what cause, and the Genoese sailors profited 
by the general disorder to proclaim a Ligurian Republic 
at Boulogne-sur-Mer ! 

The quiet little port, which of late years has become 
the most English town out of England, was thus suddenly 
transformed into a minor Monaco, with Guelf and 
Ghibelline quarrelling for mastership. A Ghibelline doge 
was elected, Avho maintained at Boulogne in the far north 
of France, and within twenty-seven miles of Folkestone, 
the Law of Exile against the Guelfs which had been 
enacted at Genoa. What Englishman would to-day 
imagine that Monegasque politics were fought out so 
near to the cliffs of Dover ? 

Of course the Guelfs would not submit, and the 
French Government was too busy with the Avar against 
England to trouble about these local disputes. Indeed the 
French were at that time meditating a descent on the 
herring fishing fleet when it assembled at Yarmouth. By 
capturing or slaughtering the crews of these fishing boats 
they would destroy the recruiting ground for the 
English war galleys. On the 8th of September 1339 
Charles Grimaldi, having received the pay for his fleet, 
and being reinforced by some French ships, started 
to attack the herring boats. Grandiloquent promises 
were made that a hundred English ships would be 
captured and no fewer than four hundred towns raided 
and destroyed. In this there was much talk and little 
execution. A violent storm wrecked some of the ships. 


Then, as the Enghsh and the Flemish were penetrating 
into the north of France, it occurred to the fleet that 
the ships would be best employed removing arms and 
valuables from the northern ports before the invading 
forces arrived. Thus the allied fleets undertook the modest 
but useful functions of a floating pantechnicon. 

This done, the Grimaldi naval division and what 
remained of the Doria ships were ordered back to the 
Mediterranean, to defend in those waters the French 
mercantile fleet. It was in great need of protection. Thus 
the Monegasques and their kindred, the Genoese partisans 
of the Ghibellines, got away in time to escape any responsi- 
bility or participation in the great disaster which was 
about to befall the French arms. Of the enormous fleet of 
two hundred and two ships the French had gathered to- 
gether there only remained a very small Genoese contingent 
under Captain Barbavera. The great battle of rEcluse, by 
which the English gained the command of the Channel, 
is so well known in history that it is only necessary to say 
that Barbavera, at least, foresaw the disaster. 

Barbavera was on outpost duty and sent the following 
message: — "^ly lords, here is the King of England and 
his fleet coming against us. Haste to reach the open sea 
with all your ships ; if you remain here, the English, who 
have the wind in their favour, the sun and the tide, will 
so hem you in that you will not be able to defend your- 

Following his own advice, Barbavera and his ships 
gained the open sea and thus escaped from the clutches of 
the approaching English fleet. The French ships did not 
act upon this wise counsel : they remained in the Scheldt, 
and were nearly all destroyed. 

Nothing, however, of any importance followed upon 
the great English victory of rEchise. Of course, and that 
was important enough in itself, England was now free 
from the danger of invasion ; but tlie victory was not 
followed up, and indeed a truce of nine months was 
concluded in September 1340. During that interval the 


French not only endeavoured to reconstitute their naval 
forces but they once more and most urgently implored 
Charles Grimaldi to come to their aid. 

In April 1341 Jean III. of Brittany died. The King 1 

of France repudiated the Salic Law, by which he himself 
had come to the throne, and supported the claims of Jean's 
niece, Jeanne, who had married Charles de Blois ; while 
Edward III., for no better reason than a desire to quarrel, 
supported the claim of the late Jean's third brother, Jean 
de Alontfort. Brittany had no navy, but the Monegasque 
division had managed to sail through the Straits of 
Gibraltar in spite of the wintry weather. It numbered 
twenty good war-vessels, with some minor craft, and 
assisted at the siege of Chateaureaux. Then it helped to 
bring about the capitulation of Nantes, when the English 
candidate, Jean de Montfort. was taken prisoner. 

The English now gathered an army at Portsmouth, and 
there prepared to sail for Brittany, under a new banner, 
which de la Ronciere in his naval history treats some- 
what disrespectfully. It represented a St George bearing 
the arms of England and slaughtering a dragon. But we 
are told that this mystic effigy did not begin its career in 
a promising manner, for it was the dragon that defeated 
St George. The Comtesse de Montfort had gathered some 
troops at Northampton and was bringing them to France 
to rescue her captured husband. But Anthony Doria, 
cruising off Guernsey in mid August 1342, spied an 
English fleet of forty-six sail approaching. Soon a duel 
began between the English archers and the Genoese cross- 
bowmen. On coming to close quarters, the Comtesse de 
Montfort, "who was worth a man because she had the heart 
of a lion," repelled the attempt to board her ship, but 
suddenly a great darkness spread over the skies. Such a 
thunderstorm ensued that the chroniclers of the epoch de- 
clare it seemed as if the world was coming to an end. None 
was so brave but he wished to be back safe on land, says 
Froissart. INIost of the ships seem to have sought safety 
from the storm rather than victory over the enemy. In 


this flight from the storm four English ships, however, 
were captured. In their turn, a httle later, the English 
inflicted some loss on Grimaldi's fleet near Morlaix. 
Nevertheless the English were obliged to abandon their 
attempt to blockade the coasts of Brittany. 

The war dragged on without any great event till 
Charles Grimaldi was persuaded to gather yet another 
fleet, numbering this time thirty-two galleys and 7000 
men. On the other hand, he was inexplicably slow in 
bringing his fleet from the Mediterranean to the Channel. 
By generously compensating tlie shipowners who had lost 
their vessels at the battle oilKcbise, Philippe VI. of France 
managed to get another fleet together, and something 
might have been done had not the Monegasque contingent 
wasted so much time in coming. The news that a large 
English fleet was about to sail arrived before Grimaldi's 
fleet. The latter had lost time at Nice, Marseilles and 
Majorca. On his side, Edward III,, by skilful manoeuvr- 
ing, succeeded in landing and taking the town of Caen, in 

If Charles Grimaldi had not arri\ ed in time to partici- 
pate in a great naval battle, which after all did not take 
place, he was in time to play a gallant part in the battle 
of Crecy. This celebrated battle was fought on the 26th 
of August 1346, and the Genoese crossbowmen under 
Charles Grimaldi and Anthony Doria were placed in the 
first line. They were already exhausted by a long march, 
yet no time was given them to rest. The strings of their 
crossbows were wet and loosened by the rain which had 
recently fallen. The English archers had taken the pre- 
caution to keep their strings dry. The English arrows hit 
the mark, the bolts from the Genoese crossbows fell short. 
What with fatigue and inefficient weapons, the Genoese 
began to lose ground. Instead of realising the special 
difficulties of their position, King Philippe cruelly ordered 
his cavalry to ride down upon the Genoese. " Kill these 
canaille !" he shouted, "they bar our road for no reason." 
The French knights galloped over the Genoese, but they 


themselves soon fell under the relentless hail of English 
arrows. The English had also wooden guns, which threw 
stone balls. The latter did not do much harm, but the 
noise of the explosions frightened the horses and thus 
the first use of artillery in battle did add considerably to 
the confusion of the enemy. After their cruel ingratitude 
to their good allies the Genoese, the French merited the 
very severe chastisement they then received at the hands 
of the English. Charles Grimaldi was desperately wounded 
and left for dead on the field of battle. Nevertheless he 

Not very long after the battle of Crecy, when besieging 
Calais, Edward III. had the mortification of seeing the 
ships with which he was blockading the port attacked and 
captured by Grimaldi's galleys.' But the siege of Calais 
continued, with all its horrors and heroisms. The French 
naval forces, badly handled, were of little help, and 
ultimately Calais capitulated. It was but a poor revenge 
for the French fleet to land some troops in Devonshire and 
destroy the town of Budleigh. 

In 1350 what is known as the naval battle of Winchel- 
sea was won by the English against the Spanish allies of 
France, and Peter, the new King of Castille, at once signed 
a treaty of peace with Edward III. This was the final 
blow to the policy of Philippe de V^alois, and he died 
shortly afterwards, on 22nd August 1350. 

His successor, Jean II., has often been adversely 
criticised, but, in any case, he appreciated the import- 
ance of reviving the French navy, and even of arming 
the ships with cannon. Then for the first time the 
record was made of the number of guns carried by 
a ship. 

In 1355 Rainier Grimaldi, the grandson of the first 
Rainier, whose exploits have been described, arrived with 
twenty-four galleys and 6000 crossbowmen. Again there 
was lack of organisation on the French side, and this led 
to the disaster of Poictiers when the Black Prince, in 

' RjToaer, vol. ii., part iv., p. 205. 


April 1357, took prisoner the French king, Jean II., and 
most of his knights. 

On the 20th of May a truce of two years was arranged. 
The French bourgeoisie now began to exert themselves. 
They had been driven to the conclusion that the aristo- 
cracy were not heaven-sent rulers, and that the modest 
tradesmen and craftsmen might manage matters just as 
well, if not better. They therefore took upon themselves 
to equip a fleet to deliver their king, Jean, II. This French 
bourgeois fleet duly sailed in 1360. It crossed over to 
Portsmouth, hesitated, and finally overwhelmed whatever 
English ships could be found near Winchelsea. The 
French force then landed and took the town of Winchel- 
sea by assault, but fearing reprisals they returned to 
Boulogne. This demonstration was not without effect, for 
shortly after the Treaty of I^ondon was signed, by which 
Jean II. regained his liberty and a truce was concluded. 

By the time the truce was over, Charles V., the Wise, 
was on the French throne, and he at once set to work 
to reconstitute the French fleet. Like his predecessors, he 
turned to the INIediterranean ports, and especially to 
Monaco. In response, Rainier Grimaldi fitted out four 
galleys. In the Channel he met a squadron under Robert 
Assheton, who was taking Charles le Mauvaif;, King of 
Navarre, back to Cotentin. After desperate fighting one of 
the English ships was captured and all on board perished 
by the swoi-d. The ship was a fine vessel of one hundred 
and eighty tons. It was sold for prize money in Normandy. 
As a reprisal the English, in August 1330, captured ships 
belonging to Andre Spinola and d'Oberto Squarziafico and 
the Genoese boats liaijurd and Le Vent. 

The arrival of Rainier Grimaldi was opportune, and 
English sliips were destroyed near Gospoi-t and South- 
ampton. During the many raids the Monegasques made 
on the coasts of England an incident occurred which 
became legendary. Many more important events are com- 
pletely forgotten ; this has remained a popular story. The 
ship commanded by Rainier Grimaldi was driven ashore. 


Saige says this occurred at the Isle of Wight ; La 
llonciere and " La Chronique des Quatres Premiers Valois" 
say it was near Sandwich. In any case, some EngUsh 
soldiers came up and asked to whom the galley belonged. 
Rainier (Trimaldi replied: "To the king of France." "Then," 
returned the soldiers, " surrender the galley to the King of 
France and of England." " What is his name?" shouted 
Grimaldi. " Edward," was the answer. " Edward ! " ex- 
claimed Grimaldi. " That is not the name of the King of 
France; he is called Charles, and to him only will we 
give up our ship." Thereupon the English soldiers attacked 
the galley, but were driven off till the rising tide floated 
the ship once more and Grimaldi victoriously sailed away. 
Subsequently Rainier Grimaldi was employed to convoy 
merchant ships sailing up or down the Channel. On one 
occasion, with only a few ships and 1200 men, he 
threatened Southampton, not really with a view of attack- 
ing the town, now jealously guarded, but as a diversion to 
retain in England John of Lancaster, who was arming 
11,000 men to pass over to Calais. The Duke of Lancaster, 
however, was not deterred from going to France. Indeed, 
his fleet subsequently captured Rainier Grimaldi himself. 
This happened in the spring of 1375, and Edward III. 
thought so much of the capture that, according to 
Rymer, he bought the prisoner for 12,000 golden francs. 
The entry made of this transaction is thus worded : 
" Renier Grymbaud, genevoys, prisonner of Rauf Basset 
of Drayton." 

Shortly after this event a truce of two years was signed 
at Bruges, in June 1375. When, in 1377, the war was re- 
newed, the French fleet, with the aid of Rainier Grimaldi, 
now liberated, won a great naval battle off" Rye, but 
quarrelled among themselves afterwards. One party wished 
to occupy Rye permanently and make it the Calais of 
England and the basis for future invasions. Ultimately 
they effected a landing at the mouth of the Ouse, at 
Rottindean, and there, after some fighting, took prisoner 
a number of English soldiers. It was from these prisoners 


that the French first heard of the death of Edward III. 
and the accession of Richard II. After burning the town 
of Lewis, the French and Rainier Grimaldi took to the 
sea again. They pillaged Portsmouth, Dartmouth and 
Plymouth, and they overran the Isle of Wight, with the 
exception of Carisbrooke Castle ; where the governor, 
Hagues Tyrrel, held out bravely. Instead, however, of 
pillaging the island, the French and the Monegasques 
accepted a ransom of 1000 marks (" Chronicon Anglite," 
p, 166). For many years the shores of England remained 
exposed to sudden naval incursions. Even Gravesend was 
captured and burned to the ground. The inhabitants of 
London had good reason, and on more than one occasion, 
to be seriously alarmed. Du Guesclin and Jean de V^ienny, 
the two principal French admirals, were remarkably 
successful in spreading terror along the English coasts. 

It is not clear at what precise moment Rainier 
Grimaldi got tired of fighting for the French, but he had 
already departed when the truce of 1389 was signed. 
Also by this time there had arisen plenty of trouble 
at home, for the Barbary pirates resumed their old habit 
of raiding the Riviera coasts. Genoese and Monegasques 
were now asking for French help against these old 

Later on, however, when, in 1415, Henry V. of England, 
with a large fleet, appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the 
French once again appealed for maritime help to the 
Genoese and Monegasques. While Henry V. besieged 
Harfleur, boats were collected higher up the Seine, but, 
in spite of a gallant attack, they could not relieve the 
besieged town. Harfleur having capitulated, Henry V. 
marched his much reduced and distressed army towards 
Calais. Meeting the superior French forces on the road, 
he won, in most disadvantageous circumstances, tlie 
brilliant and decisive victory of Agincourt (25th October 
1415). Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset, had been left 
in command of the English ships at Harflem-. But in 
the spring of 1416 a French fleet, under Guillaume de 


Montenay, six galleys under Nicolas Grimaldi, and eight 
large ships built in the Portuguese style, with as many 
galleys from Genoa, under the command of Jean Spinola 
and Janus Grimaldi, came upon the scene. These ships 
seized a number of English transports bringing provisions 
and reinforcements for the English armies in France. In 
one of these encounters, Janus Grimaldi was killed. 

Subsequently Guillaume de Montenay and Nicolas 
Grimaldi, with the ships they had gathered together at 
Honfleur, sailed for Southampton to attack the English 
fleet which was to bring provisions to Harfleur. Twice 
before Southampton they made unsuccessful efforts to fire 
the English fleet, and then some of their ships were 
wrecked by a fierce storm. Finally an important naval 
action took place in the Seine between Honfleur, Harfleur 
and Chef de Caux. The Genoese greatly distinguished 
themselves. Nevertheless the English were victorious, and 
got their provisions into Harfleur. At another naval 
battle, which took place in June 1417, the French and 
Genoese were again defeated by the English and the ships 
of Gaspar Spinola and other Genoese taken. The dispersal 
of the French fleet now enabled the English to occupy 
Honfleur, and thus they became masters of both sides of 
the mouth of the Seine. 

When, twenty years later, the fortunes of war favoured 
France once more, and the English were not only driven 
out of France but so lost control of the Channel that 
England was menaced with starvation, we hear nothing 
more of the Monegasques and the Genoese. Probably they 
were not wanted to share the fruits of victory ; their part 
had been to supply help in the hours of defeat. 





WHII^E the first Rainier, Charles, and the second 
Rainier were warring against the Enghsh and 
the Flemish in the Channel and the North Sea, 
the Grimaldi family was consolidating its hold on Monaco. 
In the description of the wars the term ISIonegasque has 
perhaps been employed somewhat too early, chronologic- 
ally speaking. Indeed it might even be maintained that 
there are no Monegasques, and that the term at most 
only signifies a geographical division between members of 
one and tiie same race. Undoubtedly it would be difficult 
to define by a precise line where the Genoese people is 
replaced by the Provenc^'al people ; and, within the 
Genoese frontier, the subdivision that separates the 
Monegasques from the Genoese. For my part I have 
classified as Monegasques the inhabitants of ^lonaco and 
the neighbouring estates belonging to the Grimaldis. 
Subsequently these retainers of the Grimaldi family 
consolidated and became the subjects of a principality, 
with a Grimaldi as its chief. Racially there does not seem 
to be a marked difference between them and the Genoese, 
but politically their status differed more and more as the 
making of Europe progressed. It is true that the counts 
of Provence claimed that their lands extended to \^inti- 
mille, and it cannot be said that the Provencal people, 
with their special language and literature, are the same as 
the Genoese. The claim, however, was never maintained 
for long. In fact it might be argued that the Monegasques 
must have differed from their neighbours by reason of the 
readiness with which these latter were willing to barter 


them away whenever there was any chance of making 
a bargain. Thus in 1174 Raymond, Count of Toulouse 
and Marquis of Provence, offered to make over Monaco 
and other Provencal territory to Genoa if the Genoese 
would help him to recover his rights over Provence. Then 
in 1191, when the Emperor Henry VI. wished to fight the 
people of Provence, he also made a present of Monaco 
to the commune of Genoa. Later, in 1241, Raymond 
Beranger V., Count of Provence, yielded his rights over 
Monaco to the Genoese Republic. Thus it does seem that 
originally Monaco was considered as a part of Provence, 
but it is doubtful whether this is sufficient to justify the 
conception that the Monegasques always have been 
different from their neighbours, the Genoese on one side 
and the Proven(;'als on the other. Again, in 1262, Charles 
d'Anjou, as Count of Provence, confirmed the handing 
over of Monaco to the Genoese and the latter, now secure 
in their possession of Monaco, granted the ISIonegasques 
the large measure of Home Rule already described. But 
this security of possession was soon to be shaken, though 
not by any outside event or foreign pressure. 

The Grimaldis were the principal family in the neigh- 
bourhood of Monaco, and they took sides with the Guelfs. 
When, in 1296, this party was defeated, the Guelfs and 
Grimaldis were exiled from Genoa. We have seen, 
however, that Francis Grimaldi returned ; and by dis- 
guising himself as a monk succeeded in surprising the 
garrison and taking the fortress of Monaco. Thus Monaco 
became independent, being in rebellion against Genoa and 
no longer claimed by the counts of Provence. Of course 
the Genoese would not accept this situation, and in 1298 
laid siege to Monaco. The result, as already related, was a 
sort of compromise peace. 

After this for many years the fate of Monaco fluctua- 
ated with that of the Guelf party. So far as the Grimaldis 
were concerned. King Charles II. of Anjou, having 
bought property possessed by Guelf partisans at Monaco 
and in the neighbourhood, made, in 1301, a present of it 


to Nicolas Spinola. The latter was the chief of the 
principal rival family to the Grimaldis, and the Spinolas 
also fought on the other side — that is, for the Ghibellines. 
But in 1341 this matter was finally settled in quite a 
prosaic manner. Charles Grimaldi, in the intervals of his 
wars against England, simply bought all the lands which 
Nicolas Spinola possessed in JNIonaco. The price paid, it 
is said, was 1280 golden florins, which is a large sum as 
money went in those days ; but after sacking Southamp- 
ton, and several other English towns, Charles Grimaldi 
could well afford this little extravagance. He also bought 
the lordships of Castillon, in the diocese of Vintimille, of 
Roquebrune, of Menton and of Eze. The latter was then 
considered to be part of Provence. 

How many pleasure-seekers on their holiday jaunts 
think, as they gaze at the romantic walls and battlements 
of Monaco, or admire the quaint old palace still occupied 
by the Grimaldis, that this family, the oldest reigning 
family in Europe, first made itself distinguished by 
sweeping the English off the sea ; and, what at the 
time was much more difficult, annihilating the fleet of 
the Flemish in their own waters, the Scheldt. To the 
Grimaldis, Rainier, Charles and the second Rainier the 
English should feel deeply indebted. They taught us 
most effectively that an island cannot be defended 
without a strong fleet. When Hrst he came on the scene. 
Rainier Grimaldi trained his inexperienced French 
recruits by setting them upon the English ships. It is 
worth repeating that the only real sailors were the 
Flemish, and therefore Rainier sent his untrained hands 
to acquire necessary skill and strength by attacking the 
badly equipped and inefficiently manned English ships. 

Those who governed England, the feudal lords, were 
far too busy with intrigues and internecine conflicts to 
think of building up an efficient navy. A navy must be 
a national institution, and the feudal system was better 
suited to local efforts. Indeed the idea of nationality grew 
as the feudal system declined. 


Strange though it may seem, after so long a lapse of 
centuries, there is still a Grimaldi living in what remains 
of the fortress that Francis Grimaldi surprised and 
captured in 1297. What may be accounted even more 
surprising is the fact that the Grimaldi of to-day, like his 
ancestors six hundred years ago, is once again giving the 
world lessons in matters relating to the sea. But the 
world has moved in the interval. Other and better ideals 
have arisen. The pen has proved itself mightier than the 
sword and the light of science is preferred to the flash of 
arms. It is with the creation of a new science, the science 
of oceanography, that the present Grimaldi is concerned, 
and this he combines with active propaganda in the cause 
of peace. But are we absolutely certain that there was not 
underlying those fierce combats of the Grimaldis some 
vague ideal of peace ? The quarrel was between Guelf and 
Ghibelline, but it may be that there were on both sides 
combatants who entertained a dim hope of bringing 
about an era of universal peace and concord. 

The world did not wait for the advent of Victor Hugo 
to realise that this end would best be attained by es- 
tablishing the United States of Europe. At the time now 
under consideration the great struggle was between two 
rival powers each striving to carry out this very policy. 
On one side there was the Church of Rome seeking 
universal dominion, and among other means to that end 
very wisely endeavouring to establish Latin as the 
universal language. This of course meant the states of 
Europe federated under a theocracy. Others equally in 
favour of union desired a political and secular union. To 
them Charlemagne represented the nearest approach to 
success, and they strove to reconstitute the Roman 
Empire. In this struggle between Emperor and Pope 
the Ghibellines sided with the Emperor ; the Guelfs, 
among whom were the Grimaldis and those who became 
Monegasques, sided with the Pope. Judged according to 
the modern aspect of politics and the actual meaning 
given to words, the Guelfs would be clericals and re- 




actionists. But it may be argued that in those days 
clericahsm was much more closely allied to progress than 
at present. On the other hand, princes were little better 
than pirates. The Church could never have acquired the 
power and popularity it enjoyed for several centuries if, 
on the whole, it had not protected the people against 
tyranny and many abuses. This, in any case, was the view 
taken by the Guelfs and their Grimaldi followers. 

Beneath the broad mantle of religion the peoples of 
the world might possibly be brought together. Under the 
threat of eternal punishment and the promise of ever- 
lasting bliss they might be induced to forgo the love of 
revenge, to sink worldly differences, to forget personal 
ambitions, and unite to bring about an era of peace and 
good will to all men. But could such unity of purpose and 
action be secured under the crown of an emperor ? Then 
who should be this one sovereign of the world ? It is only 
at rare intervals in history that a Charlenuigne appears 
who can command the suffrages of all. The result showed 
that the world was not ripe for such counsel of perfection. 
Of the two, the Papacy rather than the Imperial throne 
was nearer success ; but both were sadly out of keeping 
with the ideal. 

During the fourteenth century the Genoese on 
several occasions occupied and administered Monaco. The 
Grimaldis then lived on their other estates at JNIentone, 
Castillon and Cagnes. On one occasion the Grimaldis of 
Beuil seized INIonaco, though they had no legal claim, and 
managed to keep possession of it from 1395 to 14.01. 
They were then driven out by Marshal Boucicaut, 
Governor of Genoa. The Genoese themselves, however, 
revolted and overthrew their governor. Then Monaco 
appealed to King Louis II. of Anjou, who sent a few 
soldiers to protect the town against the Genoese. Ten 
years afterwards the Guelfs regained power at Genoa and 
in June 1419 the sons of Rainier were able to return to 
Monaco, from which the family had been exiled for 
sixty-two years. But the Grimaldis had been driven out 


of Monaco because they were partisans of the Guelfs. 
The RepubUc of Genoa continued to allow the 
Monegasques to enjoy Home Rule and various commer- 
cial privileges. In a truce signed in 1412 between King 
Louis IL of Anjou and Genoa, Monaco figures as an 
independent community in alliance with the King of 
Sicily. In 1424 and 1426 other treaties recognised Monaco 
as independent. 

At the death of the second Rainier, in 1407, he left 
three sons, Ambroise, Antoine and Jean ; who, when 
they became masters of Monaco, made the extraordinary 
arrangement to reign each in his turn for one year. Their 
first care was to renew all the treaties concluded by Charles 
Grimaldi to ensure the independence of Monaco. But 
having taken part in a M^ar againt the Duke of Milan 
they Avere severely defeated. The Duke of Savoy desired 
to see Monaco destroyed, and a Milanese garrison 
occupied the town, which was thus again lost to the 

Jean Grimaldi, however, Avas a great sailor, and he was 
employed by Francisco Sforza to fight the Venetians on 
the Po. Here he won a fierce battle, against the celebrated 
Carmagnola, on the 23rd JSIay 1431. In 1436 he was 
restored to Monaco, but as a vassal of the dukes of 
Milan. During Jean's absence from Monaco, the Duke of 
Savoy suddenly made a descent upon the town, and by 
treachery he also took Jean prisoner. But Pomelline 
Fregose, Jean Grimaldi's wife, was a heroine. She organ- 
ised the defence ; and even when, to intimidate her, her 
husband was brought under the walls she refused to 
surrender. He had sent a message that if his captors killed 
him under the ramparts still she was not to yield. In the 
face of such resistance the Duke of Savoy abandoned his 
enterprise and the next year he released his prisoner, who 
then returned to Monaco. A year later (1440) the Duke 
of Milan renounced his overlordship of Monaco, which 
now became absolutely independent. 

The policy of Jean was based on faithful devotion to 


Philippe- Marie Visconti, whom the Genoese had chosen 
as their governor. When, however, Visconti died, Jean 
Grimaldi, now advanced in years, sought protection from 
his old enemy the Duke of Savoy. He offered in exchange 
for such protection the lordship, not over Monaco, but 
over a part of Mentone and all Roccabruna. This act 
was destined to lead to many difficulties and troubles in 
the future. .Jean also contemplated selling Monaco itself to 
the Dauphin, son of Charles VI L, for 15,000 golden ecus, 
but this sum was never paid ; the Dauphin, having 
abandoned the idea of invading Italy, had no need to buy 
Monaco. At Jean's death the first act of his son, Catalan 
Grimaldi, was to repudiate this treaty. 

Before dying, Jean Grimaldi made a will establishing 
the order of succession. This was to be by primogeniture 
to male heirs. Women were only to succeed in the 
absence of any male heir, and on condition that their 
husbands took the arms and name of the Grimaldis. 

Catalan reigned only three years, and died in 1457, 
when but forty-two years old. Of his three children, only 
a young girl named Claudine Grimaldi survived. Before 
his death Catalan decided that his daughter, Claudine, 
should marry I^ambert Grimaldi, brother of Gaspar, Lord 
of the Antibes. So far as the family property was con- 
cerned the arrangement was admirable, but Claudine was 
only six years old and her future husband had already 
attained the ripe age of forty-two. During Claudine's 
minority her grandmother Pomelline conspired against her 
future grandson-in-law because the population of Monaco 
wished him to assume the reins of governinent at once. An 
attempt was even made to seize Lambert by force. The 
future grandmother-in-law sought to imprison, some say 
to murder, her future grandson-in-law. Fortunately, he got 
wind of the conspiracy, escaped and, returning with a 
superior force, first gave the conspirators a good beating 
and then proceeded to incarcerate Pomelline. She was, 
however, allowed to live in her own house at Mentone, 
where she was kept prisoner and carefully guarded. Lam- 


bert married Claudine in 1465, and in spite of the dis- 
proportion in age they Hved happily together. Lambert 
reigned till 1494 and displayed great diplomatic skill in 
maintaining the independence of Monaco. Not only was 
this independence generally admitted but it was recognised 
in the treaties signed by some of the principal powers. 

We now approach a period of history which might 
well be dramatised. Those who love the old-fashioned 
melodrama would here find ample materials, and " The 
Tragic Widow ; a Romance of Monaco " might be a 
suitable title. The widow is Claudine, who lived to see 
three of her sons murdered. The first to reign was Jean II. 
He is the first Prince of Monaco mentioned in history 
as having encouraged the fine arts, and pictures com- 
missioned by him are still to be seen in the cathedral of 
Monaco. He also greatly embellished the palace. But he 
was not skilful in diplomacy. His tendency was to defy 
everybody, and he made enemies on all sides. The diffi- 
culties this occasioned were so great that in his extremity 
he thought of selling Monaco to the \'enetians. On the 
11th of October 1505, when dining with his mother in 
their castle at Mentone, a quarrel arose between Jean II. 
and his brother Lucien on this subject. No one knows 
what happened except that daggers were drawn, Jean II. 
was stabbed and fell dying at his mother's feet. It is urged 
that Lucien cannot have been so very much to blame, for, 
while deeply lamenting the loss of her son Jean, Claudine 
bore no ill-will towards Lucien, and made no opposition to 
his entering into possession of the estate as the head of 
the family. 

The very next year the Genoese determined to put an 
end to the independence of Monaco and then began the 
greatest of the many sieges which that town has had to 
endure. Lucien, with the aid of his young brother, Charles, 
and Barthelemy Grimaldi, organised a heroic resistance. 
The siege lasted one hundred and two days, and artillery 
was brought to bear upon the walls for the first time. A final 
assault was made on the 19th of March 1507. A breach had 


been effected in the wall at Serravalle, where to-day the old 
tower overlooks the road to Nice just behind the palace. 
But fresh works had been rapidly constructed behind the 
breach, and after a stubborn hand-to-hand fight the enemy 
was beaten off. In despair they raised the siege. This 
magnificent resistance on the part of the Monegasques 
had the inconvenience of making Louis XII. of France 
realise the importance of iVlonaco, and he at once pro- 
ceeded, by means both fair and foul, to make sure that, in 
the event of a war, Monaco should be on tlie French side. 
The celebrated JNIachiavelli also realised the new situation, 
and we hear of his visiting JNIonaco on behalf of the 
Florentine maritime interests in JNIay 1511. Ferdinand 
the Catholic likewise began to bestow favours and 
attentions upon Lucien. This may account for the solemn 
recognition of the independent sovereignty of JNIonaco by 
Louis Xn. in 1512. Lucien as an independent sovereign 
thereupon proceeded to coin money in his own name. 

The Dorias, and more distant relatives of the Grimaldi 
family, however, were so jealous that Barthelemy and 
Andre Doria conspired to overthrow Lucien. The details 
of this plot would make an excellent play. On 22nd 
August 1528 we have the arrival of Barthelemy at 
Monaco under the guise of friendship ; his conscience, 
however, is so disturbed that he refuses to accompany 
Lucien to church. After dinner Barthelemy on some 
pretext draws Lucien away from his followers to a distant 
part of the palace, where the conspirators are in waiting. 
Here the prince is murdered, and the conspirators make 
themselves masters of tlie lower part of the palace. They 
seek to gain the upper floors, from which to signal to the 
fleet of ships anchored in the port — the fleet of the Dorias 
— to send to their assistance a force with which they may 
capture the town. By this time, however, the subjects of 
Lucien have completely recovered from their surprise. 
They defend the approaches to the second floor and 
prevent the signal from being given. At this moment 
Augustin Grimaldi, brother of Lucien, and the next heir, 


arrives from Cannes. He rallies the Monegasques, and the 
conspirators are about to be put to the sword. But they 
have had the foresight, at the moment when they became 
masters of the situation, to lay hands upon Jeanne de 
Pontevis, the wife of Lucien, and her children. Holding 
knives to her breast, they threaten her and her children 
with instant death if they are not allowed to leave 
unmolested. The conditions must be granted, and the 
conspirators safely retire. Thus Lucien, who murdered his 
brother, falls by the assassin's dagger in his turn. 

Claudine's third son now assumed the sovereignity 
of JNIonaco, and he too came to an untimely end. In 
his case it was not the assassin's knife but the more 
treacherous poison of a murderous political opponent. At 
this time Charles the Fifth of Spain was the principal 
monarch in Europe. This great ruler thought Monaco of 
sufficient importance for him to pay Prince Augustin 
a personal visit. When on his way to be crowned at 
Bologna, Charles V. disembarked at Monaco on the 5th 
August 1529 and proceeded by land to Genoa. He was 
accompanied by Angustin Grimaldi and Honor^, the son 
of Lucien, who was then only seven years old. 

These friendly relations ended in the establishment of 
the Spanish protectorate. The princes of JSlonaco were to 
render feudal homage to the Emperor Charles V., but 
Monaco was to retain its autonomy as an independent 
principality. This is set forth in the document known as 
the Declaration of Tordesillas. But it was not without 
reluctance that the Spanish victories and the force of 
complex circumstances, which it would require much time 
to explain, led Augustin to turn from France to Spain for 
protection. To the last he entertained the hope of return- 
ing to France, and continued negotiations with this view. 
Perhaps these intrigues may account for his sudden death, 
so sudden as to have caused the conviction that it was 
due to poison. 

Honort^ I., son of the murdered Lucien, was only ten 
years old when he succeeded his uncle, Augustin. The time 


of his minority was far from tranquil ; it was occupied by- 
plots and counterplots as to who should be his tutor. Then 
there was trouble with the Spaniards, who now insisted 
on keeping a garrison at Monaco under the pretext that 
the French were about to attack the town. Thus there 
was an Imperial Resident, Valenzulea by name, command- 
ing Spanish soldiers, who did not feel at all disposed to 
respect the autonomy of INIonaco and its princes. Etienne 
Grimaldi, who ultimately obtained the tutorship of the 
young Prince Honore, resisted these encroachments so 
well that, when Honore became of age, Etienne was asked 
to continue governing in the capacity of Honore's *' elected 
father" and of Gubernant, ov governor. Etienne showed 
himself a very able administrator and greatly improved 
Monaco. He constructed, among other things, the great 
cistern, which holds 1700 cubic metres of rain-water, azid 
which enabled Monaco to endure long sieges. The twelve 
arcades, the marble balustrades and the semicircular 
flight of steps in the Court of Honour of the palace which 
we admire to-day owe their existence to Honore's " father 

Great financial difficulties with Spain now arose. The 
Spanish Government failed to pay its soldiers in garrison 
at Monaco and there was the same embarrassment with 
regard to the Monegasque ships in the service of Spain. 
Many of these ships were seized for debt and afterwards 
were lost off the island of Zerbi, taken by the Turks in 
1561. This was the beginning of the decay of Monaco's 
maritime power ; though some ships under the Grimaldi 
standard took a creditable part in the battle of Lepante. 

Honore I. died in 1581, leaving four sons and five 
daughters. His eldest son, Charles II., succeeded at the age 
of twenty-seven, and shortly after his accession some 500 
Corsicans and French attempted to take Monaco by storm. 
It was on this occasion that St Devote is supposed to 
have appeared on the walls and upbraided the Corsicans 
for attacking the town that took such good care of the 
remains of their patron saint. The attack totally failed. 


Charles II. did not marry, and died young. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1589 by his brother, Hercules I. As the Spanish 
continued to neglect all their financial responsibilities there 
was increasing dissatisfaction and distress. Another night 
surprise was attempted against Monaco, this time by 700 
men from Provence. They were commanded by a Mone- 
gasque named Cesar Arnaud, but in spite of their vigour 
in attacking they were driven off. Next a notary named 
Boccone entered into a conspiracy with the house of 
Savoy to upset the dynasty, get rid of the Spaniards and 
put Monaco into the hands of Savoy. Probably it was to 
a similar plot that the murder of Hercules in the rue du 
Milieu may be attributed. The prince was leaving the 
house of Gastaldi the Governor when he was stabbed, 
l^his was the house that now bears the number 15 in the 
rue du 3Ii/ieu. 

Honore II. was the next heir, and at first he reigned 
under the tutorsliip of l*rince de Valdetare, an uncle on 
his mother's side, who was entirely devoted to the Spanish. 
Consequently he soon became unpopular among the 
JNIonegasques. A larger garrison of Spanish troops was 
brought to Monaco, and Honor^ II. received the Order of 
the Golden Fleece. Valdetare abolished the communal 
prerogatives of Monaco on which the Grimaldis had relied 
since the origin of their lordship. The more the Spaniards 
reduced the power of the Grimaldis, the more they be- 
stowed upon them outward shows of fa\^our. For example, 
the title of Prince, used up to this time only by courtesy, 
was now, with the sanction of Spain, officially conferred. 
Thuswehear of " Honore II., Prince and I^ord of Monaco." 
Honore was also encouraged to issue coin with his own 
likeness, but, in reality, he was obliged to abstain from 
governing and rest contented, for thirty years, with the 
honour of receiving princes and the pleasure of beautify- 
ing his palace. In this latter work he succeeded so 
well that the seventeenth-century poets, artists and 
travellers all agreed in singing the praises of the palace 
of Monaco. 


In 1631 the plague broke out at Monaco. The disease 
already prevailed in the neighbourhood, and it was said 
that some infected linen from La Turbie was brought to 
Monaco to be washed. The most rigorous measures were en- 
forced. The people were kept prisoners in their houses, and 
all social intercourse forbidden. But one day there came two 
monks from Nice declaring that dirt was the cause. Every- 
one was thereupon driven to the sea and made to take a 
prolonged bath. At the same time their furniture was 
brought down and also washed in the sea, while their 
houses were fumigated. To further these efforts there 
came a deluge of rain. The plague was thus washed away 
and the epidemic at once ceased. 

As time wore on, the position became more intolerable 
and, in the absence of their pay, the Spanish soldiers even 
asked permission to pillage the palace they were supposed 
to protect. At last Honore II. succeeded in secretly con- 
cluding a treaty, the Treaty of Peronne, with Cardinal 
Richelieu. This act bears the date of September 1041. A 
French garrison was to occupy Monaco, but its officers 
were to be under the orders of the Prince of INIonaco, 
whose independence should in every way be respected. 
It was on the 17th November 1641 that the coup d'eiat 
was accomplished. A number of partisans were arrested 
and brought to the Monaco prisons. In the night, after 
a banquet at which all the Spanish officers and soldiers 
had been well plied with drink, the prisoners, who were 
friends in disguise, were armed and released. AVith 
the rest of the population they sprang upon the garri- 
son. A cannon fired from the rampart brought up 
French soldiers concealed in the neighbourhood ; and 
the Spaniards, overwhelmed, were glad to save their lives 
by surrendering. Only five of them had been killed and 
ten wounded. 

Honore II. published a manifesto to the Powers ex- 
plaining his conduct, and returned the Order of the Golden 
Fleece. Of course he lost all the property he possessed 
in Spain, and all the privileges and honours the Spanish 


emperor had conferred on him. The alliance of the 
Grimaldis with Spain had been most disappointing, and 
Honor^ II. was convinced that France was not only the 
nearer but the more reliable ally. Still, the enmity of 
Spain was now to be anticipated, and precautions must be 



EUROPE was now in the throes of the great 
struggle between Protestantism and the Roman 
CathoHc Church. Monaco was but a small state, 
some may think too small to take part in this war of 
giants. Nevertheless it had thrown off the incubus of 
Spain just in time to assist in working out the far-reaching 
policy of Richelieu and his successor, Mazarin. Richelieu 
was determined not to allow Austria to accomplish in 
1635 what Prussia did in 1870. He had ruthlessly 
beheaded French aristocrats who conspired against the 
King and had tenaciously fought the French Protestants 
so as to maintain the authority of the throne and the 
unity of the nation. But when Austrian policy was likely 
to bring about German unity Richelieu fought for the 
Protestants in Germany, though he sought to crush them 
in France. Though a cardinal of the Roman Catholic 
Church, he was willing to support the Protestant cause 
beyond the Rhine rather than allow the creation of a 
powerful Germany on the French frontier. As in these 
wars Spain was arrayed against France, Monaco, by 
reason of its geographical position and the safe shelter 
afforded in its harbour, became a place of importance. 
Louis Xin. of France, to compensate Honord II. for 
what he had lost in abandoning Spain, conferred on him 
the Duchy and Peerage of V^alentinois, made him Count 
of Carladez, Baron of Buis and Calvinet, and gave him the 
lands and lordship of Saint Remy. Honoro II. was 
received at the court in Paris, and later Louis XIV. 
became godfather to Honor^'s grandson, Louis. As this 

F 81 


child's father was accidentally shot a few years afterwards, 
it was the godson of Louis XIV. who became the next 
Prince of Monaco, under the title of Louis I. Honore II. 
died in 1662, after a long and very successful reign. He 
so improved the court of Monaco that he was called 
the Louis XIV. of ]Monaco, and he greatly increased the 
influence of his family by marrying his grandson Louis to 
Charlotte, daughter of the Marshal de Gramont. 

When the English revolution drove the Stuarts into 
exile, Charlotte de Gramont, wife of Prince Louis of 
Monaco, became the favourite companion of Henrietta, 
daughter of Charles I. of England and wife of the Duke 
of Orleans. The Duke of York, subsequently James II. 
of England, desired to avail himself of the situation in 
favour of his plans by making use of the port of Monaco. 
He conceived a scheme for assembling at Monaco a fleet 
with which to sail for England and re-establish the 
monarchy. But if the court of France was anxious to 
show sympathy with the exiled Royal Family of England, 
Cardinal Mazarin was much more concerned to keep peace 
with Cromwell. It was all very well to sympathise with 
the fallen Stuarts ; but if Cromwell could be induced to 
lend a few of his Ironsides to aid the French, in their wars 
against Spain, that was a purpose far more worthy of 
accomplishment. It was in 1650 that the Duke of York 
cast his eyes on Monaco. Honore II. was still living, and 
the King of France entrusted him with the very difficult 
task. He was to satisfy the Duke of York in any way 
except that of allowing him to make use of the port of 
Monaco for hostile purposes against the English Common- 
wealth. This Honore II. did with so much skill that he 
was especially congratulated and complimented by the 
court of France. 

Mazarin's policy was successful. He not only estab- 
lished very friendly relations with Cromwell but actually 
obtained the assistance of some of Cromwell's soldiers 
to fight the Spaniards. There still exists at Monaco 
written evidence in proof of this fact. These historical 


documents came to be included among the archives of 
Monaco in the following manner. Honore-Charles-Maurice, 
Due de Valentinois, subsequently Honore V., married 
the only daughter and surviving child of the sixth and 
last Due d'Aumont ; the Due d'Aumont had married 
Jeanne de Durfort-Duras, Duchesse de Mazarin ; the 
Grimaldi family therefore inherited the d'Aumont papers, 
which included some relating to Mazarin. These consist of 
one hundred and seventy-four letters, a large portion of 
which are letters from Cardinal Mazarin to Marshal d'Au- 
mont, writenfrom July 16-t3 to August 1659. The ink is 
good but the paper bad. Some of the letters are folded eight 
times. The courteous first sentence and the signature are 
always in Mazarin's hand, and in some cases the entire 
letter. Occasionally the Cardinal wrote to a dictated letter 
a postscript in his own hand as long as the letter itself. 
The letters generally bear a red or blue ribbon sealed with 
the Cardinal's ring, engraved with his arms. Marshal 
d'Aumont was engaged for a long time in the war against 
the Spaniards, and the struggle was protracted for some 
twenty-four years. Many of the letters relate to this 
campaign. Mazarin's policy of reconciliation with England 
succeeded so well that Cromwell sent 6000 troops to help 
the French against the Spaniards. Among the d'Aumont 
correspondence is one from Cromwell regarding an 
English contingent sent to Mai-dike, a town near 
Dunkerque. It is addressed to the Marshal, and is worded 
as follows : — 

" For his Excellency the Marshal of Aumont at 


" My Lord, — Wee having been given to understand 
that the Spanyard had some Designe to attacqs Mardike 
did send five companyes of Colonell Guibons Regiment 
from home for assisting of the fForces there but having 
now understood that there is an addition of forces of 
French and English, which wee hope (through the 
blessing of God) may be able to defend that place against 


any attempt of ye enemy. It is our desire that your 
Lordship will please to cause the returne to England of 
these five Companies of Colonelle Guibons Regiment with 
all possible speed, for whose transportation we have 
labourard. Your good friend, 

" Oliver, P. 

"Whitehall, BQth Decemb. 1657." 

Thus the princes of Monaco not only helped Cromwell 
by refusing to allow the Duke of York to use their port, 
but they married into a family which had fought side by 
side with Cromwell's soldiers ; and they still possess one 
of Cromwell's lettei's. Few people realise how often the 
house of Grimaldi has been involved in English politics. 
Generally its action has been against England, but it was 
in favour of Cromwell and the Commonwealth. After the 
Restoration of the Stuarts, French arms were again 
turned against England ; and, the better to wage a mari- 
time war, the French became the allies of the Dutch. 
They were, however, very unstable allies, and preferred 
rather to see the Dutch and English ships damage each 
other than risk French ships in the fighting. Louis I. of 
IMonaco, anxious to escape from the court intrigues in 
which his wife was compromising herself, and desirous 
of distinguishing himself by some feat of arms, was 
waiting in vain for the arrival of the French fleet under 
]M. de Beaufort. At last, in company with his brother- 
in-law, the romantic Comte de Guiche, Prince Louis of 
IMonaco took service with the Dutch fleet, just in time to 
assist at the celebrated battle of Texel. This great fight, 
which lasted for four days, took place at the beginning of 
June 1666. The Comte d'Estrades, French ambassador 
in Holland, sent the following repoi-t to Louis XIV. con- 
cerning the conduct of the two combatants : 

" M. le Prince de Monaco and M. le comte de Guiche, 
being on the ship commanded by Captain Terlon, second 

^A..y/iyfff*^a/^^^t /f}i>er Ani^,/a^M 

fO-ff^^i f-afi^' 


^0 afVP ^v<tf:e: 



"*'«•• '"■•■ ." 

Li:ill.K I'ROM Ol.IVEK CkOMWIU.!. 


to Admiral Ruyter, were the first to charge the enemy, 
and then were so prompt in accosting the vice-admiral 
of the Red Pennant that they came to pistol shots, and as 
both had supports the fight lasted two hours. Hence there 
were many people killed. The comte de Guiche mixed 
with the soldiers and sailors because he speaks more 
easily than the captain himself. At the moment when 
they thought they were about to capture the enemy's ship 
their own ship caught fire. They worked hard to extinguisli 
the fire ; but as the flames had spread to the sails the 
Prince of Monaco and M. de Guiche undressed, retaining 
only their drawers, so as to jump into the sea before the 
powder magazine was ignited. At that moment a Dutch 
vessel, the Little Holland, passed and fastened itself to 
the stem of their ship, and several of the crew were able 
to throw their weapons into this ship and scramble on 
board. The boat which they thus boarded was commanded 
by the brother of Admiral Ruyter ; it was on its way to 
assist another ship which was much damaged. They again 
fought, and for three hours, on this vessel ; till at last it 
was put ho?:s- de combat and had to be rescued. M. le 
Prince de Monaco and M. le comte de Guiche, with the 
sieur de Nointel, who did not abandon them, were taken, 
by the vessel which came to their help, to Admiral 
Ruyter's ship. The Admiral received them with great 
joy and ordered clothes to be brought them. It was the 
last day of the battle which was the hardest. These 
gentlemen were always in the forefront of danger. M. de 
Guiche was wounded in the arm and shoulder by a cannon- 
shot. He lost three of his servants and the equerry of the 
Marshal de Gramont." 

Admiral Ruyter lost four ships, which were sunk, but he 
captured six English ships and sank or burned seventeen. A 
thick fog enabled the remains of the English fleet to escape. 

Louis XIV. was delighted that a few officers coming 
from the French court had been able to render distin- 
guished service to his allies, as this helped to maintain 


French prestige, otherwise somewhat compromised 
through the absence of the French ships. It was during 
this war, it will be remembered, that the Dutch sailed 
up the Thames with brooms fastened to their masts to 
indicate that they would sweep the English off the seas ; 
but they did not quite succeed in doing this. Indeed, 
when the ensuing peace was signed at Breda, in July 
1667, the Dutch gave New Amsterdam over to the English, 
and this Dutch colony was henceforth named New York. 
Having encountered Charles II.'s fleet in the war. 
Prince Louis of Monaco was destined to encounter 
Charles II. personally. On the latter occasion the struggle 
was for the smiles of one of the most beautiful women of 
the time. Separated at last from his wife, whose intrigues 
were incorrigible. Prince Louis became attached to 
Cardinal Mazarin's beautiful niece, the notorious Hortense 
Mancini, Duchess of JNIazarin. When she was exiled from 
France, in consequence of her intrigues, Prince Louis 
followed her, first to Rome and then to London. Here 
Charles II. forthwith became enamoured of the beautiful 
refugee, and at one time it seemed as if she would take 
the place of the Duchess of Portsmouth. A ruinous 
contest followed between the powerful King of England 
and the prince of a minute principality. At one moment, 
in jealous anger, Charles II. withdrew the pension of 
£4000 he had allowed to the Duchess of Mazarin, where- 
upon Prince Louis immediately allowed her a pension of 
the same amount. Metivier, in his history, maintains that, 
on the whole, though he was but a prince and his rival a 
king, the lady preferred to bestow her favours on Prince 
Louis of Monaco. Nevertheless, fortunately for his peace 
of mind and for his purse, Louis managed to cure himself 
of his passion. Then, after having pretty energetically 
kicked over the traces, he returned to his principality and 
to his subjects, to draw up a model code of laws, known to 
this day as the Code Louis. But if Prince Louis improved 
the laws, he abolished what vestiges still remained of the 
communal or municipal life established by the Genoese. 


In thus excluding the people from all share in the re- 
sponsibility of government, he prepared the ground for 
the dissatisfaction that on more than one occasion wrecked 
the fortunes of the Grimaldis. 

Soon a new call was made upon Prince Louis. When 
Louis XIV. married Marie-Therese of Austria she was 
obliged to renounce her claim to the Spanish succession. 
When, however, the succession was open, Louis XIV. 
conveniently discovered that a private contract could not 
prevent the application of a fundamental law. Therefore 
he determined to assert his wife's rights to the Spanish 
succession. Rome was the centre of negotiations, and as 
Prince I^ouis of Monaco possessed not only the necessary 
diplomatic subtlety, but also a Southern love of ostenta- 
tious display and extravagance, he was thought admirably 
suited to represent France at Rome. The result was that 
Prince Louis spent a large part of his fortune in fulfilling 
this mission, and in outward show he eclipsed all the other 
ambassadors. It is related, as an instance of his magnifi- 
cence, that the horses of his escort were shod with silver. 
Further, care was taken to nail on the shoes very loosely, 
so that some of them dropped off, to the delight and 
benefit of the crowd. Such pomp and prodigality had 
never been seen. The Prince had spent a year in preparing 
for the journey, but perhaps he overshot the mark, and his 
display of wealth and extravagance was by some considered 
to be exaggerated. Rendu, who is an impartial historian, 
is of opinion that Prince Louis was successful, and kept 
the French interests well to the front. The French 
obtained satisfaction in so far that it was ultimately 
decided that the grandson of Marie Therese, the second 
son of the Dauphin, should succeed to the crown of Spain 
if he renounced all claim to the crown of France. The 
importance of such negotiations is obvious, and shows 
what a responsible part some of the princes of Monaco 
have played in European politics. 

These negotiations took place in 1099, and later. 
Prince Louis I. died in 1701, at the age of fifty-nine, having 


reigned nearly forty years. He was succeeded by his son, 
Antoine I., who was already forty years old. Like his 
father, he married a woman more celebrated for her 
beauty than for her virtue. His mother, " Madame de 
Monaco," as the heroine of novels and many a story more 
or less fictitious, had earned unenviable notoriety, and now 
his wife, Marie de Lorraine, daughter of the Comte de 
Armagnac, seemed bent on following the example of her 
mother-in-law. The conduct of Marie de Lorraine was 
such that, like his father. Prince Antoine was glad to leave 
her and take service for France. Thus it came about that 
he took part in the German campaign of 1688 and was 
present at the seiges of JNlons and Namur. 

Shortly after the death of Louis I., Europe was torn 
by the war over the Spanish succession. At first this did 
not affect Monaco, but in 1705, Savoy having taken sides 
against France, the safety of Nice and Monaco was 
menaced from the sea by English ships, and from the 
mountains by Savoyard soldiers. Prince Antoine wished 
to see the French occupy the strategical position of La 
Turbie. Marshal de La Feuillade, however, would not 
consent to this ; but, considering that the historical and 
Roman trophy of La Turbie might be used as a fortress, 
he caused it to be blown up. The explosion destro5^ed only 
half the tower, but it was an act of vandalism for which 
obviously there was no sufficient excuse. The near 
approach of war caused Antoine L to devote much care 
and much money to the improvement of the fortifications 
of Monaco. There still remains the picturesque fort which 
he built, and which now commands the end of the quay on 
the commercial side of the port. It bears a tablet with the 
inscription, Fort Antonius Prim anno Salutis INIDCCIX. 
Above is a modern flag-signalling station, but close to it 
stands a stone sentinel-box such as might have been con- 
structed when the Saracens were still to be feared. The 
wall is partly rock and partly masonry, with large stone 
embrasures for cannon. The walk round this corner is one 
of the most interesting in the principality, both on account 


of the old fortifications and the natural growth of the rock. 
Nor is this vegetation unconnected with warlike prepara- 
tions. In the days when wire entanglement had not been 
invented the thorns of the aloe, the agave and the prickly 
pear were a very effective substitute. From the end of the 
new breakwater an inspiring view of the picturesque battle- 
ments may be enjoyed. The darkness of the stones, 
probably due to the modern gas-works rather than to 
antiquity, gives them the appearance of recording the 
history of untold centuries. One above the other rise three 
fortified terraces, with palm-trees like defiant feathers 
waving their branches on the top. 

To build Fort Antoine, Prince Antoine had his silver 
melted down and sold his jewels. He also constructed vast 
underground refuges to be used in case of a bombardment, 
and kept the cisterns in good order and well filled with 
water. These works were not terminated till 1713. By that 
time (especially during the negotiations for the Treaty of 
Utrecht) Antoine was in great danger of losing his in- 
dependence, for the Duke of Savoy energetically claimed 
the cession of Monaco. The King of France replied that 
he could not give what was not his ; but the old servitude 
in respect of Roccabruna and JNIentone, which Jean 
in a weak moment had foolishly ceded, was now revived. 
While INIonaco remained independent, on behalf of 
Mentone and Roccabruna Antoine was obliged to ac- 
knowledge the overlordship of the house of Savoy. 

Another source of grief was the absence of male issue. 
Antoine had only daughters, of whom three survived in 
1712. The eldest, Ijouise-Hippolyte, was but fifteen years 
old, and already the most distracting, underhand family 
intrigues were pursued with regard to her future husband. 
Antoine's brother, though a priest and the Abbd of 
INIonaco, was evidently quite willing to accept the succes- 
sion. Several betrothals were attempted, and through all 
these complications Antoine very wisely insisted that his 
daughter should not marry into a very exalted family, for 
fear the member of such a family should not willingly and 


sincerely renounce his own name to take the name and 
position of the chief of the Grimaldis. Finally, Princess 
Louise-Hippolyte married Jacques de Goyon JNIatignon, 
Comte de Thorigny, a member of one of the oldest families 
of Brittany. He was descended from the celebrated 
Marshal Jacques de JNIatignon, who at the time of the 
Massacre of Saint Bartholomew refused to carry out the 
orders he had received. He would not stain his hands by 
treacherously murdering his Protestant neighbours. Thus 
in the history of the princes of JNIonaco, as in so many 
other histories, we find that there are circumstances when 
the " don't shoot " policy can be carried out to the unani- 
mous approval of posterity. 

Prince Antoine I. died in 1713, and though he had 
suffered in his private capacity as a husband and a father 
he was an able politician, and had done much to make his 
people happy. He was also a patron of painting, and de- 
voted to music. He attracted artists to Monaco, and did 
his best to encourage refinement and culture. So great, 
however, was the spirit of intrigue at that time that when 
Louise-Hippolyte succeeded Antoine I., as Princess of 
Monaco, she had already been taught to look with jealousy 
upon her husband, and accused him of assuming more 
authority than was his right. However, this disagi-eement 
did not last long, for after a reign of only eleven months 
the princess contracted smallpox and died. Without the 
slightest opposition, her husband was recognised as reign- 
ing prince, under the title of Jacques L But his sister-in- 
law. Princess Isenghien, second daughter of Antoine I., 
did not fail to conspire against her dead sistei-'s husband. 
Her excuse was that the population would not be governed 
by a prince who had no Grimaldi blood in his veins. 
Prince Jacques met this objection by appointing the 
Chevalier de Grimaldi Governor of the Principality. The 
new governor was the natural son of Antoine L, and a 
man of exceptional ability. For half-a-century he managed 
the affairs of the principality to the satisfaction of all 


In 1733 Jacques I. abdicated in favour of his son, 
Honore III., though the latter was barely fourteen years 
old, but the Chevalier de Grimaldi kept a tight hold on 
the affairs of the principality during the prince's minority 
and his absence. In his younger days the prince was 
absent in the service of the French army, and once again 
we find the Grimaldis taking sword in hand to fight the 
English. It is extraordinary that the Grimaldis always 
contrived to take up arms against the English at the times 
when the English were particularly unfortunate. It some- 
how happened that when the fortunes of war changed, and 
the English were victorious, the Grimaldis were usually 
absent. The battle of Crecy was an exception to this rule, 
but at the battle of Fontenoy both Honore III. and his 
brother, Charles Maurice, Knight of Malta, fought with 
such distinction that Voltaire in his " Poeme de Fontenoy " 
wrote : 

"Monaco pcrd son sang et I' Amour en Soiipire." 

The English, though they had the Dutch, the Hano- 
verians and some Hungarians to help them, were defeated 
after a stubborn resistance. Charles Maurice of Monaco 
was wounded at Fontenoy. Later, at the battle of Rancoux, 
Prince Honors III. was wounded, and at Lawfeld his 
horse was killed under him. Honore HI. received the Cross 
of St Louis, and at the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, 
was promoted to the rank of Marshal. 

While these "wars were distracting the great powers, 
the Chevalier de IMonaco, who was practically ruling the 
little principality, managed to maintain its neutrality. 
Thus he impartially assisted both English and French 
ships when endangered by stress of weather or other 
causes. In 1747, nevertheless, after the battle of Gorbio 
and the occupation of the county of Nice by the allied 
Austrians and Sardinians, Monaco was blockaded by sea 
and by land. The surrounding country was devastated, 
especially by the Croatians, who formed part of the 
Austrian army. Fortunately, however, the victorious 


advance of the French in 1748 soon cleared the Riviera 
and restored peace. 

It was not till 1757 that Honore III. married 
Mademoiselle de Brignole, whose forefathers had been 
doges at Genoa. This family was very anxious to make 
it quite evident that they thought just as much of them- 
selves as any princely house. Therefore when Mademoiselle 
de Brignole arrived on board a ship in the port of Monaco, 
her mother insisted that the Prince of Monaco must come 
on the ship so as to conduct his bride to the shore. This, 
however, Honore III. conceived to be against princely 
etiquette. There was a painful scene, aggravated by the 
fact that a large portion of the bridal party were terribly 
seasick. Nevertheless the Genoese flotilla sailed away and 
anchored off Bordighera. Negotiations followed, and were 
continued for two days. At last the following compromise 
was effected. The bride should return to INlonaco. Prince 
Honore would not go on board to bring her to the shore : 
the bx'ide on her side refused to land alone. But a long 
wooden bridge should be thrown from the shore to the 
ship. The prince would go half way across this bridge. 
Mademoiselle de Brignole would cross it half way on her 
side, and the future husband and wife could thus meet in 
the middle. It could not be said, therefore, that either had 
made any concession to the other, and a perfect equality 
between them would be maintained. From this union was 
born, in 1768, the future Prince Honore IV. 

During the summer of 1767 the Duke of York, 
brother of King George III., was travelling by sea from 
Marseilles to Genoa, M^hen he was suddenly taken ill. As 
Monaco was near at hand the English ship, flying the 
Royal Standard and showing signals of distress, entered 
the port. Honore III. hastened to give every assistance, 
and placed his palace at the disposition of the Duke of 
York. After lingering eleven days, the duke died. 
According to the popular legend, a pleasure yacht fol- 
lowed the Duke of York's ship and anchored off the 
Pointe de la l^eille. A beautiful young woman came on 


shore and entered a cavern in the rock, and the yacht 
sailed away. The peasants declared that this fair form, 
draped in white, was seen daily sitting on the rock and 
gazing in the direction of the palace. When at last the 
duke died, and the Royal Standard flew half-mast high, 
the fair apparition plunged into the water, never to be seen 
again. After this the rock was considered to be haunted, 
and the peasants would make the sign of the cross when 
they passed near the fatal spot. 

George III. and his brother the Duke of Gloucester 
wrote and expressed great gratitude for the care Honore 
III. had taken of their brother during his last moments. 
The Duke of Gloucester sent Honore III. six magnificent 
horses which had belonged to the Duke of York, and 
George III. invited him to court. Accordingly, Honore 
III. went to London in 1768, and was received with great 
honours by King George. 

At first Honore III. lived happily with his proud 
Genoese wife, in spite of all the difficulties she had made 
with regard to her landing at Monaco. But the princess 
was twenty years younger than her husband, and was 
much courted and admired. Instead of meeting in Honord 
a friend and adviser, she found herself treated with 
suspicion and reserve. At last the young woman became 
weary, revolted and deliberately gave her husband good 
cause to demand a separation. Often victorious in war, the 
Grimaldis have not been as fortunate in their love affairs. 
The separation was pronounced in 1770. After the death 
of her husband, Catherine de Brignole married, dui'ing the 
emigration, the Prince de Conde. The very large fortune 
she had inherited from her family was swallowed up by 
the army Cond^ tried to form so as so invade his own 
country and chastise the French people for selecting a 
form of government of which he did not approve. This 
imfortunate woman died in England in 1813; she was 
then seventy-five years old. Her second husband, the Prince 
de Cond^,said that he could not afford to pay for her funeral. 
Tlie cost was defrayed by the Prince Regent, and the 


funeral took place at night, at the Catholic chapel near 
Wimbledon. When she was fifty-three years old Goethe 
had described her as young, animated and joyful. From 
her first husband her grandson Honor^ IV. married, as 
akeady explained, the only daughter of the Duke 
d'Aumont and (through her mother) became heir to the 
JNIazarin family. From this union were born Honore V. 
and Florestan I. 

During the reign of Honore III. efforts were made to 
encourage trade, especially the trade in lemons and citrons, 
which grew so plentifully on this coast. Later printing 
works were established, and the first newspaper, the 
Courrier de Monaco, was issued. The Chevalier de Grimaldi 
died in 1784, a severe loss for the prince and his people. 
Several distinguished men were born in the principality 
during this reign. Among others there was the composer 
Langld, the master of Dalayrac ; the celebrated sculptor 
Bosio, and his brother, a distinguished painter of historical 
scenes ; Alphonse de Beauchamp, contributor to Michaud's 
" Universal Biography " and author of a history of Vendee. 
The Vignali family, one of whose members went to 
America before 1538, also flourished at this time. In 1770 
a Vignali, whose master was the celebrated painter 
Raphael Mengs, won the prize of the French Academy 
of Painting. 



ON the principle, perhaps, of the calm before the 
storm, the reign of Honore III. was now so 
peaceful that it provides no material for comment. 
One matter, perhaps, should be mentioned. The Prince of 
Monaco took the initiative in bringing about the abolition 
of the droit (TAubaiiie, by which the sovereign receives the 
inheritance of any stranger dying on his lands. As there 
were many more French dying in Monaco than IMone- 
gasques dying in France this was a distinct loss to the 
prince, but he thought it a very inhuman practice, and at 
his request it was abolished by the Compiegne, the 18th 
of August 1770. The quietude now enjoyed continued 
until the fall of the Bastille (14th of July 1789); for 
Monaco did not escape the shock felt by the whole world. 
Here also the people proclaimed the Rights of Man. 
Tired of being subjects, they insisted on becoming citizens. 
They recalled the communal franchises enjoyed under the 
Genoese Republic ; and, France being evidently about 
to declare herself Republican, were ready to follow her 
example. In the thunder of acclaim that heralded the 
birth of Democracy, Monaco could not remain silent. 
Like her French neighbours she was at first anxious not 
to injure her prince. He might continue to dwell in the 
palace, preserve the outward forms, even act as the 
executive power ; but the policy to be followed, the laws 
to be enacted, must be decided by the duly elected 
representatives of a sovereign people. 

At first Honore III. felt it useless to attempt any 



resistance, and consented to allow Roccabruna, Mentone 
and Monaco to elect representative councils. But of more 
personal concern to the prince was the abolition by the 
French National Constituent Assembly of all the feudal 
rights and privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy. The 
concessions made to his ancestors by the Treaty of 
Peronne, the Dukedom of Valentinois and many other 
large and valuable estates conferred on the Grimaldis 
when they drove out the Spaniards and allied themselves 
to France, were all to be confiscated. Honore III., 
thoroughly alarmed by the progress of the French Revolu- 
tion, began to issue edicts to restrict the freedom he had 
accorded to his own people. Such reactionary measures, 
coming within a year of the concessions made, destroyed 
confidence, and thus the prince imprudently drove his 
people to extremities. Instead of remaining on the spot 
to weather the storm and attend to the welfare of the 
principality he started off to Paris in the hope of saving 
his private fortune. He pointed out to the National 
Constituent Assembly that the property he possessed was 
not the gift of some capricious sovereign, but a reward 
for the services, the very substantial services, rendered by 
the Grimaldis to the French nation. So well did Prince 
Honore establish his case that the Assembly decided | 

that a fund should be created to pay to the princes of 
Monaco, in consideration of the estates taken from them, 
an annual pension of 273,786 livres (i.e. francs.) 

Before this decision could be carried out came the 
10th of August, and the people's cannon, dragged to the 
Place du Carrousel, shattered the crown and carried 
Danton into power.^ On the following 22nd of September 
1792 the French Republic was proclaimed. In the midst 
of all this turmoil the public mind had not much 
attention to spare for Honore III. and the Grimaldi 
estates. Nevertheless , early in 1792, Honore III. obtained 
from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs a formal 

* J'ai ete porie au minislere par titi houlet de canon. Speech by Danton 
after the 1 0th August. 


declaration that the neutraUty of the principaUty would 
be respected. In practice, however, this proved but a 
pious wish. On the 1.5th of December 1792 the Con- 
vention, which now replaced the Constituent Assembly, 
decreed that when generals of the Republic entered a 
foreign territory they should establish free institutions 
on the French model. General Anselme having annexed 
Nice, the storm burst at Monaco. On the 13th of January 
1793 the Monegasque National Convention passed a 
decree dethroning Prince Honore. They then proceeded 
to ask General Brunet to forward to the French National 
Convention their petition, which set forth that the re- 
presentatives of the jNIonegasque people had unanimously 
v^oted in favour of incorporation with the Fiench Republic. 

On the of February 1793 Carnot presented to 
the Convention a report on the subject. In his speech 
Carnot acknowledged that the Prince of Monaco had 
always been a sincere friend and ally of France, and that, 
though now deprived of his prerogatives, he ought to 
obtain from the loyalty of the French people the protec- 
tion and personal security to which, as a simple citizen, 
he was entitled. The Convention voted on the morrow 
and on the following 4th of March. The commissioners 
for the county of Nice, Jagot and the Abbe Gi-egoire, 
went to Monaco to notify the decree. By this act the 
Monegasque convention was dissolved, and the ancient 
principality incorporated in the department of the Alpes- 
Maritimes. During the debates in the French Parliament 
on the claims of the Prince of INIonaco, M. Gombert, a 
depute of the Left, made a remark which Napoleon I. 
afterwards plagiarised when speaking of the Pope. Citizen 
Gombert said : '* It is quite certain that if Monsieur 
Monaco had two hundred thousand bayonets at his orders 
he would compel you to restore his property. If this be 
right, we must do it just as much as if he had the two 
hundred thousand bayonets." 

Nevertheless, though the French Republic accepted 
the free gift of the principality — which was renamed 


Fort Hercules — the prince was never paid the compensa- 
tion decreed. On the contrary, the prince's wife, having 
fled from France, her property, consisting principally of 
a splendid mansion in the rue Saint-Dominique, was 
confiscated. It was this house that was made by the 
Commune in January, 1798, the headquarters of the large 
contingent of German volunteers who preferred to fight 
for Republican principles rather than for their own country. 

On the 25th September 1793, at the height of the 
Terror, in spite of the money he had subscribed for 
patriotic purposes and the gift he had made of his horses 
to the Republican army, Prince Honored III. was arrested 
under the " Law of Suspects." Even the voice of Carnot 
failed to save him. All the members of the family in 
France were arrested. The prince's eldest son (the Duke 
of Valentinois, subsequently Honore IV.), who had never 
even left Paris, remained in prison fifteen months. At 
that time he was divorced from the Duchess of INIazarin, 
but she was also arrested and taken to the Convent des 
Aiiglaiscs. Dr Desormeaux, the family physician of the 
Grimaldis, at great peril, managed to secure an order for 
release and to remove her from the prison. He further 
contrived to conceal her and her son Florestan. 

Joseph, the other son of Honor^ III., had married, 
in 1782, Fran9oise-Therese de Choiseul-Stainville, who is 
described as a very charming woman. Early in the Revolu- 
tion they sought security abroad, having confided their 
children to a person on whom they could rely. But 
long absence proved unendurable to the fond mother, and 
she returned to France to see her two daughters. At once 
arrested as a " suspect," she was promptly condemned to 
death for being a " declared enemy of the people ; for 
having relations with the emigrants and communications 
^vith the enemies of the Republic ; for supplying them 
with help and preparing, in complicity with tyrants of 
all sorts, criminal manoeuvres having as their object the 
abolition of the national representation and the restoration 
of tyranny. " 





After her condemnation the princess announced that 
she was expecting to give birth to a child ; her execution 
was therefore postponed. She then asked to see Fouquet- 
Tinville, the Attorney-General of the Revolutionary 
Tribunal. Pending his reply, she cut off her beautiful fair 
hair with a piece of broken glass, as a keepsake for her 
children. She then wrote to Fouquet-Tinville a second 
letter, which I venture to translate : 

" I warn you, citizen, that I am not enceinte and 
wished to inform you of this fact personally. As I no 
longer hope you will come, I write. I did not befoul my 
mouth with this lie because I feared or wished to avoid 
death. I only desired to live one day more so as to have 
time to cut off my hair myself and avoid giving it to the 
executioner. It is the only legacy I can leave to my 
children and this at least must be pure. 

"Signed: Choiseul-Stainviixe, Joseph Grimaldi- 
MoNACO, a foreign princess dying through the injustice of 
French judges." 

On the same day the order for her execution reached 
the prison. The princess asked for a little rouge, as she did 
not wish to look pale during the dismal ride in the tumbril. 
When guillotined the princess had not yet reached her 
twenty-seventh birthday. 

Though most of the " suspects " were released after 
Thermidor, Honored, as the father of an " emigrant," was 
still detained, and did not recover his liberty till the 5th 
of October 1794. Broken with age, infirmities and the 
hardships of his long incarceration, Honore died six 
months later in his house in the rue de Varennes. 

While the Grimaldis thus suffered, the people of 
Monaco were enjoying comparative quiet and peace. 
There were no acts of violence, no attempts to persecute 
" suspects " at Monaco. But if persons were respected, 
property did not fare so well. The prince's palace was 
sequestrated, and at first the work proceeded with some 


order and system, an inventory being taken : but disorder 
and pillage followed, and the sumptuous furniture and 
treasures of art were scattered about, or sold for a trifle. 
At last this havoc was stopped and what remained stored 
in the chapel of the palace. The building itself was 
converted into a hospital, and received the sick and 
wounded from the republican armies in Italy. General 
Bonaparte had his headquarters for some time at Nice, and 
slept near Roccabruna on his way to Italy. Still, though 
war was general over Europe, it was not until the year 
1800 that Monaco was directly involved. 

A large quantity of ammunition had been gathered 
in the ancient fortress, but no troops were left to guard 
it. Consequently, on the 23rd of May 1800, an English 
frigate surprised the town. A landing party proceeded to 
seize all ammunition and carried off a few cannon. The 
unarmed townspeople could offer no resistance, and some 
were even forced to help in carrying powder casks to the 
ship. So carelessly was this done that a large quantity of 
powder was spilt on the road. But if there were no French 
troops at Monaco, there was a garrison at La Turbie, 
which did not fail to hasten down on perceiving an English 
ship in the harbour. As there were also French garrisons 
at Nice and Villefranche, the small English landing party 
could not have held out against them. It therefore retired 
to the ship. Irritated at being interrupted before they had 
collected all the spoils, the retreating English, it is sup- 
posed, set fire to the train of spilt powder. We must 
hope that this was ignited by accident, and not through 
any unworthy feeling of malice. However this may be, 
the flame followed the course of the spilt powder and 
reached the magazine. A frightful explosion ensued, 
resulting in the useless, cruel death of a number of women 
and children who had been attracted by curiosity to the 
spot. This was the last act of war taking place at ftlonaco. 
AVhen the English attacked Bordighera, in 1813, the 
National Guard of Monaco were mobilised, but nothing 
occurred. The most important event at this period affecting 


the fortunes of the principality was the construction of 
the celebrated Corniche road. Napoleon had insisted on 
a good thoroughfare to Italy, but the constructor had 
a wholesome fear of English frigates. The road therefore 
was built at a great height and some distance from the 
sea. Villefranche and INlonaco were left in isolation, the 
way approaching the Mentone side of the principality. 
The work was begun in 1808, and terminated in April 
1812. A ledge on the side of the mountains, sometimes 
cut in the solid rock, this wonderful and picturesque 
highway unites Nice with Genoa. As Antoine I. had built 
in 1720 a road from INlonaco to Mentone, the Monegasque 
road was now joined to the great international Corniche 
road just above Cap JNIartin. 

While the principality enjoyed comparative quiet, the 
Grimaldis found themselves reduced to the greatest straits. 
In vain they claimed the restitution of at least some part 
of their property : it was only after negotiations that 
lasted seven years that some small fragments were restored 
to the Duke of Valentinois and his brother Joseph. The 
latter had succeeded in procuring the omission of his name 
from the list of " einigrants " on the 10th Fructidor, year 
X., and under the Consulate and the Empire both Honore 
and Joseph might have obtained good posts. Honore, 
however, was suffering from a serious illness which com- 
pelled him to live in the quietest manner. Napoleon, now 
anxious to rally to his new regime persons of good family, 
offered .loseph Grimaldi a commission in the Imperial 
Guard. Rising quickly in favour, he became chamberlain 
to the Empress Josephine, and was known at the Imperial 
court as Monsieur de Monaco. 

While the Duke of Valentinois was too ill to partici- 
pate in current events, his eldest son, Honore-Gabriel, born 
in 1778, enlisted at the age of twenty in a cavalry regi- 
ment. On the 13th Germinal, year VIII., he was 
promoted from the ranks to the position of sub-lieutenant ; 
thus, like a true soldier, working his way up by the force 
of personal merit. Soon he was attached to the staff" of 


General Grouchy and honourably mentioned for his 
conduct at the brilliant victory of Hohenlinden, where he 
was wounded in the arm. The wound prevented his par- 
ticipation in the campaign of Austerlitz, but, attached to 
Murat's cavalry corps, he rendered eminent service in 
following up the victories of Jena and Auestaerdt. 
Grouchy describes how "J/ort aide-dr-camp Monaco," with 
a handful of cavalry, forced an entire battalion to surrender; 
and proposes that he should receive the star of the Legion 
of Honour and the rank of Captain. These and many other 
honours and rewards he did receive. The uncle of Honore, 
Prince Joseph, on his side deserves great credit, for he re- 
fused to leave the service of the Empress Josephine. When 
she was divorced Napoleon wished to attach him to the 
person of the new empress, Louise, but Prince Joseph refused 
the honour and remained devoted to Josephine till her death. 
The day of reaction was now at hand. The White 
Terror, which for cruelty, injustice, oppression was soon 
to earn a reputation as sinister as that of the Red Terror, 
had begun ; but as its victims were drawn from the poorer 
section of the community less is said about it. By the 
White Terror the ci-devant owners of titles and privileges 
hoped to recover their lost property. They did not wholly 
succeed, but the Grimaldis were restored, not to their 
French estates, but to the principality of IVlonaco. When, 
in 1814, Louis XVIII. was placed on the throne of 
France by foreign bayonets, the powers assembled to 
parcel out Europe in such a manner as to efface, within 
the limits of the possible, what the French Revolution and 
the Empire had done. In fear of their lives, the people 
began to wear white cockades : but at Monaco, where no 
one had been victimised by the Red Terror, the people 
were much more afraid of being annexed by Sardinia. 
Therefore they did not hesitate to add red to their white 
cockades ; and white and red are the colours of the 
Monegasque flag. Now that France was no longer a 
republic the people of Monaco demanded that their 
ancient independence should be restored. 


Sardinia in the remodelling of the map of Europe 
was to receive the county of Nice, and this would doubt- 
less have included Monaco but for the fact tliTjt Talley- 
rand was a personal friend of the Grimaldis. Perhaps for 
this reason, perhaps because he thought Monaco might 
serve as a wedge in the side of Italy, he wrote in pencil 
on the margin of a draft project, that ultimately became 
the Treaty of Paris, the words " and the Prince of Monaco 
will be restored to his State " {"■renti'e7-a da?is ses Etats"). 
In the treaty signed in May 1814 these words appear 
in Paragraph 8 : " which renounces all French authority 
over or possession of the county of Nice," and ends by 
saying: "the Principality of Alonaco being, however, 
replaced in the position and relationships in which it foimd 
itself before the 1st of January 1792." This was equivalent 
to restoring the stipulations of the Treaty of Peronne, and 
now, after twenty-two years of exile, the Grimaldis were 
free to return to their principality. But Honore IV. was 
too old and too ill to assume the cares of state, so he 
appointed his brother, Joseph, to reign in his stead. Joseph, 
however, lingered in Paris, and M. de Millo-Terrazzani 
acted as governor in his absence. In the meanwhile the 
son of Honor^ IV. protested against the appointment of 
his uncle. After a family dispute Joseph withdrew, and 
Honore IV. delegated his son, Honore-Gabriel, who had 
so greatly distinguished himself in the Imperial army, to 
reign over the principality. 

Shortly after he left Cannes the post-chaise of the 
hereditary prince was stopped by some soldiers, among 
whom Prince Honore-Gabriel recognised General Cam- 
bronne. The prince was conducted to an olive grove, and 
there confronted with Napoleon, who had just escaped 
from the island of Elba. The interview was cordial. 
" Where are you going ? " inquired the Emperor. " I am 
going home to Monaco," replied the prince. " And so am 
I," said the Emperor — " home to the Tuileries." They 
went, but the prince remained longer at home than did 


As Saige in his history puts it : " The disaster of 
Waterloo followed and then a new treaty, in virtue of 
which France was made to expiate by further losses 
of territory the heroic folly of the Hundred Days." 
Sardinia of course claimed her share of this definite victory 
of the Allies. The Treaty of \^ienna (20th November 1815) 
says in the Fourth Section of its First Article : " The rela- 
tions re-established by the Treaty of Paris of the 30th of May 
1814, between France and the Principality of Monaco, will 
cease finally," and : •' These same relations shall exist be- 
tween this Principality and the King of Sardinia." During 
three centuries, the princes of Monaco, to maintain the inde- 
pendence of their state, had of their own free will invited 
the protection, first of Spain, then of France. Now Europe, 
without consulting them, forced upon them the protection 
of their old enemy, Sardinia. This put an end to the free 
trade with France which had been so advantageous to 
the principality ; and its reigning princes, ruined by the 
French Revolution, could no longer enrich the state by 
their prodigality. 

Honore-Gabriel went to Turin in the hope of obtain- 
ing favourable commercial conditions. He was received 
with great honour, but nothing else was done for him. 
On the contrary, he was forced to promise the abolition 
of the tobacco manufactory which Honore HI. had 
established in Monaco. This was an important source of 
local revenue. Other conditions were imposed by Sardinia, 
all tending to impoverish the Monegasques. Yet at the 
same time the prince claimed a civil list of £12,000, 
three times as much as Honore HI. had obtained from 
his states. To produce this sum Honore-Gabriel imposed 
numerous taxes, and this in a most reckless and injudicious 
manner. He created undesirable monopolies, among them 
a flour monopoly, with the result that only very bad and 
very dear bread could be obtained in Monaco. And to 
those who endeavoured to represent to him how much 
harm he was doing he made himself so unpleasant that 
no one ventured to tell him the truth. 


In 1819 Honore IV. died, and Honore-Gabriel — now 
known as Honore V. — continued in his own name the 
same methods of gov^ernment as he had practised during 
the previous four years in his father's name. After 
Waterloo and the Treaty of Vienna, all that was liberal, 
democratic or advanced seemed to be crushed and anni- 
hilated. The cause of reaction appeared to triumph in all 
directions. Yet in the most unlikely country demo- 
cratic ideas suddenly rose to the surface. The example 
was set by the Cortes of Spain, and in Naples and in 
Piedmont were heard riotous demands for constitutional 
and liberal government. Ground down by over-taxation, 
the Monegasques now thought of revolting. The rising, 
however, was so promptly suppressed by the Sardin- 
ian authorities that Honore V. was lulled into a false 

It would be interesting to study in detail the reign of 
Honore V. He is one of the best-abused princes that ever 
reigned over the principality. His manners were against 
him ; but perhaps his chief fault was that of being in 
advance of his age. Practically, his policy consisted of 
supplementing the lack of State revenues by the organisa- 
tion of State industries. He attempted to establish a lace 
factory and a workshop for straw-plaiting and hat-making. 
He studied deeply the condition of the poor, recognised 
that they had the right to beg and claimed freedom for 
the pauper, more sinned against than sinning. He urged 
that begging must be abolished by providing beggars with 
useful productive employment, and that, above all, they 
should be set to work on the land. It was cruel, he 
thought, to imprison beggars in mendicity depots : they 
should be grouped in free and fruitful co-operative associa- 
tions. In a word, it strikes me forcibly that Honored V. 
was a State socialist, or at any rate a gas-and-water, 
municipal-enterprise socialist, and that to-day his views 
would have been better appreciated. He died in 1841, by 
which time he had become extremely unpopular, and left 
behind him only the memory of what are characterised 


as tyrannical institutions. Yet Saige writes his epitaph as 
follows : — " Here lies one who wished to do good." ^ 

Honor^ V. had no children, and/ much against his 
inclination, his brother Florestan was obliged to assume 
the task of governing an over-taxed and dissatisfied people. 
His position was the more difficult as he found only passive 
agents : no one was capable of making a suggestion. He 
attempted to promote better education, started higher 
schools and founded asylums for the poor, endeavouring 
to provide free work and free feeding. But he made 
himself xmpopular by restricting free teaching. With 1848 
the approach of the revolutionary movement increased his 
alarm, and Florestan sought the protection of Sardinian 
troops, thus sapping his own independence. As usual in 
such cases, concessions were made to popular clamour 
when the agitation had become too great to be pacified by 
such means. All this time the Sardinians were stimulating 
the dissatisfaction in the hope of ultimately seizing the 
principality for themselves. Indeed, the Sardinian troops 
openly encouraged the manifestations which it was their 
business to suppress. Then, as Charles- Albert, the new 
King of Sardinia, had granted some liberal reforms to his 
own people, the inhabitants of the principality began to 
think they might be better off if annexed by Sardinia. 
Skilful agents in the principality fanned the discontent 
and turned the minds of the people towards Sardinia as a 
possible saviour. 

Florestan, now assisted by his son. Prince Charles, 
worked, negotiated, made promises, changed his mind, 
contradicted himself and, in short, sought a solution in 
all directions. Finally, when Sardinia sent troops under 
General Gonnet to protect Florestan they were met with 
cheers for their country and their king. Soldiers and 
people fraternised. And now, to make matters worse, the 
Revolution broke out in Paris. Charles-Albert with his 
constitution was perhaps the only popular king in Europe 
at that time. Mentone and Roccabruna formed a National 

' " Ci git qui voulut faire le bien." 



Guard ; hoisted the Sardinian flag ; claimed and obtained 
the protection of Charles- Albert. The Sardinian garrison 
returned. By 5(58 votes for and none against Sardinia 
was requested to annex jNIentone and Roccabruna. The 
absence of any opposition suggests that the vote was not 
sincere. Doubtless Sardinia would now have annexed the 
entire principality but for the defeat of the Sardinians by 
the Austrians at the battle of Novare in 1849. Besides, 
there were some protests from France. Therefore Mentone 
and Roccabruna were constituted free towns, and at 
Monaco hopes were still entertained that they would 
return to their allegiance to the Grimaldis. Indeed, in 1854, 
Prince Charles of Monaco went to Mentone, in the 
expectation that the people, having by that time acquired 
some experience of Sardinian protection, would rise in his 
favour. Though at first acclaimed, he did not receive 
sufficient support, and was arrested. 

Through French intervention Prince Charles was 
released, and perhaps more would have been done by 
Napoleon III. for Monaco had not Sardinia joined the 
Allies in the Crimean war. In April 1856, at the 
Congress of Paris, when M. de Cavour complained 
that a part of the Roman states was occupied by 
Austrian troops, M. de Hubner retorted that the 
Italians were occupying Mentone and Roccabruna. The 
Sardinian plenipotentiary therefore declared that the 
Italians were ready to withdraw from the Monegasque 
principality. The insertion of this statement in the official 
minutes did not, however, make any alteration in the 
actual situation, and the Sardinians remained in virtual 

During the same year Florestan I. died. He was 
succeeded by his son, Charles III., at that time thirty- 
seven years old. He seems from the first to have governed 
with a firmer hand and to have kept the Sardinians in 
their place. The whole question, however, was soon to 
be definitely settled as one of the consequences of the 
war waged by France against Austria on behalf of Italy. 


By the Treaty of Turin (24th March 1860), Italy made 
over Nice and Savoy to France. Thus Monaco auto- 
matically returned to French protection. The Sardinian 
garrison was obliged to evacuate the principality. 
Negotiations were at once opened ; and, the population 
of Mentone and Roccabruna having voted by a large 
majority in favour of union with France, Charles III. 
gave up his rights over these towns on the 2nd of 
February 1861. The French Government on its side 
paid Prince Charles an indemnity of £160,000. Thus 
the principality was reduced to one-fifth of its former size. 
In such circumstances Prince Charles could not hope 
to play such a part in European affairs as his ancestors 
had done on more than one occasion. Some other form of 
activity must be devised, and soon he discovered that the 
future of the principality depended upon its development 
as a pleasure and health resort. With this ends the past 
history of the principality, and we reach its modern life 
and resources. But before closing this page of history 
I would summarise the last two reigns by translating 
a scene from Victorien Sardou's celebrated play 
Rabagas. Making allowance for literary licence this 
play is wonderfully true to life, and most of the incidents 
mentioned historical. The humorous manner of their 
presentation brings home the situation more graphically 
than do the solemn pages of ponderous historical works. 
The version before me is that of the Sixth Edition, 
published in 1872 (page 27). 


No ; on the contrary, let us talk about it. Is it then 
so very complicated, the government of Monaco ? 

The Prince 

Oh, it is on the contrary, simplicity itself. No Ministry, 
no House of Parliament ! AH the civil and military 
administration is in the hand of a Governor, who is the 
chief of the Cabinet, and indeed the Cabinet itself. And 


above this Governor there is myself — that is to say, 
I am an unfortunate little sovereign crushed between two 
big neighbours wlio only hesitate as to the sauce with 
which thejf shall devour me . . . but my safety being 
thus guaranteed, by this mutual gluttony, I can remain 

That's good. 

The Prince 

f Only, I am forced by the treaty of 1817 to tolerate 
a Sardinian garrison at Alentone — which protects me ! 


Well ? 

The Prince 

Till the first riot occurs — then it will support the 

Oh ! for shame ! 

The Prince 

That is all. It is quite an established order of things. 
You will see. I succeed my brother, Honor^ V., and arrive 
here bubbling over with ideas of liberty, of progress, of 
reforms ! 


The Prince 

And I begin with the monacos. You have doubtless 
heard about the monacos ? 


Yes ; copper coins. 

The Prince 
The pennies. 


Why yes, while I was still a little girl, nobody would 
have them. 


The Prince 

That's it. But please note that these coins were worth 
quite as much as any other coins. But the French are 
terrible people. The first Frenchman asked to accept 
Monaco money burst out laughing, and all the others 
have laughed in chorus ever since. So all our copper coins 
are coming back to us bearing a vague odour of false 
coinage. You must understand that such a 


Yes, of course, it does not add to the prestige of the 

The Prince 

I suppressed the monacos. Then came the bread 
monopoly, etc., etc. In short, the more 1 improved and 
perfected, the more the people grumbled. 



The Prince 

But I held my ground till the unfortunate olive 


Olives ! 

The Prince 

Yes. I ask your pardon, I am worrying you with my 
little troubles. 


Oh no ! Oh no ! Please continue. This local cooking 
and gossip is very interesting. We had got to the olives. 

The Prince 

Well, then, the olives ; or, to speak more accurately, 
the olive oil, which is the wealth of this country. But we 
make it so badly, with such antique methods, that it is 
not as good as the oil of Provence. So I import two 

AN OLD sri<i:i;T in month cahi.o 


admirable English oil-mills and invite my subjects to 
send me their olives to grind. At once I am accused of 
an arbitrary proceeding. Therefore I buy the olives and 
convert them into oil myself. Then the cry is raised that 
I am creating a monopoly. I suppress the mills and 
restore everything to its pristine state : I am accused 
of encouraging stagnation and routine. 

Oh ! Oh ! 

The Prince 

So I give up the idea of realising industrial reforms. 

I quite believe you. 

The Pkince {siandhig) 

And from that day begins between my subjects and 
myself a sullen struggle that has slowly developed into 
a state of ferocious hostility. 

Eva {standing) 
Ferocious ? 

The Prince 

You have certainly seen unhappy unions in which 
whatever the one does the other is sure to find fault with. 
^Vell, the one is myself and the other is my people. 
All my acts are criticised, misrepresented and travestied 
with skill and art ! Take a few examples. I go for a 
walk : it is found that I have a lot of time to idle away. 
1 do not go for a walk : then I am afraid of sliowing 
myself. I give a ball : I am accused of wild extravagance. 
1 do not give a ball : 1 am meanly avaricious. I hold 
a review : I am attempting military intimidation. I do 
not hold a review : I am evidently afraid, and cannot 
trust the troops. Some fireworks are let off on my birth- 
day : 1 am wasting the people's money in smoke. I 
suppress the fireworks : then I do nothing for the 



amusement of the people. I am in good health : that is 
because I am so idle and take so little trouble over public 
matters. I am in bad health : that is the result of 
debauchery. I build — wastefulness. I do not build — then 
what about the working classes ? In fact, I am no longer 
able to eat, sleep or keep awake as I may think fit. Every- 
thing I do must be proclaimed as detestable, and all that 
I do not do gives even greater offence. 


But that is not a life. 




PRINCE ALBERT I. was born on the 13th of 
November 1848, and is therefore old enough to re- 
member something of those dark days when his family 
had to endure many Iiardships and poverty. During the year 
of his birth INIentone and Roccabruna revolted against 
Prince Florestan I., his grandfather, and declared their in- 
dependence. Eight years later Florestan I. died, and Prince 
Albert I. has not forgotten the funeral. This fact, of no 
particular importance in itself, I ascertained when an 
occasion occurred for showing the prince the following 
interesting extracts concerning his family. They are taken 
from the " Recollections of a Parisian," by Dr Poumies 
de la Siboutie (John Murray, 1911) : — 

"June 11th, 1856. — I spent a portion of to-day with 
Florestan I., Prince of Monaco, who has been my 
dear friend for the past forty years. His wife and mine 
were at school together, and have always kept up their 
old intimacy. 

" I fear the poor prince is very ill, and cannot live much 
longer. He said to me : — ' I loathe the title of Prince. I 
have forbidden its use in my household and among my 
friends. Many absurd stories have been told about me. 
They say I was a " super " at a theatre, which is partly 
true and partly false ; I had theatrical employment for 
four years, but only appeared in minor parts. I was 
successively at the Theatre de la Cite, the Theatre du 
Mai-ais and the Ai/itjig-u. We played all kinds of pieces ; 
classical, modern, melodrama, light comedy. I used to 

H 113 



play young lovers and was a favourite with audiences ; 
they liked my voice and cultured intonation. I could 
make my points good, and above all I looked a gentleman. 
I played under my own name of Florestan ; you will find 
it in old playbills, also in the newspapers of the day. I 
had a great many favourable notices. JNIy passion for 
theatrical mattei's has never died out. I would have a 
theatre of my own to-morrow, but for the determined 
opposition of my family. I have been brought into contact 
with leading actors of the day and have enjoyed familiar 
friendship with them. There are no better fellows any- 
where, nor cheerier company. I have written a great deal, 
memoirs, comedies, verses, travels, etc. — but somehow I 
have never published. After my death my successors may 
do what they like with the stuff. I am quite indifferent.' 
" These things were said at odd times when the subjects 
concerned came up in conversation." 

" Wednesday, June 25th. — I attended the funeral of 
Florestan I. to-day. The chief mourners were his son 

Charles and a little grandson who clung to his father's | 

hand. People are gossiping because the Icttres de j'aire j[ 

pm-t are written in the names of these two only, ignoring ^ 

the three ladies of the family." * 

The little grandson who clung to his father's hand 
was the present ruling Prince of JNlonaco ; and Prince 
Albert said he still remembered the scene, though rather 
vaguely. The other details he had no doubt were true, and 
read them Avith much interest. They were new to him, 
the prince explained, because in his young days it was 
the fashion not to speak of having to earn one's living. 
It was considered a humiliation to be forced to work. 
Therefore he was never told that his grandfather had 
been an actor, but he knew he had a good deal to do with 
the stage, and the family still possessed many portraits 
collected by Prince Florestan of great actors. Prince 
Albert remembered notably a fine picture of Talma. 


Though the account of his gi-andfather's acting was new 
to him he had no doubt as to its accuracy, for when driven 
out of ^lonaco by the Revokition, and after the confiscation 
of all their estates, several members of his family had to 
work for their living. He was proud to think they had so 
far succeeded, so as to be able to give their children a good 

The harshness of this past experience must of course 
have affected Prince Charles III. much more deeply than 
Albert I., as he lived nearer to the great i-evolutionary 
upheaval. Then, as it all terminated in the reduction of 
the principality to one-fifth its former size, it may well 
be understood that Charles Til. was driven to accept 
counsels of despair. Now that the greater part of the 
lemon and olive groves of the principality were handed 
over to France it might well be said : 

" Monaco io sono 
lln scoglio 
Del raio non ho 
Quelle d'altrui non toglio 
Pur viver voglio." 

Which may be translated : 

" I am Monaco, a stray rock. 
I do not produce anything, 
I do not plunder the good of others, 
And yet I intend to live." 

Never has a determination been more successfully 
accomplished. Monaco, with its five square miles of 
territory, had now become the smallest of the remaining 
very little, though independent, states. The grand duchy 
of Luxemburg has 1000 square miles ; the republic 
of jVndorra in the Pyrenees measures 175 square miles ; 
Liechtenstein, which both Germany and Austria have 
agreed to respect, covers 90 square miles ; and the 
republic of San Marino, established sixteen hundred 
years ago in the north-east of Italy, has only 30 


square miles. Tlius JNIonaco, with but fiv^e square miles, is 
far and away the smallest of them all. Nevertheless it has 
so managed its affairs that it has outstepped every other 
country, large or small, in the rapid acquisition of wealth. 
In proportion to its native population, no other nation 
possesses such revenues, nor can any country dispense 
with taxation. Yet within living memory great poverty 
prevailed. On the wild promontory of Spelugnes — a word 
that means caves used for burial purposes, but which has 
now been converted into JNIonte Carlo — shepherds 
conducted flocks to graze on wild herbs. In the Condamine 
flowers were grown principally for Mr Rimmel, whose 
very name smells sweet to the London frequenter of the 
Strand. Beautiful fruits grew readily, but there was no 
direct carriage road to Nice and no cheap means of 
exporting what could be grown. 

Under such circumstances, it is not surprising if 
Charles III. was attracted by the increasing prosperity of 
the landgraviate of Hesse-Horaburg, a small principality 
like his own. Before JNlonsieur Fran(,'ois Blanc appeared 
on the scene, members of the court at Monaco had 
marvelled at the untold gold that came from all parts of 
the world to be thrown on the tables at Wiesbaden and 
Baden-Baden. But there were valuable mineral springs at 
Baden-Baden, Wiesbaden and Homburg ; many invalids 
derived benefit from them, and this was a sufficient 
pretext to build casinos, with their accompaniment of 
amusements and their source of revenue, the roulette and 
trente-et-quarante tables. 

At Monaco there were no valuable mineral springs. 
On the other hand there was the marvellous climate and 
most beautiful scenery. Not far ofl^, at Cannes, Lord 
Brougham had taught the highest classes of English 
society to appreciate the advantages of wintering on the 
Riviera. Also to escape the rigour of the Northern winter 
was thought, in those days, one of the most efficient 
means of checking the development of pulmonary 
tuberculosis. But at Nice, Cannes, Hyeres and Mentone 



there was no seaport, nothing to compare with the Port 
of Hercules at Monaco, wliere hohday people and patients 
could bathe in all security. The port terminated in a beauti- 
ful shallow sandy beach, though very deep at its entrance. 
Here in the olden days the galley safely grounded on the 
soft shore ; and it must have been admirably suited lor 
bathing when in the Condamine there were only gardens 
and no sewers to empty into the port. 

Therefore, in the days of Charles HI., it was thought 
that such sea-baths, combined with chalybeate waters, to 
be found in the immediate neighbourhood, would have an 
excellent effect in the treatment of various forms of bone 
disease. But just as Homburg remained, practically 
speaking, imknown and unfrequented till the enterprise 
of M. Francois Blanc made it a resort of world-wide fame, 
so also INIonaco, in spite of its brilliant sunshine, might 
contiiuie to remain in the shade. JSl. Henri JNletivier, who 
may be described as the Court Historian, gives some 
account of the attitude of Prince Chai'les at that time, 
and of the arguments which were then considered accept- 
able. On page 298, vol. ii., he says : 

" It seems therefore that Nature had herself indicated 
what the principality of Monaco should henceforth 
become. This the prince undei'stood. In 185G he gave a 
concession to a joint stock company granting to them the 
privilege of establishing a sea-bathing station with all the 
accessories, among which would be a casino with a lessee 
for games analogous to those of Germany. 

"As a matter of principle, we do not approve of 
gaming houses, and the governments who suppress them 
act wisely. Established in large centres of population, they 
constitute a permanent excitement, stimulating the spirit 
of cupidity, and bring about the demoralisation and ruin of 
the unfortunate people who, attracted by the false hope of 
gain, press passionately round the green baize. But when 
such games are established a long way from the large 
towns, and when the distance is such that the cost of the 


journey can only be met by rich foreigners, one may 
accord them the benefit of extenuating circumstances, for 
they do bring an element of prosperity amid the native 
population, who are themselves severely excluded from 
the gaming saloons. Such are the conditions enforced at 
Monaco ; everything is so arranged as to safeguard the 
morals and the money of the inhabitants, while conferring 
on them the material advantages resulting from the 
sojourn in their midst of numerous tourists." 

Such already was the frame of mind of the Govern- 
ment a few years before M. Francois Blanc appeared upon 
the scene. It is not surprising therefore if he readily 
obtained the concession for which he was prepared to pay 
handsomely. Nor is it strange that he so improved the 
place as to render some of the above arguments no longer 
applicable ; for to-day it is the great number of cheap 
trippers rather than the few very rich visitors who provide 
the largest source of revenue. The improvement, though 
some may challenge the word, was also so rapid that it 
may well be compared with the mushroom growth of 
cities in the middle or far west of the United States. 
Thus the Rey family was easily able to buy up all the 
Condamine during the Revolution, and subsequently sold 
it to a M. Arnoux, wine merchant from Marseilles. How 
little value was attached to this land may be gathered 
from the fact that M. Arnoux had much difficulty in 
selling a villa and 106,000 square metres, or about 1*27,200 
square yards, of gardens for £2520. In the whole of the 
Condamine, and up to the year 1868, there existed only 
three or four dwellings. Yet ten years later we already 
read that a beautiful aveiuie of trees had been replaced by 
a street of twenty houses, that there were actually some 
gas lamps, and so many villas, and even shops and cafes, 
that people began to talk of the gardens of the Con- 
damine as a " centre," or a town. The land of the whole 
district, with its violets, which Rimmel farmed out for 
£1000 a year, was estimated in 1858 as worth about 


c t 

< w 


V) E 

fcj c 


£20,000. Twenty years later its value had increased to 

Of course this great change was brought about not 
only by M. Fran9ois Blanc and his casino, but by the 
building of a main line of railway which, running from 
Marseilles to Genoa, passed straight through the princi- 
pality. What this meant is graphically depicted in the 
Animaire or official annual register of the principality 
for the year 1878. The passage appears on page 134 : 

" The intelligent barbarians who failed to respect the 
beautiful trees of the Condamine were not likely to stop 
even before the vale of St Devote, this marvel of the 
picturesque. Over this small but incomparable site the 
railway — another diabolical invention — has built an im- 
pertinent viaduct. Then a speculator came to trouble the 
repose of this asylum. AVithout a tinge of remorse he has 
bought a piece of the rock and promptly built a pretty 
villa on it which he called Colomhe (dove), probably 
thinking he would thereby appease the saint. Then without 
acknowledging the necessity of any sort of restraint he 
built two cottages and a large hotel in the immediate 
neighbourhood. The ground on which he raised all these 
constructions had not cost him more than £48, but the 
Paris-Lyon and Mediterranean Co. wanted a very small 
portion and he sold it to them for £2800." 

Of Monte Carlo more wonderful stories are told. It 
was in 18G0 that the first attempts were made to build a 
casino on the Spdiugnes, some land having been bought 
there by the promoters for a very small price from Count 
Rey. In the hope of inducing people to live on this desert, 
free gifts of land were offered to those who undertook to 
build on such land. Nevertheless many refused to take for 
nothing land which to-day is as valuable as that of Bond 
Street, or of the Boulevards des Italiens. In 1863 M. 
Blanc acquired the property and rights of the previous 
casino companies. M. Marie de Saint-Germain, who 


established himself for his health at Monaco in 1860, and 
was a witness of the transformation scene, wrote in 1875 : 

" That which was most arid has become fertile, the 
desert is peopled, the bare rock has become an immense 
bouquet. Civilisation with all its luxuries has embellished 
this solitude. Large avenues bordered with green trees 
and white houses stretch forth in all directions over this 
superb tableland ; veritablj^ a green jewel held tightly in 
a frame of mountains." 

Whether such rapid and mighty changes have proved 
an unmixed blessing may well be considered more than 
doubtful. Speaking to some of the oldest inhabitants, I 
found they constantly expressed regret, and were fond of 
denouncing modern extravagances and follies. Com- 
mandant Castaldi, who belonged to one of the oldest 
families of the principality, told me how he remembered 
when all the country around was devoted to the cultiva- 
tion of flowers for the scent factories and not for ornament. 
Before that, lemons and olives were the chief source of 
revenue. " How beautiful it was in those days," said the old 
Monegasque ; " a dream that no young person can possibly 
imagine." In April anybody who was not accustomed to 
the place would draw back if he approached too near the 
gardens of the Condamine. The odour of the flowers would 
overcome him. There were the orange blossoms especially. 
They were not cultivated for the oranges, but the essence 
the neroli used as scent or to drink as orange flower 
water. In the month of May the young girls and boys 
went out into the country to collect vast quantities of 
flowers and make hoops and garlands with them. Then 
they danced and sang within a framework of flowers. 
This lasted all the month of ]\Iay. It was poetical, pretty ; 
there was real luxury of colour, perfume, beauty, yet it 
did not cost anything unless it were a few pence to buy 
string to tie up the flowers. 

The children had no money, but each season had its 


games, and nature supplied the toys. There was so much 
fruit that everyone could make his own jam and have 
plenty of fruit remaining to feed even the cattle. Fruits 
only cost the trouble of picking them, lioatmen would 
come from Nice and pay not more than five or six francs 
to have their boats filled with fruit. It was the labour of 
bringing the fruit rather than its value they paid for. One 
of the most popular games for the children was to play 
with fruit stones and almonds. They would shake the trees 
and stamp on the fruit for the sake of the stones. Even 
luscious peaches were treated in this way. The stones could 
keep, were easily packed on mules or donkeys, and be 
driven over to Nice, where they could be sold. Of course 
labour was cheap, and a man would be very glad to go to 
Mentone and back for half-a-franc. 

In the Condamine, on the edge of the port, where the 
bathing establishment was subsequently built, there were 
sheds used by men who worked at cleaning lemons and 
making boxes to pack them. In the port three-mast sailing 
ships came all the way from America to fetch these 
lemons. Some ships of course went to Sicily and other 
places also renowned for this fruit. In all this it will be 
seen there was only agricultural labour. If a youth in the 
principality was gifted with more than usual intelligence, 
and had acquired some education, he would be obliged to 
go to Toulon or some other large town to get suitable 
employment. Many JNIonegasques thus held high positions 
in Italy or in France. 

It seems curious that persons are still living who 
remember the time when little could be done here and 
the educated were obliged to seek positions abroad. To-day, 
on the contrary, any number of people flock from France 
and Italy to obtain work in the principality, so great and 
rapid has been its development and progress. But its 
supreme beauty has gone. Instead of an incomparable 
garden we have a clustering crowd of villas, hotels and 
houses of doubtful architecture. Where the flowers and 
fruit trees cling lovingly to the rocks, dynamite has blown 


the romantic crags away to form level terraces on which 
box-shaped dwellings have been built. 

Speaking on this subject to another old inhabitant, the 
well-known professor of painting, an artist, M. Fontain, I 
asked him whether it would be possible to have a Minister 
of Fine Arts, whose mission would consist in preventing 
ugliness. M. Fontain replied that undoubtedly the country 
was no longer so beautiful. Rich gardens and noble trees 
were replaced by horrible buildings ; but business men 
would crush anyone who attempted to prevent this. Money 
always went first. No artistic plea could stand against 
money. If a building could be made to pay, what attention 
would be given to the lamentations of a few artists ? Such 
masses of masonry give forth sewage and household refuse 
where formerly we had but the sweet scent of blossoms 
and full-flavoured fruit. But this is progress. Large fortunes 
are made amid the ruin of venerable plants, of luxurious 
vegetation, the obliteration of the picturesque and the 
effacement of many less successful speculators. 



BEFORE attempting any further description of the 
transformation the principahty has undergone 
during recent years, the financial resources that 
render such changes possible must be described. In the 
Treaty with France of the 2nd February 1861, Charles 
III. had the foresight to introduce some important stipu- 
lations. He surrendered his claim on JMentone and Rocca- 
bruna, which henceforth became French and are now called 
JVIenton and Roquebrune, communes in the New French 
Department of the Alpes-INIaritimes. In the same way 
Nizza la Bella has become Nice la Belle. His territory, 
thus reduced, it was evident could not suffice for the 
sustenance of his subjects. If they were to live at all, this 
must be through relations and communication with outside 
sources of revenue. Therefore Prince Charles, by Article 
V. of the Treaty, carefully stipulated that France should 
maintain, at its own cost and in good condition, the road 
between Monaco and JNIenton and its junction with the 
Corniche road. For the other side of the principality he 
insisted that a carriage road, even at the cost of cutting 
through hard rock, should be built close to the shore from 
Monaco to Beaulieu, Villefranche and Nice. The Franco- 
German AVar retarded the execution of this clause of the 
treaty, and the beautiful, picturesque road from JNIonaco 
to Nice was only completed in 1881. Of course the opening 
of railway communications would prove even more useful, 
but all these facilities might have led to serious trouble if 
a customs, postal and telegraphic union had not been 
concluded with France. This convention is dated the 9th 



November 1865. Monaco might have become a smuggling 
centre. Now all goods brought to Monaco by sea have to 
pay the same duty as if they were landed in France, and 
the duty is collected by French custom-house officials. 
But JNlonaco stands to lose for what comes by land, 
especially by railway. To reach Monaco all such goods 
pass through France, and there pay duty. Tea, for in- 
stance, is very heavily taxed, and is sold retail for twice 
the price charged in England. As this is paid at the 
French frontier, if we drink tea at JNlonaco we contribute 
to the revenue of the French and not to the INlonegasque 
Government. Nevertheless this sacrifice was preferable to 
the establishment of an octroi or any sort of local dues 
which would interfere with the freest access to the princi- 

By reason of their climate, their beautiful scenery and 
marvellous semi-tropical vegetation, Nice, Cannes, Hyeres 
and Menton were beginning to attract rich foreigners, who 
came to these choice spots to escape the Northern winter. 
But JNlonaco is more beautiful than any of these places. 
It is as well sheltered and its climate in some respects 
superior, only there were no suitable hotels, and no native 
Monegasque had the slightest idea of what should be done 
to attract and cater for wealthy foreign visitors. M. 
Francois Blanc at Homburg had however proved that he 
was the greatest of experts in this respect. On the other 
hand, M. Giraud, a close friend of the late Prince Florestan, 
had already suggested to Prince Charles that a casino, 
where gambling was allowed, would certainly attract many 
people, and thus save the country from terrible poverty. 
Not very far off, Cavour had just prohibited gambling at 
Aix-les- Bains on the ground that it was ruining the 
Savoyard nobility. Perhaps things might be better managed 
at Monaco,and some frequenters of Aix-les-Bains attracted. 
In any case, a casino might save the country, and nothing 
else seemed so likely to achieve this desirable end. It was 
determined, however, and from the very first, to keep a 
strict control over the casino and make sure that some of 






the money made was spent for the public good and not all 
kept for private profit. 

A few foreign visitors began to arrive, and among 
them tliere was Prince AVilliam of Wurtemberg, who was 
subsequently created Duke of Urach. He was a widower, 
but his first wife, a daughter of Prince Eugene de Beau- 
harnais, had left him a child, the Princess Mary. For 
several years Prince \\'illiam wintered at JNIonaco, as the 
climate benefited his daughter. An intimacy sprang up 
between him and the Grimaldi family, which resulted in 
his marrying Princess Florestine, the sister of Prince 
Charles III. The wedding took place on the 15th February 
1863. After the direct descendants of Prince Charles, the 
offspring of this union would be the next heirs to the 
principality. The prospect that a German prince, a 
member of the Royal House of Wurtemberg, should reign 
at Monaco has caused no small amount of trepidation 
and anxiety in France. This, however, is a political and 
not a financial question, though the advent of the Prince 
of Wurtemberg was the beginning of the flow of dis- 
tinguished personages which were soon to enrich the 

Nothing, however, could equal in its immediate and 
immense effect the opening of the railway from Nice to 
Menton. The great difficulties of construction were at 
last overcome, and the railway was opened on the 25th 
October 1868. It soon became evident that an era of 
prosperity was commencing. In his youth, Charles III. 
had seen the people of the principality rise in rebellion 
against the heavy taxes they were then compelled to pay. 
Nevertheless he determined to win back the heart of his 
people, and he was also anxious to produce a good effect 
in Europe. Consequently, as soon as the increased revenues 
rendered the measure possible, Charles III. abolished with 
one stroke of the pen all direct taxation. The population 
of course was delighted, and Europe saw that the ancient 
house of Grimaldi was not enriching itself from the 
profits made at the casino. The decree liberating all the 


inhabitants of the principaUty from taxation was signed 
on the 8th February 1869. 

Much depends on a clear understanding of the situation 
thus created. It is not possible to estimate, at its true 
value, what has been done, unless we also realise what 
means Avere available. The Grimaldi family were deprived 
of their estates and reduced to poverty during the great 
Revolution ; but they ultimately recovered a little of their 
former property, which they administered with skill and 
with profit. Then in 1861, when Charles III. ceded 
Menton and Roquebrune to France, he received compen- 
sation to the amount of £160,000. This was of service in 
reconstituting the fortunes of the Grimaldis. 

As for the Budget of the principality, nothing could 
have been more simple. The prince received everything, 
paid for everything, and had no account to render. It 
would be difficult to say what was the cost of government, 
and even to-day we know that much more is spent for 
the public good than is recorded on any balance-sheet. 
Obviously the casino has now become the chief source of 
revenue. As alterations have been made from time to 
time the share of the public burdens borne by the casino 
has increased, but the principle being the same throughout, 
it will suffice to describe the actual situation. For the 
monopoly which it enjoys the casino pays £50,000 yearly 
to the reigning prince. On the first £1,000,000 of gross 
receipts it further pays to the prince 3 per cent., or 
£30,000. On the gross receipts above the first 25,000,000 
francs it pays 5 per cent. Thus, to give the position in 
round figures, and if we estimate the gross receipts of the 
casino at 40,000,000 francs, or £1,600,000, it would pay 
first the annual fixed charge of £50,000, then 3 per cent, 
on the first £1,000,000 of receipts— i.e. £30,000; and 
5 per cent, on the £600,000 further receipts, making 
£30,000 more— in all, £110,000. But, over and above 
these fixed contributions, the casino voluntarily incurs all 
manner of other expenses that are to the public benefit. 
Thus it has recently contributed £24,000 towards the 


construction of a new thoroughfare, the Boulevard de 
rObservatoire. By the force of circumstances tlie adminis- 
tration of the casino had to take in hand a number of 
public services which the simple folks who then lived in 
the principality were quite incapable of understanding. 
Thus, as streets were built, where there used to be olive 
or lemon groves, the casino administration had to organise 
the scavengering and lay the first sewers. They had to 
establish gas-works, and undertook a great part of the 
duties that should have been perfoi-med by a municipality. 
They were like colonists opening up a new country, and 
had to do everything themselves, for there were barely 
any inhabitants, except in the old town of JNIonaco. Thus 
the casino pays more for public purposes than appears on 
the Budget ; and all that the casino is credited with 
giving is also spent on the public. 

The following is the Budget for 1912 : — 

A. Ordinary Receipts :— Francs 

Public Services, Monopolies and Regies . 1,850,250 

Dues from the Companies . . . 2,2 1 7,900 

Divers Receipts ..... 646',46'9 

B. Extraordinary Receipts .... 300,000 


This is a total receipt of £200,580. Of this sum the 
public pays about £35,000 in the form of custom-house 
dues and other indirect taxation imposed to prevent 
Monaco differing from France. The principality could do 
without this money, and this form of indirect taxation is 
imposed only for the sake of keeping at peace with its 
powerful neighbour. Also, as this tax is levied on articles 
of consumption, such as tobacco, sugar, tea, coffee, wheat, 
etc., the visitors consume more than tlie inhabitants, and 
therefore contribute the larger part of the £35,000. 

Where the inhabitants really do pay is in respect to 



legal costs, stamps and fees for acts, agreements, marriages, 
mortgages, land transfer, etc. These charges may be 
considered as a form of direct taxation, but they only 
affect those persons who have need of such transactions. 
As, however, there is so much business done, and pro- 
sperity prevails, this form of taxation brings in a good deal, 
something like another £30,000. 

Now that there is the semblance of a Constitution, 
public account is given as to the receipts and expenditure. 
There has been created from the Private Domain a Public 
Domain. The latter is a free gift from the prince to his 
subjects, and consists of the buildings devoted to nmnici- 
pal services and other public buildings such as churches, 
schools, and all that is required for the public administra- 
tion. But the prince keeps as his Private Domain the 
squares and roads. This was necessary because the 
principal roads are international, and for diplomatic 
reasons must remain the private property of the prince, 
so that he may carry out the obligations which, as sole 
ruler, he contracted with other nations. 

The Budget is divided into two parts. First we have 
the " Consolidated Services," which comprise all the 
expenditure of the prince's Government, the upkeep of the 
palace, the donations, the pensions, the cost of government, 
of diplomatic representation, of police, of justice, and other 
analogous services. The second half is called the House or 
Interior Services, and comprises municipal outlay, public 
works, public education and fine arts, hospitals, hygiene 
and poor rehef. It is this latter half of the Budget to 
which the National Council, the newly constituted 
representative and elected body, is invited to discuss 
and criticise. 

In regard to the ruling prince, there is of course no 
Civil List. A Civil List implies that the Chief of the State 
has not enough money to govern the country, and there- 
fore asks his subjects to make him an allowance. The first 
time this happened was in England, at the restoration, in 
1660, of Charles II. Having been deprived of all resources 


by the English revolution, he had to ask the English 
Parliament to vote him a Civil List. Though also dethroned 
and deprived of all their resources by the French and 
ISIonegasque revolutions, the Grimaldis managed better, 
and this even before the casino came to their aid. 

To-day in England, Italy, Prussia, Spain, Belgium, the 
republics of Switzerland, France, the United States, and 
in many other countries, the people pay taxes, elect 
Parliaments, and these bodies, representing the taxpayers, 
decide how much shall be given to the Chief of the State. 
It is the people who pay for the Civil List and decide what 
the amount shall be. In Monaco the exact opposite is the 
case. The people are liberated from all burdens. They are 
exempt from military service and from taxation. Instead 
of asking for a Civil List the prince pays for everybody, 
and of late allows a certain amount of criticism on the 
part of elected representatives. With the £50,000 regular 
payment made to him annually by the casino, the prince 
just manages to defray the cost of government, including 
all the salaries, from that of the ]\Iinister of State down 
to the humblest policeman. Adding to this the other 
necessary expenditure, the estimate for 1912 sets down 
the total at 4,650,987 francs, or £186,039. The biggest 
items are the management of the regies and monopolies, 
£21,675; public instruction, £14,111; hospital and poor 
rehef, £8762. 

From these figures we may conclude that the cost of 
governing the principality is now a little more than 
£186,000 per annum. The receipts slightly exceed the 
round sum of £200,000, and of this rather more than 
£110,000 comes from the gaming-tables. As the prince 
is responsible for the entire outlay it will be seen that 
though the casino is so large a contributor other sources 
of revenue are necessary. Then there is also an Extra- 
ordinary Budget, which deals with vast public works that 
do not bear strictly on the annual outlay. These are set 
down for the forthcoming year at £81,733 for public 
works, which with some other small items bring up the 


total estimated expenditure of the Extraordinary Budget 
to £83,924, and lands the principahty in a big deficit. 
Ah'eady we liear talk of loans and such fatal expedients. 
But this is due not to an unsound financial position, it 
is the result of exaggerated ambition and somewhat 
wild embellishment schemes. However, in so far as such 
extraordinary expenditure is sanctioned and incurred, 
there is but one source from whence the money can be 
obtained. This is the private treasury of the piince, and 
part of his income comes from resources that are alto- 
gether outside of the principahty. 

When, on the other hand, the income is larger than 
the expenditure, as it would be in 1912, if we set aside 
the Extraordinary Budget, then such surplus is employed 
by the prince to support enterprises, or works of scientific 
interest, which favour progress and are likely to be of 
practical use to humanity at large. Thus the prince does 
not only give over the money he annually receives from the 
casino to defray the cost of administering the principality, 
the cost of government and the maintenance of the many 
institutions, such as the schools, the hospital, the Courts 
of Justice, etc., but he adds very large sums which he 
derives from his estates in France and other private 
sources of income. 

The whole of the money obtained from the casino is 
spent in the principality and for the benefit of its inhabit- 
ants. The money thus given to them is much larger than 
what other communities are able to gather even by heavy 
taxation. In the United Kingdom of England and Ireland 
the revenue is estimated at a trifle more than £4 a head 
per annum. The local expenditure is equal to £3, 4s. for 
every inhabitant, or a total average for national and local 
government of £7, 4s. for every living person. The princi- 
pality of M onaco has rather less than 20,000 inhabitants. 
It may therefore be said that these inhabitants receive 
annually, and in round figures, the sum of £6 each from 
the casino. In other words, if the casino stopped payment 
and the government was continued as at present, it would 


be necessary to tax the population at the average rate of 
£6 each person. In England we pay £7, 4s. per annum ; at 
Monaco the people receive £6 per annum ; and this takes 
no account whatsoever of all that the prince also gives 
them. Nowhere could a community be found that is so 
fortunately situated, and nowhere else is so much spent — 
all proportions being kept — on the advancement of the 
arts and sciences. 



PRINCE ALBERT I., son of Charles III. and 
Antoinette Ghislaine, Comtesse de M erode, in- 
herited the right to reign as absolute and inde- 
pendent sovereign of the principality of Monaco. But 
he was also heir to a great number of French titles 
acquired, as history shows, by his forefathers. When, in 
1642, Honore II. threw off the Spanish domination he 
received from Louis XIII. several titles and estates, such 
as that of Duke of \'^alentinois, Marquis des Baux, Count 
of Carladez, Baron du Buis, Lord of Saint-Remy in 
Provence. By marriage with the Matignon family the 
princes of ^lonaco inherited the titles of Lord of 
Matignon, Count of Thorigny, Baron of Saint-L6, etc. 
Finally, by marriage with the last heiress of the powerful 
and illustrious families of Aumont and Mazarin, Honor^ 
passed over to the Grimaldis the titles of Duke of 
Mazarin, Duke of Mayenne, Prince of Chateau-Porcien, 
Count of Ferrette, of Belfort, of Thann and of Rosemont. 
The title of Grandee of Spain is also attached to the 
house of Grimaldi. 

All these titles, however, are only inherited. The title 
the Prince of Monaco values most is that which he has 
obtained by his own personal efforts. As Associated 
Member of the Academy of Sciences and Member of 
the Institut de France, which is the union of the Five 
Academies, he has won a name for himself. The title of 
Mevibre de rinstitvt is one that cannot be inherited, and 
is the highest reward of a career devoted to art or science. 
After studying at the College Stanislas at Paris, the 



prince was instructed by the renowned Monseigneur 
Dupauloup. Loving the sea, Uke most of his ancestors, 
Prince Albert went to the naval school at Lorient, where 
he learned navigation under French naval officers. Prince 
Albert was not yet eighteen years old when he entered 
the Spanish naval service. In two years' time he had 
obtained the rank of Lieutenant, but left the service when 
the Revolution came and Queen Isabella was driven from 
the throne of Spain. No sooner did the Franco-German 
War break out than Prince Albert, imitating the example 
set by so many of his ancestors, offered to serve in 
the French navy. He was at once attached to the staff 
of Vice-Admiral Penhoat, on the Havoie. This ship 
belonged to the second division of the Northern Fleet ; 
but when the departure of the fleet was postponed Prince 
Albert was allowed to join Vice-Admiral Fournichon, 
who was cruising in the North Sea. Admiral Fournichon 
placed him on board the Couronne, with the rank of 
Lieutenant. The French, however, made little use of their 
fleet in this war. The best service the French sailors 
rendered was in managing the artillery and defending the 
forts on the outskirts of Paris. The prince was therefore 
soon free again, though his services were so well 
appreciated that the Government of the French Republic 
bestowed upon him the cross of the Legion of Honour. 

By this time Prince Albert was no longer content 
to follow in the footprints of his ancestors. It occurred 
to him that there might be other distinctions than those 
won at the point of the sword. He had not yet become 
a Pacifist, but he understood that science had also its 
victories and its glory. Then, being a sailor to the core, 
it was natural that he should associate science with the 
sea. To use the prince's own words, he soon learnt that 
science spreads light and light engenders justice, and but 
for the sense of justice we should drift to anarchy and 
decadence. He felt also that to ensure progress it was 
necessary to establish a sort of equilibrium between the 
culture of art and the culture of science. Science must 


dominate because it provides the practical needs of 
existence, but art gives warmth to works of intellect, 
softens sharp corners and helps to make life enjoyable. 

Such ideas and much of the prince's philosophy may 
be found in " La Carriere d'un Navigateur," written by 
the prince himself and published at JNIonaco. This auto- 
biography describes the earlier portions of the prince's 
career as a scientific investigator. It was in the autumn 
of 1873 that he first succeeded in obtaining possession 
of a small sailing vessel, which he bought at Torquay, 
and the name of which he changed from the Pleiades 
to the Hirondelle. The description the prince gives of 
his emotions when he first assumed command of the 
ship is sure to evoke the sympathies of the reader, and it 
is to be hoped that there will be no further delay in 
publishing the English translation of this illuminating 
work. It was in his small ship that Prince Albert dis- 
covered that there did not exist efficient means, mechanical 
and scientific instruments, to study the ocean and all that 
appertains to the ocean. The princes greatest work in 
life has been to supply this deficiency, and hence the 
creation of a new science, the graphic study of the ocean, 
or oceanography. 

On the 10th September 1889 Prince Charles III. 
died, and Prince Albert began his reign by reviving an 
old ]Monegasque custom. He invited the head of every 
Monegasque family, and, when they were all assembled 
in the Court of Honour of the palace, asked if they were 
satisfied that he should be their prince. Having been 
enthusiastically acclaimed, he proceeded to the Throne 
Room, and his subjects, following, were each and all 
brought into personal contact with their new sovereign. 
It was a patriarchal ceremony, something which would 
be thought impossible in the nineteenth century. But 
it is just these quaint and odd incidents that render 
Monaco so interesting to the intelligent and appreciative 
visitor. Monaco presents a happy combination of nmch 
that is very ancient with the most scientific and modern 


aspirations of the present epoch. No sooner was the 
prince in power than lie sought to revive the old 
institutions and create new ones. The hospital was at 
once condemned, and a commission despatched to travel, 
inspect the best hospitals, and report upon them. It will 
be seen in another chapter that this reform has been most 
successfully carried out. M. Gaston ]Moch, former pupil 
of the Polytechnic School, where Napoleon was educated, 
was deputed to travel in different countries to study and 
report on the various methods of education. This report, 
printed by the Government at Monaco, is a valuable 
contribution to the problem of education, and has helped 
in the carrying out of improvements in the principality. 
But it is not necessary to catalogue here the various 
reforms and improvements initiated or encouraged by the 
prince. They will become evident as the various phases 
of life in the principality are described. For the moment 
I would endeavour to give some idea of the aim, the 
principles which form the basis of the prince's acts and 
ambitions. This I may venture to attempt because I 
have before me the prince's book, and the text of many 
speeches he has delivered, though what I value more is 
the vivid recollection of several lengthy conversations. 

On the occasion of my first audience I had just seen 
something of the instructive collections which are be- 
ginning to accumulate at the Oceanographic JNluseum, 
and this led me to make some remark about the parsi- 
mony of the British Government when it was a question 
of helping the advance of science. The prince, however, 
replied that other governments were equally wanting 
in judgment. For instance, at that very moment Dr 
Charcot found it extremely difficult to persuade the 
French Government to incur the expense of publishing 
the results of his recent expedition to the South Pole. 
This was a work which, wiiile honouring the French 
nation, would prove of benefit to the whole world. The 
information gathered was much needed, and if not pub- 
lished it would be lost. Such books should be in all public 


libraries throughout the world, ready to the hand of 
specialists requiring to consult them. If the world were to 
progress much work must be done from which no com- 
mercial return could be expected. This applied not only 
to the printing of books but to many other matters, and 
especially to scientific investigations. Many an undertaking 
or experiment gave promise of usefulness at some future 
date, but there was not sufficient prospect of immediate 
profit to attract private enterprise. It was in such cases 
that governments should take the lead, doing for the 
public what no individual member of the public was 
disposed to undertake. This was the prince's conception 
of the mission and duty of governments. 

In regard to the principality there was yet another 
duty. From all parts of the world people came to Monte 
Carlo. They enriched the principality by the money they 
lost in gambling; and it was the duty of the prince, as 
representing the principality, to endeavour to render in 
exchange some international service. To the best of his 
knowledge, of all the higher pursuits none was so 
universal in the advantages it conferred, the discoveries 
it made, as the study of science. Therefore the prince has 
given £560,000 for scientific purposes of a purely inter- 
national character. By the side of all the gaieties and 
frivolities of Monte Carlo the prince has attempted to 
create at Monaco a centre where some of the principal 
problems affecting the peace and welfare of the whole 
world are studied and a beneficent infiuence exercised. 
Indeed, the follies and dissipations of Monte Carlo have 
to some extent paved with gold the way to higher and 
better things. Gamblers may be despicable, just as dirt is 
obnoxious ; but dirt is useful matter in the wrong place, 
and gambling has served as manure to fertilise the princi- 
pality and to increase the prosperity of the whole lliviera. 
Funds have been liberated, and are now devoted to re- 
searches or enterprises that all acknowledge must contribute 
to the greater knowledge and happiness of peoples and of 


Whenever there is any scientific work or research that 
needs help, " I shall be there" (" J e serais la ") exclaimed the 
prince, and past achievements testify that this is no empty 
boast. By its museums, its archives, among the richest in 
Europe, its Peace Institute, its costly and elaborate publi- 
cations, by the encouragement given to music and the 
arts, by all that is done — not for profit, but to promote 
knowledge and progress — Monaco should attract the 
thoughtful and the studious. The palace has become a 
haven where the aristocracy of intellect is ever welcome. 
Very emphatically the prince declared that the world had 
no need of counts and dukes or princes, but wanted 
men with brains and knowledge. He then expressed 
apprehension with regard to the action of demagogy 
because it could not appreciate intellect, and a movement 
without intellect meant a disastrous levelling downwards. 
This allusion was entirely spontaneous. I had said nothing 
leading up to the subject. It seemed to be weighing on 
his mind, but what was the prince's precise meaning when 
he spoke of the overflow of demagogy {le debordement 
demagogique) ? This was a very graphic and threatening 
sentence. Was he thinking about syndicalism, sabotage 
and the general strike ? Who had inspired his fears ? From 
what class of the community did they spring ? ^Vould 
that advisers could see with other eyes than those lumin- 
ated onl)'' by interested motives. In the placid domain of 
science, how easy it is to differ over the origin and history 
of a rare specimen of fauna or flora. Nobody's future or 
social position is at stake. But in politics or in economics 
how are we to see clearly before us and reach the pure light 
of truth through tlie brambles of personal interest ? 

Whatever the prince's views may be with regard to 
the great economic problems of the day, he has lost no 
opportunity of developing the economic resources of the 
principality. The most notable step in tiiis direction is 
the conversion of the natural port of Hercules into a 
modern harbour with quays, railway, breakwaters and 
all the most I'ecent improvements. Again, at the princes 


own cost land is reclaimed from the sea so as to increase 
the industrial and manufacturing part of the principality. 
But while commercial and industrial enterprise has been 
thus encouraged, the law applying to joint stock or 
limited companies has been stiffened so as to keep a 
firmer grip upon such ventures, and render nefarious 
transactions more difficult. At the same time the prince 
also fought, though not always with success, to save 
gardens, plants and the natural beauty of the principality 
from destruction at the hands of speculating builders. 
Further, to encourage commercial relations, JNIonaco has 
as numerous a consular representation abroad as if it were a 
large country. These consuls must have an easy time, but 
when goods trains passing through the new tunnel come 
alongside steamers moored to the quays of the port there 
may be more international mercantile traffic than there is 
at present. No important international exhibition has been 
held, but the Monegasque pavilion, by its elegance and 
originality, has constituted one of the attractions. This was 
especially the case at the great centenary celebration held in 
Paris in 1900, and also at the Brussels Exhibition of 1910. 
It is well known that the prince is deeply attached 
to the cause of peace. In spite of the bellicose character 
of many among his most distinguished ancestors, his ideal 
is to sustain " without bitterness and without hatred the 
struggle for life." Then and then only will the human 
conscience enjoy " inviolable tranquillity." In the Preface 
to " La Carriere d'un Navigateur " the prince says that 
" an ideal formed by the conception of future progress 
visits the enlightened spirit of the wise, as the distant 
pi'omise of a true civilisation. The prestige of this ideal 
will banish the influence of particularism and disperse the 
shadow which divides the children of the human family 
when they are intoxicated with pride or cupidity and 
when they are deceived by cruel lies about military 
glory." The present condition of Europe, converted into 
an armed camp, does not encourage these hopes, but 
nevertheless a force is born of progress to unite con- 


sciences ; a public conscience is asserting itself, and it 
condemns all abuse of power, whether it be to crush a 
man or to plunder a people ; it is the vague, undefined 
aurora of a new day rising on the horizon of time to guide 
living ci'eatures in their continual evolution. " My con- 
victions will certainly shock conservative and timorous 
minds, who conceal their fear of the unknown by mystic 
illusions, mundane frivolities or the inertia of habit. But 
the conscience of princes, for long subjugated by anti- 
progressive traditions, may now be awakened by the 
lessons of Nature and of Science ; it will then despise 
a policy guided by the antagonism of nations, the rights 
of the strongest and the fiction of frontiers ; it will 
combat the atavic hatred engendered by religion, race 
and caste and will aspire only towards a future when 
Human Solidarity shall realise Justice." 

Such, in a few words, is the prince's programme, and 
it remains to record some of the steps he has taken 
towards its realisation. Obviously one of the best means 
of breaking down barriers and of bringing together the 
populations of the world is to invite the elite of the 
different nations to meet in friendly intercourse. For this 
purpose international congresses are most useful. There- 
fore the prince is ever ready to offer a large hospitality 
to such congresses when they meet in the principality. 
Thus in 1897 the International Congress of the I^iterary 
and Artistic Association was held at Alonaco. In 1901 the 
first congress of the International Marine Association was 
held here. In 1902 took place the great International I*eace 
Congress and the Conference of the International Associa- 
tion of the Medical Press. The International Congress 
of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archjtology assembled 
at Monaco in 190G, and the International Congress of 
Zoology in 1912. After the Peace Congress of 1902 the 
prince founded an International Institute of Peace at 
Monaco, as a centre of propaganda, while personally he 
has constantly travelled to visit those whom he might hope 
to influence in favour of the cause of science and of peace. 



GIVEN the opportunity and the man, there are no 
limits to the possibiUties of human achievements. 
In Monaco we have the man, in Europe the 
opportunity. Only there are deeds that dye the pages of 
history with letters of blood, while other acts are so 
modestly performed that their record does not stand 
forth self-revealed. Indeed many of the best actions could 
not be accomplished if there were much talk about them 
at the time. Discretion in diplomacy is indispensable. To 
claim, however, that anyone in Monaco could influence 
the destinies of Europe may seem somewhat absurd, 
considering the diminutive size of the principality. Yet, 
in certain circumstances, it was precisely the smallness of 
the principality that became an element of strength, and 
the best of recommendations. Such a little state could 
not be suspected of entertaining sinister designs on other 
countries, and its representative could therefore speak 
without exciting mistrust of his motives. On the other 
hand, the fact that the state was so small deprived its 
chief of the right of being heard in the councils of Europe. 

What could the opinion of JNIonaco matter to the 
great powers ? Therefore we have to fall back upon the 
man rather than the prince. 

To exercise an influence in the councils of nations 
many qualities are required. First of all, a position is 
needed that will serve as an introduction. In this respect, 
even in these democratic days, the question of family, of 
pedigree, is still of importance. 



Now, if there be any virtue in a long lineage of rulers 
the Prince of Monaco holds indisputably the first place 
in Europe. Whether the present prince is descended 
from the Grimaldi who is said to have received Monaco 
at the hands of the Emperor Otho I., in a.d. 968, or 
from Grimaldi, who was Consul of CJenoa in 1162, the 
Grimaldis are obviously the oldest reigning family in 
Europe. With but temporary interruptions, they have 
governed Monaco during six centuries. For those who 
believe in " blue blood," ancient descent, the Divine 
Right of Kings, the house of Grimaldi should hold the 
first place among the sovereign families of Europe. None 
of them is as old, for it was not till 1273 that Rudolphe 
of Hapsburg was elected Emperor of Germany, and sub- 
sequently delegated one of his sons to govern Austria. 

Such considerations are, however, of but little account 
in our days, unless the possessor of a long pedigree has 
also inherited the wealth or the capacities for which his 
ancestors were distinguished. This is precisely the case 
with regard to the present Prince of Monaco. He is not 
only blessed with an ample share of this world's goods, 
for he possesses extensive and valuable estates in France, 
but he has also inherited some of the most precious 
characteristics of his ancestors. During a life of adventure 
and danger, he has given hostages to fortune, and none 
can doubt his powers of endurance, his presence of mind 
and courage. Whether exploring in the Arctic seas or 
the tropical regions, in weather fair or foul, the prince 
has always shown himself a true sea captain, sharing with 
his crew every danger and every hardship. But the prince 
has inherited from his long line of ancestors another and 
a greater quality, which is not so easily recognised by the 
general public. It needs but a moment's reflection to 
realise that no amount of physical courage would have 
sufficed to enable the Grimaldis to keep their hold on 
Monaco for so many centuries. Even though the princi- 
pality was much larger than it is now, it was always a 
comparatively small country, and therefore in danger of 


being absorbed by its powerful neighbours — Genoa, Savoy 
and Provence, to say nothing of France and Aragon, 
which, if at a greater distance, were as aggi-essive and still 
more powerful. Though the princes of Monaco often 
fought, and fought very gallantly, tliey could only save 
the principality from annexation by forming advantageous 
alliances. In a word, it was by diplomacy, rather than by 
hard fighting, that the independence of Monaco was 
preserved during so many centuries, and the reigning 
prince has inherited not only the courage but also the 
diplomatic tact that distinguished many of his ancestors. 
All this, however, is merely the prince's good fortune, 
the happy accident of his birth ; but to such initial 
advantage he has added the real and personal glory of 
becoming himself an ancestor. During the Great Revolu- 
tion, when the most extraordinary galaxy of renowned 
geniuses sprang from the ranks, and saved France from 
the attacks of all Europe, Royalists often sneered at the 
principal Republican leaders because they had no pedigree, 
no ancestors. On one such occasion, a proud answer was 
made — " Yes, it is true we have no ancestors, but then 
we are ourselves ancestors." 

In spite of the dimness of the future we may rest 
assured that coming generations, in the long vista of 
years, will gratefully recall the memory of the present 
Prince of Monaco as the Father of Oceanographic 
Science. As this science renders more and more service 
to humanity, so Avill the prince become an ancestor from 
whom all would be pi'oud to claim descent. To have so 
largely contributed to create a new and fruitful science 
is a victory which, when the world becomes more en- 
lightened and less barbaric, will be recognised as a far 
better title to glory and gratitude than victories won on 
the fields of battle. Thus any court would be honoured 
in receiving a prince who represents the oldest reigning 
family, who is personally endowed with courage, diplo- 
matic tact, and possesses a large fortune. But the honour 
of entertaining such a guest is greatly intensified when it 


is known that the prince devotes his private means to 
promoting scientific research for the pubUc good ; and, in 
so doing, lias himself attained eminence as a scientific 
authority. A royal prince has become a member of the 
Aristocracy of Intellect — a title that can never be inherited. 
The Republic of Letters and Science, a republic which 
has long since abolished frontier demarcations, is proud 
to claim the Prince of Monaco as a colleague and a 
fellow-citizen. Thus it has come about that the prince is 
equally at home at Potsdam or at the Palais de I'Elysee. 

Naturally, for it is a matter of paramount interest, 
wild attempts have been made to discover to what use 
the prince has put his exceptional opportunities, and much 
has been said and printed which is the result of mere 
guessing. On one occasion, when alluding to this subject, 
Professor Charles Richet told me that he had been 
invited for a two months' cruise on board the Princesse 
Alice, when the prince was pursuing his oceanographic 
researches. These were, the eminent professor enthusi- 
astically added, the two most pleasant months of his life. 
They were seven boon companions, and nothing could 
exceed the fascinating interest and the friendly character 
of the conversations on board, more especially at meal- 
times. It was in the course of these discussions that 
Professor Richet was able to expatiate on the object and 
meaning of the Pacifist policy. He insisted, of course, 
on the good that had already been accomplished, the 
ti'eaties in favour of arbitration between different powers 
which were already signed, and the hope that, in time, 
arbitration would always be accepted as the only just 
solution of differences between nations. The prince then 
agreed to organise the next International Peace Congress 
at Monaco, where it was held in the spring of 1902. 

Apart from the reasons given above, Prince ^Vlbert I. 
has easy access to the Imperial Court of Berlin because 
he is a near relation of the reigning house of Wurtem- 
berg. There is no doubt that the I'rince of Monaco's 
great strength rests in the fact that he can speak to the 


Kaiser on equal terms, and this he utihses for the sake 
of telHng him the truth. The Emperor of Germany, 
in spite of all the power he exercises, and the heavy 
responsibilities that weigh upon him, does not always 
know the truth. However desirous he may be of judging 
impartially all questions at issue, he is surrounded by 
persons whose interest it is to conceal the truth ; and who, 
at times, even endeavour to produce an absolutely false 
impression. In such circumstances, it is not surprising 
that the German Emperor should welcome the visit of 
a friend who can have no possible interest to serve by 
making false representations. Apart from the fact that he 
is an ardent member of the Peace Society, the Prince 
of Monaco and the principality have everything to lose 
from the outbreak of war, especially if it were a war 
between France and Germany. Therefore the Kaiser can 
listen with confidence to the information and advice given 
by the Prince of Monaco ; and thus, on more than one 
occasion, have the scales been removed from the eyes 
of those who had been deceived. A king or the chief 
of a state rarely knows the truth. The fact that the prince 
was received in the Kaiser's intimate councils naturally 
made the President of the French Republic anxious to 
hear what he might have to say ; thus, in France as in 
Germany, Prince Albert has been able to give weighty 
words of advice when difficult and dangerous incidents 

There were moments when the official diplomatic 
relations between France and Germany had reached such 
a point of tension that neither party dared say anything 
further, lest, being misunderstood, an open rupture should 
result. On such occasions, the Prince of Monaco, who was 
recognised on both sides as having no personal interest 
to serve beyond the general desire to prevent war, could 
travel between the court of Berlin and the Quai d'Orsay 
or the Palais de I'Elysee with arguments, explanations, 
suggestions or plans for new combinations. If these were 
badly received it did not matter. The prince was not 


officially an ambassador or a diplomatic agent, he was 
not even a simple subject of either of the countries 
concerned, so that Avhatever he said, and however he 
might be treated, he could not become a casus belli. This 
enabled him to speak of many things which an official 
or an ambassador could not have mooted. On the other 
hand, such informal, unofficial conversations were much 
better calculated to result in the discovery of a solution. 
Then, when it was ascertained quite informally that such 
a solution would be acceptable to both parties, it could 
be brought forward through official channels without fear 
of provoking any untoward incident. Thus the prince 
was of great help in preventing war over the Morocco 
difficulty, and in bringing about the peaceful solution that 
took the form of the Algeciras Treaty. During that great 
crisis, when M. Delcasse, the French Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, was sacrificed to appease German anger, there 
was a moment when the relations between the two 
countries were practically broken off. The prince then 
undertook to represent the views of the French Premier, 
M. Rouvier, to the Kaiser, and succeeded in so composing 
matters that official diplomatic relations were reopened. 
In this, as in all other questions, the prince's action 
is always absolutely pacific. 

At the most critical moment, however, it seemed as 
if these efforts would prove futile. The prince had just 
arrived in Paris from Berlin. He was brimming over with 
hope and happy anticipation. At Berlin he had held 
promising conversations with the Kaiser, and was squeezing 
a portfoho fondly under his arm, for it contained, he 
imagined, terms of suggestions that would bridge over 
all the difficulties. These proposals seemed so important 
that, instead of going home to his Paris residence after 
his long journey, the prince drove straight from the 
station to the Foreign Office and asked to see M. Rouvier 
on a matter of the utmost urgency. This, he was told, 
was impossible, the Premier being at the Chambers. The 
prince thereupon insisted on telephoning to the Chambers, 



and soon received the disconcerting reply that the Govern- 
ment had just been defeated and was about to resign. The 
hopes of peace had now to be deferred till after the forma- 
tion of a new ministry, and the terms of agreement with 
the German Government the prince thought INI. Rouvier 
would approve might not seem equally acceptable to his 
successor at the Foreign Office. Fortunately M. Bourgeois, 
who succeeded JNI. Rouvier, was just as desirous of main- 
taining peace, and the new Government availed themselves 
of the explanations, suggestions and facilities the prince 
secured during his friendly and unofficial chats with the 
Kaiser. It was in this manner that the prince very 
effisctively helped to bring about the Conference and 
Treaty of Algeciras. 

In regard to the more recent crisis, when in 1911 
affairs in Morocco seemed once more likely to disturb the 
peace of Europe, the prince did not take any part in the 
negotiations. In answer to my questions on the subject, 
Prince Albert said it was merely a game of grab, in which 
he had no sympathy and was not desirous of being 
concerned. It would be a source of great happiness to him 
to contribute in any way possible to the prevention of 
war, but he had no desire to have a voice in the sharing 
of the spoils. 

It is obvious that in speaking of the relations between 
governments precise details cannot be given. The influence 4 

of the Prince of Monaco and of others who may have * 

attempted a similar role must of necessity depend on its 
anonymous character. Discretion, therefore, is the condition 
of existence, and the prince himself is more anxious to 
place those with whom he is associated in a favourable 
light than to speak of his own efforts. Thus the prince 
does not hesitate, on all propitious occasions, to protest 
against the false and mischievous opinions prevailing with 
regard to the Kaiser. He insists that, in spite of appearances 
to the contrary, the Emperor of Germany is in favour 
of peace. His apparent militarism, his praises of the army, 
are due to the belief the emperor entertains that military 




service is a great educational influence, and is necessary 
quite independently of purposes of warfare. This being the 
case, Prince Albert was better able to promote the cause 
of peace in diff'erent directions, and rendered, for instance, 
great service at Bergen in July 1899, when the French 
training-ship Iphigenic came in contact with the Hohen- 
zollern. The French Government had given no instructions 
to the captain of the Ij)higenie. He was told to go to 
Bergen and do the best he could, but on his own respon- 
sibility. It was an awkward position. What could the 
captain of a French naval training-ship say to the German 
Emperor ? Fortunately the Prince of Monaco, who was 
at that time busily occupied with his oceanographic 
researches, steered for Bergen in the hope of meeting the 
Kaiser, who is also much interested in deep-sea explora- 
tions. The prince at once grasped the situation, and from 
his own yacht, the Princesse Alice, he rowed rapidly 
backward and forward between the HohenzoUern and 
the Iphigenie. 

The French Commander had accomplished all the acts 
of courtesy towards the German Emperor which are the 
rule under such circumstances, and was invited on board 
the Imperial yacht. Here he was most amicably received. 
But then, as the prince ruefully remarked when he de- 
scribed the incident to me, it was not quite so easy a matter 
to arrange for the return visit. It was all very well 
receiving a French officer on a German pleasure yacht, 
but to invite the German War Lord on board a French 
war training-ship was a much more delicate affair. The 
prince, however, ultimately overcame all the difficulties, 
and he had the pleasure of seeing the German Emperor 
step on the deck of the French ship, where he was 
courteously received and all the honours rendered. 
This was a most important event, for it constituted the 
first step toward friendly dealings between France and 
Germany. But for the prince's presence at Bergen, his 
diplomatic tact and personal influence with the Kaiser, this 
rapprochement might have been deferred for several years. 


The staff and the pupils of the Iphigenie were subse- 
quently invited on board the Hohenzollern, and for the 
most part responded to the invitation. Here they met 
some German cadets, for a German training-ship had now 
also arriv^ed at Bergen. The Prince of Monaco, after helping 
to bring about this interesting but delicate meeting, had 
the great satisfaction of seeing the young sailors of both 
nations fraternise in the presence of the emperor. Before 
his officers and his guests, the Kaiser bestow^ed a decora- 
tion on the Commandant of the Iphigenie, informing him, 
at the same time, that he had asked the French Govern- 
ment to allow him to accept this honour. To the Prince 
of Monaco, who is so profoundly attached to the modern 
conceptions that seek to efface old antagonism and replace 
violence and war by arbitration, this friendly meeting of 
French and Germans at Bergen was a most auspicious 
event. On several other and analogous occasions the 
prince has been able to bring about similar results ; thus 
ever seeking to conciliate and to pacify, and making full 
use of his social position and personal prestige to promote 
this good cause. 

In the days of the Dreyfus affair the prince played 
a very useful part. Not only did he assist some of the 
victims, but he was able to give the French Government 
very positive assurances of the innocence of Dreyfus. 
Indeed, it is said that these assurances were so conclusive 
that they helped to hasten the untimely end of the late 
President, M. Felix Faure. Certainly M. Felix Faure 
was in a painful position. He was tied to the Clerical and 
Nationalist Party, whose very existence depended on 
preventing a revision of the Dreyfus trial. An hour and 
a quarter before M. Felix Faure's death, the Archbishop 
of Paris came to see him, and probably insisted on the 
need of continued resistance to the demand, daily growing 
in strength, for the revision of the Dreyfus case. At five 
in the afternoon, an hour before the fatal attack, the 
Prince of Monaco called. It would not have been in 
keeping with their sense of dignity for the German 



Government, unsolicited, to have volunteered evidence 
with regard to Dreyfus. But the German Emperor could, 
in private conversation, assure his friend, the Prince of 
Monaco, that the German Government had never enter- 
tained any relations whatever with Captain Alfred 
Dreyfus, and knew nothing about him. Of course the 
prince would communicate this to President Faure, and 
the theory is that the anxiety and irritation caused by 
such news hastened on the fatal attack. But the prince, 
in conversation, has explained that, when he saw the 
president for the last time, he found him distracted and 
absent-minded. So much was this the case that, whatever 
may have been the object the prince had in view on that 
particular afternoon, he gave it up, seeing that the 
president was not listening to him, and that, in his state 
of mind, it was no use attempting to explain matters. 

The prince left the president at twenty minutes past 
five o'clock, and M. Faure was then looking forward to 
the visit of the fascinating lady who subsequently became 
the chief figure of a sensational cmise ceUhrc. Perhaps 
such pleasing anticipations made it difficult for the 
president to listen with due attention to the Prince of 
Monaco's grave admonitions. More probably, the fact 
that the president had not full control of his mind may 
be taken as a premonitory symptom of the approaching 
attack. It was six o'clock when the president suddenly 
became unconscious, just forty minutes after the Prince 
of Monaco's departure. A doctor, whom M. Faure had 
met during a shooting expedition, happened to be calling 
at the Elys^e at that moment. Being the nearest medical 
man to hand, his services were at once requisitioned. He 
was taken, not upstairs, but downstairs to the room of 
M. Faure's secretary. It was not in his own room, but 
in his secretary's office, that M. Faure was in the habit 
of receiving the lady in question, nor was she his only 
lady visitor. Seeing what occurred, the opinion naturally 
arose that the president had been more gallant than was 
prudent at his age. When the doctor entered the 


secretary's office he found the lady still there. She was 
so terrified at the president's condition and excited by 
the occurrence that she was unable to attend to her 
toilet. On the other hand, it was most urgent to get 
rid of her with the utmost speed. Therefore her cloak 
was bundled round her anyhow, and she was given over 
to a policeman, who had to put her swiftly in a cab and 
see her home. M. Faure's family was then summoned, 
and the world was startled by the news of the sudden 
death of the President of the French Republic. 

One of the principal obstacles to the revision of 
the Dreyfus trial was thus removed. M. Emile Loubet, 
who succeeded M. Felix Faure in the presidency of 
the republic, was not an agent of the Clerical Party. He 
had, therefore, no objection to the revision. Thus the 
truth was at last known and the ends of justice attained. 
But in this struggle there had been many victims. Among 
others there was I'Abbe Pichon, who lost his chair as 
Professor of Mathematics because he had ventured to 
speak in favour of Dreyfus. The prince, however, came 
to his rescue and gave him the living of the little church 
of St Dt^vote in the romantic ravine between the 
Condamine and Monte Carlo. Other princely acts of 
kindness helped to soften the asperities of that great 
struggle which brought France to the verge of civil war. 

As an after-consequence of the Dreyfus affair there 
followed what has erroneously been called the separation 
of the Church and State in France. It was by the Decree 
of the 2nd December 1789, when Louis XVL was king, 
that the State nationalised all Church property and under- 
took to maintain the churches and the hospitals. In those 
days, as again to-day, the clergy refused to be controlled 
by the State. During the revolution that followed, the 
Church was swept away. It was gradually restored when 
the reaction came, and finally rested on the Concordat 
concluded between the Pope and Napoleon in 1801. It is 
the Concordat which, as one of the results of the Dreyfus 
affair, has now been destroyed. It will be remembered 


that when President Loubet went to Rome he did not call 
on the Pope. The latter at once despatched a protest to all 
the governments containing a sentence which had been 
carefully omitted from the protest sent to the French 
Government. This sentence consisted of the statement 
that, if relations with France were not broken off, it was 
only because the Pope hoped the actual French Govern- 
ment would soon be out of office ! With surprising 
rapidity. M. Jaures heard of this and brought the matter 
before the French National Assembly. It produced the 
long-expected climax. All connection between the French 
Government and the Papal See was severed, the 
Concordat destroyed, and the State resumed the owner- 
ship of the property the Church had controlled under 

The indiscretion which brought about this tremendous 
revolution was attributed to the Prince of Monaco. The 
prince was believed to be on friendly terms with M. 
Jaures and several of M. Jaures' friends. The prince had 
befriended victims of the clerical persecutions directed 
against those who asked for justice on behalf of Dreyfus. 
As an independent sovereign, the prince had received the 
papal circular, and had doubtless called attention to the 
discrepancy in the text, thus rendering the very greatest 
service to the cause of freedom. The prince, however, 
energetically repudiates .any such honour. Judged from 
the moral standard established in diplomatic relations, it 
would, on the contrary, be a dishonourable action to give 
such information. When I had an opportunity of ques- 
tioning the prince on this matter he very emphatically 
declared that nothing would induce him to show a secret 
document. How a document can be secret when it is 
addressed to every government, and must be read by 
several civil servants in the employ of those governments, 
is another matter. In any case, the Prince of Monaco can 
meet the accusation levelled against him by a very good 
alibi. It so happened that at the time the incident occurred 
the prince was away on one of his oceanographic expedi- 


tions. He was out of reach on the distant seas. The prince ; 

thought the accusation of a diplomatic breach of faith f 

circulated against him could be attributed to the spirit of | 

revenge engendered by the fact that he had taken the part ■' 

of Dreyfus against his clerical persecutors. 

Needless to say, when I had the privilege of being 
received in audience by the Prince of Monaco, I asked 
for intimate details concerning what part the prince 
had taken in seeking to preserve the peace of Europe. 
The prince replied that this was a delicate question. 
Undoubtedly he had done his best. To him it was incom- 
prehensible that, in the face of modern scientific progi'ess 
and the immense development of intellectual work, there 
should still be persons suffering from such mental aberra- 
tion as to believe in the righteousness of force and to 
think that might meant right. Speaking with an easy flow 
of language and with great earnestness, the prince 
assured me that he did not believe such people were very 
numerous. Very few persons, after all, cared to incur the 
awful responsibility of war. It was a great mistake, he 
insisted, to give credence to the firebrand theory. It 
might be difficult to realise, but it was nevertheless a 
fact that those who were accused of militarist tendencies, 
of sanguinary ambition, were in reality most anxious to 
preserve the peace. If a quarrel arose, the prince added, 
it was not a national quarrel ; it was not even a govern- 
mental quarrel. It was only due to two or three indi- 
viduals who pursued a personal and not a national interest. 
When such a contingency occurred, it was comparatively 
easy for an outsider who was obviously disinterested to 
unmask such machinations. This was the part the prince 
had occasionally been able to play, and he laughed 
heartily when I suggested that, after all, no one would 
suspect him of an annexionist policy. The prince several 
times insisted on the general pacific disposition of all 
politicians and statesmen. But here and there, he repeated, 
a few individuals got up a scare, created a grievance, and 
deliberately fomented trouble. Behind such action, there 


was always some selfish, personal interest to serve. It 
sufficed to discover and to denounce these intrigues to 
prevent war. When, and this was usually the case, it 
could be shown that the patriotic outcry was started by 
those who hoped to fill their pockets if war ensued, the 
scare created generally collapsed. It had been the prince's 
object to unravel these sordid conspiracies against the 
public peace, and, by exposing their ti-ue character to the 
rulers most concerned, to prevent the mischief that, in 
the absence of such explanations, might have ensued. 
Thus he had endeavoured to work for the cause of peace. 
It was not for him to say with what measure of success, 
but he did not hesitate to declare that he had done his 



WHILE following the development of current 
politics and keeping a keen watch for an 
opportunity of intervening in favour of peace, 
Prince Albert never ceased the pursuit of his scientific 
studies and researches. On his little schooner of 200 tons, 
and with a crew of only fifteen sailors, he succeeded in 
collecting specimens from a depth of 9000 feet. It required 
three hours and a quarter of manual labour to lower the 
special sort of net constructed for this purpose, and nine 
and a half hours to bring it up again. A donkey engine 
would have saved much wearisome toil. Nevertheless from 
1885 to 1888 the prince made four expeditions on the 
Hirondelle. In 1891, Messrs Green, shipbuilders, London, 
constructed a yacht of 600 tons for the prince, which was 
called the Princesse Alice I. It had an auxiliary engine of 
350 horse-power and a small scientific laboratory on board. 
With this ship very fruitful expeditions were made from 
1892 to 1897. South-west of Madeira the sea was 
explored to a depth of close upon 1800 feet; but now a 
still larger vessel of 1373 tons was built for the prince at 
Laird's yards, Birkenhead. This was the Princesse Alice II., 
and she had triple expansion engines of 1000 horse-power, 
and could travel 13 knots an hour. Captain H. Carr, of the 
English navy, was second in command of this ship from 
1891 to 1906. Oceanography consists in part of engineer- 
ing and mechanical arts, for a new study requires new 
instruments. A few years ago, if we stood on the deck 
of a ship, we had no means, no methods existed, by which 
we might investigate what existed at any great depth in 



the ocean underneath. There was no rope that could be 
sunk to the necessary depth with an apparatus that would 
bring up, in an unspoilt condition, specimens of what lies 
at the bottom of the sea. On board the Princcsse Alice II. 
a specially constructed cable was placed. It was made 
with numerous galvanised steel threads cunningly inter- 
twined to give the maximum of strength with the minimum 
of bulk and of weight. Though this wonderful metallic 
rope could pan out to the total length of 39,000 feet, it 
could drag a weight of seven tons without snapping. 
Some people imagine that oceanography means an 
aquarium and the preserving of a few fish in bottles of 
alcohol ; it means, among a hundred other technical, 
mechanical and scientific attainments, the construction of 
such a cable as I have just described. Then there is the 
fitting out of ships with elaborate physiological, bacterio- 
logical and chemical laboratories on board. There must of 
course be swinging tables that will remain steady while 
the ship rolls, so that the chemical experiments may not 
be disturbed. There must be the necessary scientific 
reference library on board. Then, and though difficult to 
secure against breakage, there is need of a large amount 
of chemical apparatus, mostly of fragile glass and alcohol, 
for the preservation of specimens. Though an exceptional 
amount of light is necessary in the laboratories, especially 
for dissection, a dark room for photography is also 
required. Thus, and taken altogether, the fitting out of 
a ship for exploring the ocean is a technique in itself, and 
an absolutely new technique. This is one of the reasons 
why oceanography is a novel science and is not to be 
confused with natural history. 

Finally in 1911 the Hirondelle II. was built by the 
Societe des Forges et Chanticrs de Id Mcditerranee, and the 
prince has already made one expedition in this, his newest 
ship. It differs from the Princcsse Alice II., mainly because 
it is larger — namely, 1650 tons, with 2000 horse-power and 
a speed of 15 knots. Of course the scientific installation 
on board comprises the latest improvements, including not 


merely wireless telegraphy but also wireless telephony, 
by which sounds made at a great distance can be registered. 
Some experiments were attempted in telephony on board 
the Hirondelle II. off Toulon, and hopes are entertained 
that they will lead to a great simplification of the trans- 
mitting and receiving apparatus. In the meanwhile, the 
" Marseillaise " played at Algiers was heard and registered 
on board the HirotideUe II. off Toulon. 

During this, the first expedition with the new ship, 
a very remarkable species of octopus was discovered. Its 
body, like that of a jelly-fish, was so transparent that the 
internal organs could be clearly seen, but the most 
wonderful feature is the one large eye this fish possesses. 
The eye is divided into two parts, one for seeing and 
the other for projecting a phosphorescent light. Indeed, 
luminous fish with eyes that are lanterns abound in those 
lower depths about which we knew so little but a few 
years ago. Professor Charles Richet, notably, described 
to me a fish that seemed the very pei'sonification of 
prudence. This animal has only a very small body to feed, 
but an enormous mouth wherewith to capture the food. 
Then at the back of this huge mouth there is a luminous 
eye. Therefore, when it has secured a good mouthful, it 
turns on the light and has a careful look at Avhat it is 
about to swallow. Would that we were always as well 
informed before taking to ourselves the alimentary 
products that modern industrialism throws on to the 
mai'ket. The fish that gives this example of prudence is 
known as the eurypharynx. 

During his expeditions the prince assumes the supreme 
command. At present Commandant d'Arodes, who at- 
tained the rank of captain of a frigate in the French 
navy, and Lieutenant Bouree assist in the command. 
Dr Jules Richard, who has worked in the laboratory since 
1888, is entrusted with the zoological researches, and is 
assisted by the prince's private secretary, ]\L Fuhrmeister. 
On each cruise different professors and scientific authorities 
are selected, according to the nature of the researches 

L'lllKOMir.l.l.K Il"'Kr.Al>V to bk launcmei 


about to be made, and invited to accompany the prince. 
Then an able artist, M. L. Tinayre, also forms part of the 
staff, so as to paint pictures of the specimens captured 
before their coloms fade. To further ensure that no ex- 
perience shall be lost, Lieutenant Bouree has now become 
an expert in colour photography, and thus we ha^e the 
evidence of photography as well as that gi\en bj^ the 
artist's brush. The crew, for the most part, are recruited 
from the fishing population of the coasts of Brittany, for 
the work is often extremely arduous and a very hardy, 
reliable set of men is needed. 

Tlie oceanographic researches, conducted by the 
prince in person, extend from 81° north of Spitzberg 
to 12"05'' south of the Cape Vert archipelago. ]\Ieasured, 
in the vertical sense, these investigations, Mith the aid 
of balloons, have reached to a height of 43,400 feet ; and, 
with the special apparatus invented for the purpose, tlie 
sea has been studied down to a depth of nearly 20,000 feet. 
The first studies were devoted to the superficial currents 
of the Northern Atlantic, notably the Gulf Stream, but 
the Azores present conditions that are specially favoura])le 
from the biological and bathymetrical point of view. The 
latter terin means the life existing at different depths. 
How can animals be collected that live at a certain depth 
without capturing, at the same time, animals that live 
above or below this zone. The science of oceanography 
consists, among other things, of inventing instruments 
to sohe this problem. 

Altogether, and up to the beginning of 1912, the prince 
has made twenty-four different maritime oceanographic 
explorations. The separate operations performed during 
these expeditions amount to not less than 3160. But of 
supreme interest are the measures taken to ensure that 
this labour of giants shall not be lost to humanity. Above 
all it is necessary that with the disappearance of its prime 
promoter, the work shall still continue. For this reason 
the prince has founded and, above all, endowed the 
Museum and Institute of Oceanography. Then no trouble 


or money has been spared to print with beautiful, artistic 
and coloured illustrations a lengthy record of what has 
been done. These publications are issued by the Govern- 
ment Printing Works of Monaco in the handsome ybr/«a/ 
known as " grand jesus quarto," on beautiful special 
paper, and no less than thirty-seven large volumes have 
now been published. In themselves they constitute a 
lasting monument, and will be consulted during ages 
to come by students of nature. ]\Iany of the volumes deal 
each with a different category of fish. For instance, 
Vol. II. treats of the sponge-dwellers of the North 
Atlantic ; Vol. III. shell-fish; Vol. VII. crabs; Vol. IX. 
the octopus species ; Vol. XII. the star-fish, and Vol. XVI. 
the amphipodes or shrimp-like creatures. On the other 
hand, V^ol. XXII. is not concerned with fish, but with 
the water in which they live and its chemical composition. 
The pictures depict the apparatus for analyses and for 
taking photographs under water, ^^ol. XXI V^ is very 
important and interesting, for it deals with the normal 
existence of arsenic in organisms. 

The first researches in regard to arsenic were made by 
Gabriel Bertrand to prove cases of poisoning. In 1836 
the Marsh method of analysis overcame the principal 
difficulty, as with its aid the presence of a milligram 
could be detected, even when in combination with organic 
tissues. But the question arose whether the presence of 
some arsenic was not a normal condition. After many 
experiments, this was denied, till Gautier rediscovered 
arsenic in the tissues. Considering that while arsenic is 
so often used for criminal purposes its beneficent effects 
in the treatment of certain diseases are becoming more 
and more evident, the arsenic problem becomes a matter 
of great practical importance. Therefore it is interesting 
to see if oceanography can throw a new light on the 
question. Vol. XXIV. confirms the existence of arsenic 
in the normal tissues of man and animals. The illustrations 
give the apparatus employed, and the methods of research 
are explained. Many animals were captured in the Atlantic 


and at once examined for arsenic. In examining sea-birds, 
only the feathers were used, as the flesh might be in- 
fluenced by the abundance of the arsenic in the shot with 
which they were killed. From sponge-like growth to the 
vertebrae, all specimens examined were found to contain 
arsenic in the system, and this independently of the time 
or place of their capture. It seems, therefore, clear that 
arsenic has a part to play in our being, that it is an 
element of the living cellulla, and is present just as we 
find carbon, nitrogenous matter, sulphur and phosphorus. 

Vol. XXIX. gives some account of the presence 
of sulphuric acid in various parts of the sea. It deals 
with the means of estimating the varying transparency 
of water and its colorisation, the floating apparatus for 
measuring the rapidity of currents, and gives intei'csting 
pictures of the crystals that compose sand ; so it will be 
seen that there are many other things to be considered 
besides fish in the study of oceanography. No one should 
go to Monaco without including in his programme a visit 
to the Municipal Library. However ignorant of science 
and technicalities, the pictures, in any case, are so beauti- 
fully coloured, so strange and wonderful, that they cannot 
fail to interest. Let the visitor ask for the thirty-seven 
volumes, or Fascicules, as they are called, on Oceanog- 
raphy and he will get just a glimmer of what that term 
means and of the tremendous amount of labour done 
in Monaco to endow the world with a new and useful 

It was on the 25th of April 1899 that the foundation 
stone of the Oceanographic Museum was laid. On 
this occasion, at any rate, the nobler aspirations of 
the human mind were manifest ; petty rivalries were 
laid aside, and for once even active, practical politicians 
allowed themselves to dream of the great things peace 
allied with science might achieve. To show his apprecia- 
tion and interest the Kaiser instructed the German 
Ambassador in Paris, Count von Munster, to proceed to 
Monaco. At the ceremony of laying the foundation stone, 


Count von Munster Avas very emphatic in expressing the 
German Emperor's sympathy and interest. He concluded 
his speech with these words : 

" This monument about to be built in one of the most 
beautiful spots of Europe will crown worthily the work 
of Your Highness, and I admire the thought of making 
this a rallying centre for all who take interest in the 

" By offering so noble a hospitality to the learned of 
all countries, Your Highness will contribute to the good- 
fellowship and closer relations of all nations." 

The French Government was not behind the Kaiser 
in expressing its sympathy and admiration. They des- 
patched Admiral Brown de Colstoun, who likewise 
congratulated the prince. 

Considering that Great Britain is in the first rank 
among maritime nations, and, with the cruise of the 
Challenger and other explorations, can claim to have 
actively contributed to the development of oceanographic 
knowledge, it is difficult to understand why no spokesman 
on behalf of the British Government was present to take 
part in the felicitations offered by the governments of 
France and Germany. As it was, the Prince of Monaco 
found himself alone to face the representatives of 
the two rival countries. Undoubtedly it was a diffi- 
cult situation, well calculated to tax to the utmost 
the diplomatic skill which so many members of the 
house of Grimaldi fortunately have possessed. In dealing 
with the endeavours of the prince to maintain peace, 
especially between Germany and France, I have alluded 
to his disbelief in the supposed warlike proclivities of 
certain chiefs of states and governments. The speech 
delivered by the prince in reply to the German and 
French representatives supports this statement. The 
prince said: 

" The Emperor William at a moment when Europe is 
endeavouring to dissipate menacing dangers, gives evidence 
of reassuring feelings, since he sends one of his most vener- 


ated representatives to take part in consolidating a 
scientific mission. 

" Yes, the emperor who sets the example of intellectual 
efforts, who grants a cordial reception to a -working-class 
deputation, who sends even to the simple pioneers of 
Ij HirondeUe and ha Princesse Alice testimony of esteem, 
this emperor is acting like a true friend of peace." 

Then turning to Admiral Brown de Colstoun, the 
prince continued : 

" And you, Admiral, representing the nation which 
breathed upon the world the warm breath of its genius ; 
you who have been sent by a president who has become 
great by reason of the clearness of his acts, the firmness 
of his soul, and the suffrage of the French people ; you 
who received me in a day of storm and wreck, tell the 
French sailors, tell the companions of my youth, that my 
sailors are still at work, and that my old affection will 
last so long as I exist. 

"Now, when I see the delegates of the emperor and 
of the president unite round this stone, which summarises 
the alliance of labour and of thought, of that which is 
greatest in human nature, I wonder what is the new force 
appearing in the hearts of men to dominate the older 
instincts, and I foresee a light which science will kindle, 
and which will more evenly balance souls by directing 
their passions towards nobler objects. 

" A stone will be laid by hands that will be joined 
together in friendship. May the movement of which this 
is the foundation throw towards the sea spread before us, 
like the infinite, and towards the sky, suspended above 
us like hope without limits stretching to the generations 
the future awaits, a ray of that serenity which emperors, 
kings, princes and chiefs of states must all find in their 
own consciences, so as similarly to influence the men 
whose destinies they have to guide." 

Thus, while paying the greatest homage to the German 
Emperor, the prince seeks to tar him with the I'acifist 
brush. Then he turns to compliment France of the Great 



Revolution by alluding to the universal influence of 
French genius, and finally recalls the fact that he joined 
the French navy during the Franco-German War; and all 
this is done in so delicate and poetical a manner that 
everybody is happy and satisfied. Indeed, so successful 
was the prince, that both emperor and president, not 
contented with having deputed special ambassadors, also 
sent personal telegrams. 

Such was the nature of the encouragement the prince 
received when the foundation stone of the museum was 
laid with befitting ceremony. Probably when all the other 
leading nations have fallen into line in recognising the 
service this institution will render to humanity, the 
British Government may also wake up to the conscious- 
ness that something ought to be done. This is the more 
necessary as the museum is not a fancy structure erected 
to satisfy the special taste of a wealthy prince. It is not 
even a museum provided as a resort for the inhabitants 
of the principality. It is part of a permanent and well- 
endowed international institution, placed at the disposal 
of men of science of all nations, and managed by an 
international committee. Further, as Monaco is at some 
distance from the great universities and centres of study, 
a corresponding Institute of Oceanography has been 
founded in Paris. The museum at Monaco becomes a 
demonstrating centre, an all-important annexe or branch 
of the institute established at the Paris University. What 
concerns the museum is therefore of more than mere local 

Certainly at first, as far back as 1885, the prince did 
think of building at Monaco a museum in which he 
could place the specimens he brought back from his 
scientific explorations. But it soon became apparent that 
this would be altogether too exclusive. Such a museum 
must contain in a general manner all that relates to the 
science it is meant to illustrate. As the building progressed, 
in 1903, the prince arranged for the delivery of lectures in 
Paris, notably at the Conservatoire National des Arts et 


Metiers. These lectures proved so successful that they were 
transferred to the Sorbonne, and finally in 1906 the 
prince determined to found an Oceanographic Institute. 
Mr H. Villiers Barnett, the editor of Tlic Continental 
Weekly, than whom no one is better informed concerning 
the pleasure and health resorts of the Riviera, obtained 
a copy of the letter in which the prince explains to the 
French Government his position and his intentions with 
regard to this proposed institute. The letter is addressed 
to the French Minister of Public Instruction, and Mr 
Barnett translated it into English for his paper : 

" Monsieur i.e Ministue, — Having devoted my life 
to the study of the Oceanographic Sciences I have been 
struck by the importance of their action on several 
branches of human activity, and I have striven to obtain 
for them that place which they should occupy in the 
solicitude of governments not less than in the preoccupa- 
tions of the learned. 

" Several States have already organised scientific cruises 
in all the seas of the globe and have established a solid 
basis for the development of Oceanography ; but France, 
notwithstanding that the science of the sea presents for 
her a special interest, has not treated it with the same 
liberality as she has treated other branches of Science. 
Nevertheless, for some years past I have caused to be 
given in Paris a series of lectures which have been followed 
by audiences each time more numerous and more attentive, 
while the public powers, in the persons of President 
I^oubet and members of the Government, have shown 
a certain interest in them by their presence. 

" I then wished to fill a gap by myself creating and 
establishing in Paris a centre of Oceanographic Study 
closely connected with the laboratories and collections 
of the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, where for the 
last twenty years I have gathered the results of my 
personal labours and those of eminent collaborators who 
have come to me from all the countries of Europe. 


" Informed by the friends of the University [of Paris] 
that a scheme of enlargement, necessary to the prosperity 
of that illustrious body, had met with difficulties and 
delays in its realisation, I thought that the combination 
of the two plans would be beneficial to both ; and I 
offered to the Vice- Rector my collaboration therein. 
Subsequently it became possible for me to take my part 
in raising the capital necessary to acquire the land which 
the Sorbonne needed, and in return, the University 
granted me a site, on part of this new estate, on which 
I wish to erect the Oceanographic Institute whose Statutes 
I now communicate to you. 

"It is a great pleasure to me thus to acknowledge 
the hospitality which Paris and France accord to all 
thought-workers ; I add that I do not limit the patrimony 
of the new Institute to the building which will be erected 
in Paris : the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, with 
its laboratories, collections, aquariums and dependences 
are, from now on, the property of the Oceanographic 
Institute, to which I have given a working capital of four 
milUons [of francs]. 

" Desirous that this institution shall survive me under 
the conditions which have appeared to me likely to assure "%■ 

the services which I expect from it for the progress of J 

Science, I beg the French Government to recognise it as 
of public utility and to approve its Statutes. 

" Will you accept, JMonsieur le Ministre, the assurance 
of my high consideration. 

" (Signed) Albert, Prince of Monaco. 

"April 25, 1906. 
" Palais de Monaco." 

The land acquired by the Paris University is 
higher than the old Sorbonne and the Pantheon. It 
is farther up the rue St Jacques, and here a large 
clearance has been made. On the vacant space thus 
created the first structure to be raised was the Oceano- 


graphic Institute. But there has been a good deal of 
misrepresentation with regard to the legal standing of 
the institute and the museum. This, however, is clearly 
explained in the official organ of the principality, the 
Journal de Monaco ; and, like that which appears in the 
London Gazette or the Paris Journal Officiel, may be 
considered legally correct. The Jotirnal de 3Ionaco 
recognises that the letter to the Minister of Public 
Instruction, dated the 25th April 1 906, and quoted above, 
may be taken as the basis of the whole question. To 
ensure that the work to which the prince has consecrated 
the greater part of his life shall continue indefinitely, he 
has created an institute for the study of the geography, 
geology, hydrology, biology, zoology, bacteriology, etc., 
of the sea. This institution must continue to collect 
specimens, to organise classes and lectures, to direct and 
provide financial means for scientific missions, and to 
publish the results of its researches. 

To realise such a programme it was necessary to find 
a town frequented by students from all nations, who were 
willing to follow special courses of study, and to whom 
such teaching would be a novelty, not likely to clash 
with any existing school. These conditions were found in 
Paris, and there was further the appropriate circumstance 
that the university was extending its buildings. This 
provided an opportunity to secure land for the proposed 
Oceanographic Institute close to the Faculty of Sciences. 
The letter in question was written, therefore, in the 
spring of 1906, but it did not, as sometimes supposed, offer 
as a free gift to the French Government the institute 
and the endowment of 4,000,000 francs. The letter 
simply points out the advantage that students of the 
University of Paris would derive from such an institute, 
and asks the Government to approve its statutes and re- 
cognise it as an institution of" public utility." Accordingly, 
a decree to that effect was issued by the French Govern- 
ment on the 16th May 1906. In virtue of this Act the 
institute is governed, with regard to its administration 


and finances, by a Council of Administration ; and from 
the technical and scientific point of view by an Inter- 
national Improvements Committee {Corn it e intei'natio7ial 
de perfectioimement). It is an autonomous and indepen- 
dent establishment, possessing a legal and civil existence. 
The only provision made for the very unlikely event of 
the disestablishment of this institute is that, supposing 
the authorisation were withdrawn, and the councils and 
committees dissolved, the endowment and the building 
belonging to the institute would be handed over to the 
University of Paris, but under the clearly stipulated 
condition that the object held in view by the donors and 
testators should be carried out. If this were not done the 
donors and testators, or their heirs and assigns, would 
have the right to claim their share of the property. 

The Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, as has been 
explained, is part of the patrimony of the institute. It is 
the private property of the institute which, in virtue of 
the Decree of the 16th May 1906, enjoys all civil rights, 
and may therefore own property. The museum no more A 

belongs to a foreign government than the institute itself. ■ 

Its management is bound to respect the will of its ^ 

founder, and to continue to conduct it for the purpose of T 

the collection and study of all that relates to the ocean 
and its contents. 

The museum also remains an integral part of the 
principality. By handing it over to the Oceanographic 
Institute the museum is withdrawn from the private 
domains of the prince ; but, like the rest of the princi- 
pality, it remains under his rule and sovereignty. The 
museum is in the same position as all other property 
in the principality, whether such property be owned by 
a native Monegasque or by a foreigner. Therefore, the 
prince still exercises civil and criminal jurisdiction over 
the museum. Any infraction of the law taking place in the 
museum would be dealt with as if it had occurred in any 
other part of the principality. Should it be necessarj^ at 
any future time to impose taxes on house and landed 


property, the museum would be taxed as all similar 
property. Being no longer a part of the prince's domain 
or private property, it could only be exempted from 
taxation by a special order, which could at any time be 
rescinded. So also all objects brought to the museum are 
liable to custom duties as if taken to any other part of 
the principality. The State, of course, retains the right of 
requisition and of occupation. Thus the museum is the 
private property of a scientific institute which has its 
headquarters at Paris, but this does not mean that it is a 
French institution. Its headquarters might just as well be 
in Rome or any other town. Like all other property 
in the principality, the museum is subject to the laws of 
the principality. 

The Journal de Monaco explains that if Prince 
Albert desired to give what he had created as international 
a character as possible, it was necessary, first of all, to 
place it above the fluctuations of politics, and to protect it 
against individual enterprises. The study of the ocean is 
so wide a subject that it soon oversteps the narrow 
boundaries of any one nation. Further, the prince 
realises that the conquests of science should form the 
philosophical patrimony of all mankind. Therefore the 
institute, the museum, and the studies and researches 
they are to facilitate will not be French or Monegasque, 
or the property of one particular nation ; on the contrary, 
they will provide a means of uniting men from every 
nation in the accomplishment of a work destined to benefit 
all humanity. 



E LEADEN years were required to build the museum, 
and it will contain the results of researches spread 
over a quarter of a century. Now at last the time 
had arrived when its doors might be opened and the public 
at large invited to see for themselves what oceanography 
means. For this purpose a great ceremony and fete were 
to be organised. The need was felt for a sort of apotheosis 
as a well-merited expression of gratitude for what had 
been done, and also as a demonstration that would attract 
and instruct those who did not yet realise the importance 
of the progress science had achieved. It was on 5londay, 
the 28th of March 1910, that the museum was solemnly 
inaugurated. Among the many distinguished persons 
present on this joyful occasion was JVI. Emile Loubet, 
former President of the French Republic, and now Vice- 
President of the Administrative Council of the Oceano- 
graphic Institute. The French, German, Italian, Spanish 
and Portuguese governments sent official representatives. 
From Great Britain came Professor J. Y. Buchanan, 
delegate of the Royal Society, and Mr Scott Keltic of the 
Royal Geographical Society ; but, taking into account 
the benefits maritime countries derive from oceanography, 
the British Government should assume a leading part on 
such occasions. In any case it might be expected that 
Great Britain would send as influential and important a 
deputation as Germany, Italy or France. To what extent 
it may be necessary to compete with Germany in the 
building of Dreadnoughts is a matter on which opinions 




are divided, but there can be no two opinions as to the 
utility of oceanographic science. The German Govern- 
ment is accused of pursuing a belHcose naval policy ; 
yet Great Britain allows itself to be almost effaced when, 
as on this occasion, it is a question of encouraging a 
purely pacific and truly humanitarian undertaking. There 
was no special envoy from the British Government 
or from the British fleet, no one to stand by the 
side of the Cabinet Ministers, the Admirals and the 
Ambassadors sent by other countries. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that the schools, academies and institutes of 
different countries were fully represented. The orchestra, 
under M. Jehin, rendered with the perfection of execution 
for which it is renowned, the Ouverture de Fete. This is 
a symphony which Saint-Saons had composed expressly 
for the occasion, and it was enthusiastically received. The 
prince now rose and delivered a remarkable speech. He 
pointed out that oceanographic science, though young, 
had already its place in the world's intellectual domain. 
To-day the science of the sea was entering the palace an 
architect had built as the home of the two directing 
forces in the civilisation of the world — Art and Science. 
Men, ships, governments, all were helping. The German 
Emperor had sent ships to study the Indian Ocean, and 
had raised a meteorological and atmospheric observatory 
on one of the highest points dominating the sea, the rock 
of TenerifFe. The late King Carlos of Portugal consecrated 
all his leisure time to oceanographic study till he was 
struck down by a kind of return current which brings 
back some of the savage characteristics we hoped to have 
outgrown : 

" But atavism, the force that prolongs through suc- 
cessive states of being the influence of anterior genera- 
tions, only yields very slowly to another force that is 
eternal in the universe, the force of evolution, which 
carries men towards a future Time veils from our sight. 

" When we speak of science we must congratulate 
Germany and the Scandinavian countries, where both the 


nation and the state have felt that scientific culture is 
the secret of civilisation, where so inany citizens constitute 
centres of intellectual development, where culture presides 
over the orientation of ideas." 

Then, although great Britain was so poorly represented 
at the ceremony, the prince proceeded to pay homage to 
what Englishmen had done : 

" On such an occasion all present will not fail to think 
of those learned men whom we cannot forget, those 
Englishmen who were the first to efface the general 
ignorance concerning the inhabitable character of deep 
water. We recall the early and glorious cruises of 
Carpenter and Wyville Thompson, of John Murray and 
Buchanan. We remember the services rendered by Milne 
Edwards, a master in the science, and of ^Nlagnaghi, 
whose work opened the way in Italy for the science of 
the sea." 

After enumerating the scientists of other nations who 
had given much help to the cause, the prince expatiated 
on the wonderful fact that oceanographic science showed 
more and more clearly how the origin of life was to be 
found in the sea. This had greatly intensified the interest 
felt in such researches. Also it had now been demon- 
strated that deep water, instead of being uninhabited, 
contained a far more numerous population than could 
possibly exist on land, where every creature had to live 
on the same level. Then it was to the sea that everything 
belonging to the land ultimately flowed, and might there 
be converted into an organism. The sea was the cradle 
of the first living cell. " Having reached this point," the 
prince exclaimed, "we may be led to believe that as 
beings living on the earth we are renegades who have 
escaped from the ocean, thanks to the energy we have 
distilled from the bosom of the waters, which supplies to 
our flesh the forces of life and of reproduction. 

" But are we more happy under the brilliant sunshine 
than we were in the phosphorescences of the deep waters ? 
Are we happier in the subtle and changing atmospheric 


centres than in the immovable spaces where centuries 
preside over the transformation of living matter ? If joy 
is to be measured by the intensity of the sensations which 
are derived from the spectacle of the universe in its march, 
assuredly we are favoured beings. But perhaps true happi- 
ness resides in the quiet depths where vaguely defined 
shadows pass silently through the glow of phosphorescent 

The prince then described the object of the institute 
and the museum, and expressed his confidence in the 
honour of men of science to continue after him the work 
he had began. 

" I desire that this monument shall shelter without 
favour the labour of scientists ; I hope it will never 
become any one person's particular vanity." 

In conclusion the prince thanked all those who h^d 
helped him to create a new branch of modern science, 
" which has so much power in altering the conditions of 
life, the mentality of men, and the relations of peoples." 
Nor did he forget the workmen who during eleven years 
had placed stone upon stone till the final conclusion of 
the building. Not only did the prince speak gratefully of 
their services, but was careful to see that they were 
included among the guests who were invited to partici- 
pate in the inauguration ceremony. After the prince had 
duly declared the museum to be open, M. Pichon, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the French Republic, was 
the first to speak. The French Government had two 
reasons for participating in the fete, its interest in the 
science, and its gratitude to the prince for having 
established the Oceanographic Institute in Paris. 

" As Minister of Foreign Affairs of a government 
whose constant concern it is to maintain peace among 
nations, I hail in this work of education, of study, of 
progress, an act of disinterestedness and of clairvoyance 
which merits universal gratitude, because, while endeavour- 
ing to increase our knowledge, it serves the cause of 


The Grand Admiral Von Koester, speaking in French, 
said that H.M. the Emperor of Germany had since the 
laying of the foundation stone followed with the greatest 
interest the development of the museum, and now sent 
his warmest congratulations. In conclusion the Grand 
Admiral said : 

" While thus carrying out the order of my Sovereign, 
I beg Your Serene Highness to be so good as to believe 
how proud and happy I am to have been selected for so 
flattering and agreeable a mission. 

" The Oceanographic Museum which your Serene 
Highness has graciously placed under the high patronage 
of my august Sovereign is unique in the universe. Being 
the outcome of the noble initiative taken by Your Serene 
Highness this magnificent monument will for ever be 
a witness of the learned and laborious researches to which 
your Serene Highness has so faithfully devoted your life, 
and will lend precious assistance in the evolution of the 
sciences and the progress of mankind." 

Vice- Admiral Grenet for the Italian, and Count de 
Souza Rosa for the Portuguese governments, spoke in 
equally enthusiastic terms. After a few words on behalf 
of Spain from Senator Odon de Buen, some verses 
entitled " Nef Triomphale," written by INI. Jean Aicaro, 
of the French Academy, and set to music by M. 
Massenet, were rendered by the chorus and orchestra 
of the Monte Carlo Opera. Now three short papers were 
read by professors of the Oceanographic Institute. M. 
Berget described the extent and the limits of oceano- 
graphic science ; M. Portier dealt with the life found 
in the ocean depths; and M. Joubin examined the 
programme and purport of the institute. 

The " Inaugural March," composed expressly for this 
occasion by INI. Leon J chin, in which he very happily 
introduced the Monegasque Hymn, was then played, and 
the prince rose to coiftuct his guests through the museum. 
At the end of this ceremony, M. Pichon, on behalf of the 
French Government, presented the cross of the Legion 


of Honour to M. Delefortrie, the architect of the museum. 
There now only remained an exchange of congratulatory 
telegrams between the Emperor of Germany, the President 
of the French Republic, the King of Italy, the King of 
Spain, the King of Portugal, and the Prince of Monaco. 

Though tiie museum was now open to the public and 
the inauguration terminated, there were other fetes and 
demonstrations to follow. In the evening there was a 
gala performance at the opera. M. Raoul Gunsbourg had 
composed for the occasion an Ode a la Pensce, which, when 
the prince and the foreign missions had entered, was 
read by Madame Bartet, of the Comedie j'run^ahe. 

On the morrow, AVednesday, the Mediterranean 
Commission held a sitting in the meeting-hall of the 
museum, where lunch was served. Selections were given 
by the orchestra and chorus of the Monte Carlo Opera ; 
these included a cantata which had been composed speci- 
ally for the occasion by M. Bellini, formerly chief of the 
choir at the Monaco Cathedral, entitled " Ode to Oceanog- 
raphy." There now followed the long series of speeches. 
M. Emile Loubetwas the first to rise, not, however, as the 
former President of the French Republic, but as Vice- 
President of the Council of Administration of the Oceano- 
graphic Institute. M. Loubet congratulated the prince 
upon " the incredible tenacity with which, even at the peril 
of his life, he had persevered during twenty-five years, till 
he had succeeded in giving us samples of the life that 
exists in all depths, even so far below the surface as 
18,000 feet." 

M. Emile Picard, of the French Academy of Sciences, 
expressed gratitude on behalf of the University of I'aris, 
of the Royal Society of London, the Accademia del Lincei 
di Roi/ia, the Academies of Science of Berlin, Vienna, 
Madrid and St Petersburg. The learned professor pointed 
out that to be a proficient oceanographist it was necessary 
to possess extensive knowledge of geometry, physics, 
chemistry, biology and geology. It was not a ship, there- 
fore, that was required, but a floating laboratory. For this 


laboratory all manner of new instruments and appliances 
were indispensable, and had to be invented as the need 
arose. Thus and thus only could marine biology be 
developed to the extent of peopling the new museum 
with so many interesting and beautiful specimens of life 
below the waves. 

M. Roujon, secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts, 
read the speech of M. Massenet, the operatic composer, 
recalling the services the prince has rendered to the 
cause of the fine arts, and congratulating him upon his 
achievements in the domain of the precise sciences. Then 
followed M. Perrier, in the name of the Paris Museum of 
Natural History, Professor Peuck for the Oceanographic 
Institute of Berlin, M. Deslandres for the Bureau of 
Longitudes of France, and M. Gabriel Bertrand of the 
Pasteur Institute. The latter explained what practical 
service the study of the living organisms of the sea 
rendered to the science of bacteriology. Mr Scott Keltic, 
delegate of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 
spoke in English of the great and stimulating effects the 
prince's investigations had produced among students of 
geography in all parts of the world. M. Girard, in the 
name of the Portuguese Maritime League, recalled how 
deeply the late King Charles of Portugal was devoted 
to oceanography. There remained more speeches, but 
it was now so late that they were taken as read and 
subsequently printed. One was from Professor Gerhard 
Schott, in the name of the German Maritime Observatory 
of Hamburg ; another from M. VioUe, of the Institute 
of France, written in the name of the Conserimtoire des- 
Ai-fs et Metiers, and another from M. E. Levasseur, 
Administrator of the College de France. In spite of the 
guillotine process applied to the last three speeches 
the epoch-making breakfast was prolonged till three in 
the afternoon. 

The festivities and celebrations were not, however, 
terminated. In the evening there was a magnificent 
nautical fete organised by M. Raoul Gunsbourg, Director 


of the Monte Carlo Opera. Needless to say, an enormous 
crowd lined the shore. Never in the history of the princi- 
pality have so many visitors been received. When the opera 
orcliestra had played M. Leon Jehin's " Inaugural March," 
an antique galley was seen approaching. It was bearing 
Hercules in his course round the world. The god pauses 
in his journey, overwhelmed by the splendour of the sight, 
and sings a hymn bestowing his own light, his eternal 
spring, on this beautiful spot. Now Hercules comes still 
nearer and takes possession of the rock, which he names 
INIonaco. Thereupon two other galleys appear, the one 
bearing tlie Sciences, the other the Arts ; they approach, 
chanting praises of culture and learning. Hercules replies 
by a stirring song glorifying the sea and its mysteries, 
which man with the aid of science will one day master 
and penetrate. Then, followed by the galleys, Hercules 
advances farther into the port so as definitely to install 
the Arts and Sciences at Monaco. But there are opponents, 
the primitive inhabitants, half animals, half men, rebels 
against civilisation. They forthwith attack the galleys. A 
battle follows, ending in tlie destruction of obscurantism, 
and the triumph of enlightenment. The powerful baritone, 
M. Titta-Kuffo, sang the part of Hercules, and his voice 
was heard even over the broad expanse of the waters. 
After the pageant there followed illuminations, more 
singing, and a magnificent display of fireworks. Thus, 
with fitting brilliancy and manifestations of joyful 
appreciation, the monumental Museum of Oceanography 
was successfully inaugurated. It has been seen that some 
of the principal governments, universities and academies 
of Europe sent special representatives and spared no 
pains to show that they understood the importance of the 
work done. 

There now only remained to open the permanent home 
of the institute itself This was completed nine months 
later, and inaugurated on the 23rd of January 1911, at 
nine o'clock in the evening. The President of the French 
Republic, M. Fallieres, sought by his presence to give the 


highest sanction and mark of approval it was possible for 
the French nation to render. The Oceanographic Institute 
had been built by a French architect, M. Nenot, Membre 
de tinstitut, on ground secured by the university in the 
higher portion of the rue St Jacques. Lower down in the 
same street is the church of the Sorbonne, the new 
Sorbonne buildings on one side, and the College de France 
just opposite. It is indeed classic ground. The Sorbonne, 
as everyone knows, is one of the most renowned seats of 
learning in the world. It was founded by Robert de 
Sorbon, confessor of St Louis, in the thirteenth century, 
the object being to assist poor students to study theology. 
The church, the library and the main building were, 
however, erected by Richelieu, and it was merged into 
the university by Napoleon I. Thus to-day, in rough 
parlance, the word Sorbonne is accepted as meaning the 
Paris University, though some portions of the university, 
notably the schools of jurisprudence and of medicine, are 
in other than the Sorbonne buildings. The Oceanographic 
Institute, while so close a neighbour, is absolutely in- 
dependent of the University of Paris. The building itself 
is Florentine in style, with a square tower which recalls 
the palace of the Grimaldis at Monaco. M. Falli^res 
did not fail to praise the architect, M. Nenot, and M. Louis 
Tinayre, who is responsible for the mural paintings. These 
represent some of the operations carried on in mid-ocean 
for the collection of specimens from the lower depths. 

At the inauguration the celebrated band of the Re- 
publican Guard was present to play the " Marseillaise " and 
the Monegasque Hymn. The President of the Republic 
was accompanied by M. Pichon, Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, M. Jean Dupuy, Minister of Commerce, General 
Florentin, Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honour, 
M. A. Dubost, President of the Senate, M. de Schoen, 
German Ambassador, M. Tittoni, Italian Ambassador, 
and Madame Tittoni. 

The prince and the president led the procession, and 
the guard of honour presented arms as they entered the 






building. They were followed by the Hereditary Prince 
of Monaco, who gave his arm to H.R.H. Princess Mary 
of Greece. Then came H.R.H. Prince George of Greece, 
M. Maurice Faure, Minister of Public Instruction, 
officially representing the French Government, the Council 
of Administration of the Oceanographic Institute, and 
many notabilities. Altogether some six hundred persons 
were present, and when they had assembled in the largest 
lecture-room of the institute the prince delivered the 
inaugural address. He thanked the President of the 
Republic, the representatives of the State, the Parliament, 
the Town, the Army and the Navy for uniting to confer 
the lustre of their presence on the inauguration of a new 
school now opened in the capital of France. After refer- 
ring by name to several of those present, the prince 
said : 

" Finally I find among you three men whose names I 
pronounce with feelings of deep affection and admiration. 
There is Sir John Murray, who will ever remain one of 
the loftiest figures of oceanography, since he played so 
important a part in the British expedition of the C/ia/Zenger, 
the first that was consecrated to the science of the sea. 
Then there is Nenot, the author of this monument, the 
•architect whose masterpieces will always testify to the 
persistent progress of the Paris schools. Finally, there is 
Charcot, the audacious explorer who has just returned 
from the Antarctic regions, where, to the honour of the 
French flag, he conducted a crew of sailors and of 
oceanographers. " 

The prince went on to describe the purely scientific 
and international mission of the institute. ISI. Maurice 
Faure, Minister of Public Instruction, spoke and pro- 
claimed that it was the duty of the Government to 
encourage so excellent a work. After alluding to the 
prince's desire to maintain the international character of 
the institute, the minister added : 

" But you also thought that the most certain means 
of increasing its vitality, of facilitating its action, would 


be to place the institute under the protection of French 
laws and in the neighbourhood of that illustrious Uni- 
versity of Paris whose doors are so widely open to new 
ideas ; to place it in that noble capital which you love 
and which loves you. You were anxious to raise this 
palace in the centre of the old Latin quarter, the glorious 
cradle of so many discoveries, and you convoke the 
studious youths of all nations to come and listen to the 
renowned masters whose lessons will popularise the science 
of oceanography which you so justly and passionately 
love. In the name of France and of the University I 
congratulate you and I thank you." 

M. Armand Gautier, President of the Academy of 
Science, delivered himself of a lengthy dissertation on 
the earlier efforts and gradual development of oceano- 
graphic science for the purpose of proving that the 
Academy of Science was bound to support the Oceano- 
graphic Institute. After this M. Liard, the Dean of the 
Paris University, spoke, and concluded by an allusion to 
the financial services the prince had rendered : 

" The University of Paris is also aware that you are 
a neighbour from whom only good services are to be 
expected. Already you have given proofs of your liberality. 
The University cannot forget that at the moment when 
it was negotiating for the purchase of the vast expanse 
of land where the Institute of Chemistry, the Institute 
of Radium, and later, parallel with your Ocean ographic 
Institute, the Institute of Geography, will be built, your 
intervention was decisive ; and that without a donation 
from you this fine combination would have been wrecked 
within sight of port. Therefore the University is glad to 
hail in you a benefactor." 

Finally M. Perrier, Director of the Museum of Natural 
History, made a learned speech on the unifying influence 
of the sea. He spoke of the life that sprung from the sea 
and the light that descended into its depth. But the fish 
went down deeper than the light could penetrate, and 
then they generated a light of their own and thus im- 


ported a little sunshine into those dark regions. Unlimited 
by space or time, the science of oceanography needs the 
aid of the learned of all nations, of all languages, of all 
races : 

" The profound sentiment of universal solidarity which 
such a work engenders is the best guarantee that the 
wishes Your Highness have so often and eloquently 
expressed will be realised. The rainbow symbol of uni- 
versal peace whose first faint colours move with uncertain 
light across the sky has already served to blunt many 
bayonets, and will one day shine resplendent over the 

When these speeches were concluded the band played 
INIeyerbeer's third " March aux Flambeaux." Then the 
prince's aide-de-camp, Naval-I^ieutenant Bouree, showed 
on a screen some of the marvellous colour-photographs 
he had been able to take of the rare animals captured 
during the most recent expeditions. After these interest- 
ing exhibits, there was a cinematograph reproduction of 
the ceremony at the inauguration of the Monaco Oceano- 
graphic Museum. This concluded the evening's programme. 
The band played the " Inaugural March " specially com- 
posed by M. Leon Jehin, the guests visited the various 
classrooms and laboratories, not forgetting the buffet, 
where champagne and light refreshments were served, and 
then the distinguished assembly dispersed. Thus by three 
great ceremonies, in which many nations and their govern- 
ments participated, have the Institute and the Museum of 
Oceanography been officially brought into existence. First, 
the foundation stone of the museum at Monaco was laid 
on the 2.5th of April 1899. Then, eleven years later, on 
the 28th of March 1910, the museum was solemnly in- 
augurated amid public rejoicings throughout the princi- 
pality. Finally, on the 23rd of February 1911, the 
Oceanographic Institute, built in Paris close to the 
Sorbonne, was opened by the prince and M. Fallieres. 
Now the work is completed. A permanent school is 
established and endowed. It only remains for scholars 


and students to make good use of the opportunities offered 
by the Oceanographic Institute, and it cannot be said that 
they have failed to appreciate these advantages. 

It must be borne in mind that the institute cannot 
give a degree. There is no degree in oceanography 
as in medicine, in law, and other branches of learning. 
Therefore only a small number of students were expected. 
An attendance of thirty to forty would have been 
considered satisfactory. To the great surprise of all 
concerned, there were before the close of the first year 
from seventy to eighty pupils. As these students cannot 
hope to obtain any grade or title to put to their names, 
they come to acquire knowledge and knowledge alone ; 
there is absolutely no other inducement. 

The pupils have a choice of these professors. On the 
ground floor there is a classroom, and the laboratories are 
upstairs. Here each professor has a separate apartment. 
First, there is a large laboratory for his pupils, where all 
the apparatus and materials necessary are provided, 
together with a carefully diffused electric light. No money 
has been spared, and everything is done to encourage and 
facilitate study. Then beyond the laboratory there is the 
professor's private study, and on the other side his private 
laboratory. There are three such series of laboratories. In 
the first, and assisted by M. Germain, Professor M. Joubin 
teaches Oceanographic Biology. In the second Professor 
M. Berget, assisted by M. Klein, deals with the Physics of 
Oceanography, and in the third the Physiology of Marine 
Animals is taught by Professor M. Portier, assisted by 
M. O. Cassas. The latter gentleman is also the Secretary of 
the Institute and, if the visitor has the good fortune to 
meet him, he may hope to be shown many things of great 
interest. Though there is no museum here, in the broad 
passage upstairs there are unpretending cupboards that 
contain specimens to show pupils, and which ordinary 
visitors would be glad to see ; notably some wonderful 
sponges and a few cephalopodes, the octopus type of 


In the basement there are tanks for small aquariums, 
not for show but experimentation. Already one very 
interesting demonstration has been made. It is known 
that fish have the power of changing their colour to match 
that of their surroundings and thus render themselves less 
visible and less likely to be captured. An ordinary eel, 
almost black in colour, was placed in a light grey tank. 
In less than a year the eel had become identically the 
same colour as the cement with which the tank is made. 
It was the first time I had seen a grey, almost white, eel. 
There is also provision here for sea- water, but as yet little 
or nothing has been done with live fish. Then we have a 
mechanical engineering workshop. This is very important, 
for many things required for oceanographic researches, 
expeditions, experiments and demonstrations do not exist 
as marketable articles. Those who want them must make 
them. Here all the machinery, the saws, etc., are worked 
by electricity. At the time of my visit the engineers were 
making a special kind of tubs for the collection of plankton, 
that fine dust which, floating on the ocean, is supposed to 
be the first manifestation of life. Finally there are big 
boilers to provide heat and hot water for all parts of the 

Of course there is a library, offices and committee 
rooms, but the most encouraging feature of all is the 
Public I^ecture Hall. This fine structure will hold 800 
people, and there is an endowment of £240 a year so that 
popular lectures may be given on Saturday evenings. In 
response to a written application, an admittance card for 
the whole season is sent gratuitously. The applications are 
so numerous that the hall is not large enough to hold the 
audience. The practice is to open the door as soon as some 
ten persons have gathered outside. So eager is the general 
public to hear these lectures that they commence to arrive 
two hours before the lecture, and it is often necessary to 
close the door an hour before time, as the hall is already 
full. As far as possible, technicalities are avoided, the 
object being to interest the general public in oceanographic 


science, and the intelligent population of Paris has 
enthusiastically responded to this invitation. On hearing 
of this success, it was impossible not to feel the contrast 
between the idle rich, who waste their time at Monte 
Carlo, and the industrious Parisian population. How many 
people go to jMonte Carlo without learning anything 
whatever about oceanography, or, for the matter of that, 
about anything else of real use. 

Tlie working expenses of the institute in Paris amount 
to £2480 a year, all paid for by the prince. The pupils are 
not charged any fees. They need only make a written 
application to the professor under whom they wish to 
study ; and, if the professor has no personal objection to 
the pupil, he is admitted to follow the lessons and lectures 
given. The institute also publishes annually four to six 
issues of reports of its proceedings, which are well illus- 
trated, and distributed to public libraries in different 
countries. Thus is the work of instruction carried forward 
to the advantage of the community and at the cost of the 
Prince of Monaco. 



OX one occasion when I was speaking to a high 
functionary at the casino he chanced to come 
upon a photograph of the Oceanographic Museum. 
During a pause in the conversation he took the photograph 
in his Iiand and said : 

" Here is a monument that will last. When the casino 
has disappeared and is forgotten this museum will still 
stand forth as a beacon of light, attracting the learned 
from all parts of the world, and receiving the grateful 
homage of mankind." 

Coming from one of the principal administrators of 
the casino, during the height of the season, when JMonte 
Carlo was thronged with visitors and robed in all its 
glory, these words impressed me deeply. That anyone 
thinking over the matter would in all probability make 
the same prognostication did not lessen its effect, for I 
was impressed not so much by what was said, but by the 
fact that the superiority of the museum over the casino 
was acknowledged at the casino itself. Of course it is 
quite possible that Monte Carlo will go the way of Baden- 
IJaden, Wiesbaden or Homburg, and who to-day re- 
members these places ? Only a few old men and women ; 
to the modern generation they are known merely as health 
resorts, the mineral waters of which benefit certain diseases. 
The four walls of the casinos of these towns still exist ; 
they have not been pulled down, but their glory has 
departed ; who ever hears anything about the casino of 
Homburg nowadays? But the Oceanographic Museum 
is a magnificent and substantial building, so constructed 



as to be the permanent home of a new science. So new 
is the science that even to-day there are many who do not 
understand what it is, and it will be some years before 
anything like adequate acknowledgment is made of the 
service rendered. Fortunately the museum constitutes an 
object-lesson. A man's brain must be singularly devoid of 
imagination if he fails to grasp, be it but in a very incom- 
plete manner, the wide-reaching importance of the new 

Nevertheless it must be confessed that the museum 
has not yet acquired the popularity it deserves. There 
does not seem to be anyone whose business it is to make 
it popular. People cannot be expected to understand 
unless some sort of explanation is given. A teclmical 
guide-book only increases the weariness of the visitor, 
as he fails to understand the meaning of the most im- 
portant words. During the season, at least, there should 
be present at fixed hours, if not a professor, then a student 
of oceanography, so as to conduct parties round and 
awaken their interest. As one instance out of many, 
preserved in alcohol there is a dingy-looking fish called 
the Halosauropsis Man'ochir. Not one person in a thousand 
among the general and ignorant public would stop to 
examine this specimen unless someone were present 
to explain that it was a luminous fish. Down its side 
there is a black band which, it appears, is luminous, and 
shines like the port-holes of a ship at night. Altogether 
this fish possesses sixty-four luminous scales, and can light 
these up at will, in whole or in part. Thus as it passes along 
it throws a light on objects to its left or to its right. What 
a problem these luminous fish open out. A few years ago 
people marvelled because they found animals of beautiful 
colours, possessing powerful eyes and yet living where 
we imagined there was absolutely no light. The deep-sea 
nets were expected to catch blind fish, whereas they 
brought up fish with larger and more powerful eyes than 
any seen before. Apparently they could perceive things 
where to us all is darkness. Many shone brightly, and 



drops of luminous water fell from them. It is where the 
gorgons and irises flourish that a great crowd of luminous 
beings circulates. 

The GorgotiocephaUus Agassizi in its ramifications 
is one of the most extraordinary creatures preserved in 
the museum. It is reduced to about one-third its natural 
size in the accompanying photographic reproduction. 
Originally it was of a brick-red and orange colour that 
the alcohol has not preserved. Another specimen remark- 
able for its vivid red colour is the NeoUtltodes Grimaldi, 
so named because it was discovered by the Prince of 
Monaco. This animal should be able to defend itself, to 
judge from the number of spikes with which it is armed. 
It is some consolation to know that this NeoUthodes was 
caught far away on the coasts of Newfoundland and at 
a depth of 4100 feet, for it is not the sort of creature 
persons fond of bathing would care to tread upon. Its 
claws are three times the length of its body. The photo- 
graphic reproduction given of this crab-like creature 
is a little smaller than its natural size. Some controversy 
arose as to the species with which it should be classified. 
Ultimately it was decided that it belonged to a separate 
species, and was thereupon named after the Grimaldifamily. 

It would be a great error to imagine that the museum 
is a natural history museum such as exists in almost all 
the large towns of the world because it contains some 
specimens of animals. In this respect I was told an 
amusing story of an American who, having gone round 
in the blind manner in which most visitors stroll through 
this building, said he did not think much of it. The 
museum at Washington was much finer ! Needless to say, 
there is no museum of oceanography at Washington, nor 
in Paris, nor in London or anywhere else. The only town 
where a small attempt has been made to establish such 
a museum is Berlin. The Oceanographic Museum of 
Monaco is unique ; nowhere else in the world does such 
a museum exist, and it is about time that this fact should 
be better known and appreciated. 


The majestic proportions of the home built for this 
science are in themselves imposing, though, short of tres- 
passing upon the beautiful gardens of St JNIartin, it was 
not easy to find, on the historic rock of Monaco, a site 
extensive enough for the museum. Finally it was decided 
to sacrifice for this great work of peace the old powder 
magazines which stood at the eastern extremity of these 
gardens. Here the ground sloping seawards a little distance 
ceases abruptly where the rock stands perpendicularly over 
the waters. There was no even ground for the foundations. 
Piles had to be employed to carry the museum across 
the declivity so that its outer or farther wall should 
rest on the lower part of the rock before it rises vertically 
from the sea. These difficulties are best appreciated when 
the building is viewed from the sea. The great arches of 
solid masonry with the wild irregular rocks showing 
under them afford a wonderful contrast between the 
geometrical symmetry of the architectvu'e and the glorious 
freedom from discipline that characterises nature's rude 
work. By building over the sloping ground, land which 
had been useless was now employed. The entrance to the 
museum is on a level with the summit or normal plan 
of the rock, and faces the old town. The width of the 
museum covers the space reaching to the extreme end 
of the declivity over which the piles are built. Between 
these piles, and below the main building of the museum, 
descending therefore nearer to the sea, room has been 
found for two basement floors. They have good windows 
overlooking the sea on one side but on the other side 
there is only the hard rock. The lower basement, being 
nearest to the supply of sea water, is well suited for the 
aquarium. There is also ample space for numerous labora- 
tories where scientists work, and cool rooms built close to 
the rock which serve to stow away the hundreds of 
specimens that have not yet been studied and classified. 

The calcareous stone from the neighbouring heights 
of La Turbie has been employed for the building. It is 
exceptionally hard and durable, very similar indeed to 



the stone used for lithography. Some of the larger blocks 
selected for ornamental purposes, such as the columns of 
the frontage, come from Brescia, they also are very hard 
and durable. Indeed the first impression produced is that 
of something massive, substantial, evidently intended to 
last for ages. The central part of the museum is square, 
65 feet 6 inches by 65 feet 6 inches ; on each side there 
are wings identical in size, and measuring 131 feet in 
length, and 49 feet in width. The total length of the 
building is 100 metres, or 328 feet. Still more emphatic, 
as indicating that the museum is meant to resist in- 
definitely the assaults of time, is the fact that the principal 
walls are from 8^ to 9f feet thick. This circumstance is 
worth noting, for it characterises the whole enterprise. 
It is not an undertaking that is going to live and die 
with the Prince of Monaco, as if it were only a personal 
hobby. This museum is a temple raised to a wondrous 
science, on the spot specially favoured by the great sun 
and sea god, Herakles, Melkarth or Hercules. The rock 
that shelters the port of Hercules now serves as the 
foundation for the new temple. Where the god personify- 
ing the Phoenicians who travelled on the sea used to 
be worshipped, to-day a new divinity who will conduct 
man above and below the sea is adored in the manner of 
modern science. 

The principal entrance is from the Avenue Saint- 
Martin. There is a wide space in front. This, while serving 
the practical purpose of giving carriages room to turn and 
to wait, enables the visitor to stand away far enough to 
obtain a good view of the building, and to observe the 
harmony of its architectural proportions. The chief 
decorative features are tiie monolithic columns, and like 
the rest of the structure they suggest strength and 
durability. It would seem as if the spirit of Hercules 
still inspired the dwellers on the rock that bore his temple 
for several centuries. If the walls are thick and strong, the 
columns that ornament them consist of huge stones, 
26 feet high, and weighing 16 tons each. They form the 


frontage of the first floor, not the ground floor, which is 
less lofty. The first floor is 36 feet high ; its interior is 
surrounded by a gallery. 

The sculpture of the facade is as original as it is 
appropriate. The usual conventional designs are absent, 
their place being taken by decorations akin to the object 
of the museum. Instead of flowers, arabesques or other 
commonplace ornamentation, we find sculptures of 
animals discovered in the deep waters such as the gcryon, 
the fish named after the monster with three bodies which 
Hercules killed, the polyvlicles, captured at a depth of 
6000 feet, and many other strange creatures. The frontage, 
bears the arms of Monaco, and this is more conventional, 
but then they are surmounted by a gigantic albatross 
and a sea eagle. Other portions of the frontage are the 
work of JM. Dussart, the sculptor, who, in a series of 
allegorical groups endeavours to represent Truth unveiling 
to Science the Forces of Nature, and Progress advancing 
to the assistance of Humanity. Above these sculptures 
are the names of the ships which have most contributed 
to the new science, such as the TaUsvian, the Challenger, 
the Valdi'oia, the Hirundelle and the Pi'incesse Alice. 

The broad and raised foot space before the main 
entrance numbers thirteen steps. The visitor then reaches 
the beautiful wrought-iron door designed by M. Delefortrie 
and penetrates into the vestibule. Here are the turnstiles 
where a franc is generally charged for entrance, and here 
also useful purchases may be made of books about the 
museum, and the autobiography of a portion of the 
prince's life entitled " La Carriere dun Navigateur." This 
most captivating story has been admirably translated into 
English by Mr H. Villiers Barnett, and should be read 
by all who are interested in the sea, in travels, in ad- 
ventures, in Monaco, and in its prince. Photographs and 
post cards are also on sale. Some of the latter are decorated 
with seaweeds pasted on the card and touched up with 
paint to render the picture complete. But unfortunately 
the name of the seaweed is not given. A few words of 


simple explanation would render the cards much more 
interesting and valuable. Inside the building, as outside, 
all the ornamentation recalls the purpose of the museum. 
It is ships, fish, ropes, pulleys. Even the knobs of the 
balustrade that protects the monumental stairs are in the 
form of sea-shells. The great lustre in the central hall or 
reception saloon represents a Medusa. This is a noble hall 
measuring 23 feet in height, and forming a perfect square 
of 59 feet on each side. The smaller lustres in the four 
corners have been supposed to imitate sea-urchins, but 
in reality they are intended to represent microscopic 
marine organisms belonging to the radiate group. Both 
were designed by M. Constant Roux, who won the Grand 
Prix dc Rome, and both depict gelatinous, transparent 
fish capable of emitting light. They may suggest an 
abundance of romantic symbolism, for was not the Medusa 
one of the three Gorgon sisters who turned to stone all 
on whom they fixed their eyes ? Loved by Neptune, slain 
by Perseus, the head of Medusa, when affixed to Minerva's 
shield, still preserved its hypnotic powers, just as water 
petrifies that over which it flows. To-day the strange 
maritime creature of whom the sea god was enamoured 
serves as the design of the central lustre at the Oceano- 
graphic Museum. 

Pushing through the first glass doors, the visitor is 
confronted with a white marble statue of H.S.H. Prince 
Albert I. of Monaco, which was offered to the prince by 
his admirers, who commissioned for the work the well- 
known member of the Iiistitut, Monsieur D. Puech. It 
now constitutes one of the most popular portraits of 
the prince extant. On the wall immediately behind the 
statue are two tablets. One gives the names of the 
Monegasques who subscribed for this gift to their 
prince. The other bears the names of the foreigners 
who were also anxious, by contributing, to show that 
they shared in the admiration felt for the prince and his 
scientific achievements. First on this list comes H.I.M. 
William II., Emperor of Germany, followed by the 


names of their INIajesties Carlos I. of Portugal, Alfonso 
XII. of Spain, William II. of Wiirtemberg, H.R.H. 
the Duke of Oporto, H.I.H. Prince William of Hohen- 
zollern, H.S.H. Prince Charles of Wiirtemberg, H.S.H. 
Prince de Radolin, the Royal Geographical Society of 
Great Britain, a very long list of senators, deputies, 
medical men, artists (notably M. Henri Neuville), 
scientists (notably Professor J. Y. Buchanan of Christ 
College, Cambridge), and financiers (notably the Baron 
Heni'i de Rothschild). 

Beyond what has been described there is not much 
to be seen in the central or reception hall. The western 
wing of the museum is devoted to the conference hall 
especially destined to accommodate Congresses, and for 
the holding of meetings and the delivery of lectures. Here 
there is some fine wood-work, and the ceiling is richly 
decorated by M. Cavaillie-CoU. Some admirable paintings 
by M. Hippolyte Lucas represent episodes in the Arctic 
Seas illustrating the exciting adventures attendant upon 
oceanographic research. At the far end of the conference 
hall, above the platform, hangs a large canvas by 
M. Monchablon. This presents the graceful white shape 
of the Prhicesse Alice floating on a sea so serene, so 
shining, so cerulean, that the spectator cannot repress 
a longing to be on board. 

It may be noticed that black as well as white blinds 
are fitted to the windows, so that complete darkness can 
be produced when lantern slides are to be shown. A 
special system of electricity is installed, which, under 
110 to 120 volts, gives from 90 to 100 amperes. Thus all 
that is necessary for scientific demonstration is amply 
provided and ready to hand. This illuminating force can 
be conveyed to whatever part of the hall it may be 
desirable to place the lantern. If it is night, after or before 
the slides have been shown, six handsome bronze lustres 
can be used for illumination. 

It is, however, only on entering the eastern apartment 
or hall of the ground floor that the visitor will obtain the 


first clear indications of what oceanography means. At 
each side of the door there are revolving globes. These 
show the world, one from the South Pole, the other from 
the Equator, the latter dividing the seas into three 
catagories. The oceanographer studies the relationship 
between these seas. There are first the seas entirely 
bordered by land, the Caspian, for instance ; secondly the 
seas, like the Mediterranean, that are nearly surrounded 
by earth ; thirdly, the free unrestrained oceans. But before 
we observe such smaller exhibits, very large objects in 
the centre will first attract the eye, particularly the giant 
skeleton of the whale captured by the prince. These bones 
measure no less than 70 feet in length, and therefore can 
scarcely escape notice. Just outside there are grounds 
where bones can be dried and bleached by the sun, for 
this is no mere show museum, but a great workshop for 
the naturalist, where every facility is afforded for research 
and experiment. Close by are other smaller skeletons, and 
well-mounted specimens of white sperm whales, sharks, 
walruses, and the embrjos of some of these monsters. 
Fearful-looking octopi may be seen in bottles of spirit, 
and as their colour fades so quickly, pictures are hung 
close by rendering faithfully the hues of the living animal. 
In many instances the specimen is placed by the side of 
a painting made when it was still alive. While adding 
to the beauty and interest of the exhibits this is of the 
greatest assistance to the student. There are also to be 
seen life-sized models of Arctic Sea whales, dolphins, 
round-headed whales, and other large mammals. 

Cases along the walls hold smaller objects, from 
sponge-like creatures which it is difficult to assign to 
either the vegetable or the animal world, to star- and shell- 
fish. Noticeable among the seaweed exhibits are some 
with marvellous tints of green. Many of the minor 
specimens belong to the sea-urchin kind. Then we reach 
various species of crabs, smaller jelly-fish and octopi. 
Here the coloured drawings show how much the beautiful 
tints have faded during the process of preservation. It 


is impossible to over-estimate the value of these coloured 
illustrations, or to cease admiring their beauty. At the 
farther end of the room we come upon some larger fish 
preserved in alcohol, such as cod-fish, playing-fish, and 
a strange fish called the petromyzon inarinus caught in 
the port of Monaco. Its anatomy or principal organs are 
exposed and labelled. It is a long, slender fish, the mouth 
is round, without teeth, and seems intended only for 
sucking. The genital gland is almost as large as the 
intestine, and nearly the length of the whole body, which 
is about two feet. 

On the other side of the hall are exhibited the instru- 
ments used in deep-sea research. Here we may see how 
specimens of mud, sand, stones, etc., are collected at 
great depths and brought to the surface. Here are nets 
for capturing fish, contrivances for taking the temperature 
of the water, or for securing samples of it at a certain 
depth, and neither above nor below that depth. How 
was this apparatus controlled and made to work many 
thousand feet below the ship ? How could the nets be 
opened or closed, the bottles for samples of water 
manipulated so as to be shut when full at the right depth? 
Men stood on the deck of the ship and accomplished all 
this though they might be miles away, and had but a 
thin steel cord to connect them with the apparatus they 
were employing. The new, the ingenious contrivances for 
accomplishing such work are shown at the museum, and 
this throws a sidelight on the material difficulties and 
obstacles that oceanographers must overcome. 

To the scientist it suffices to have discovered and 
demonstrated an unknown fact. The new fact may be 
millions of years old, but it is called new if only just 
discovered. It may appear devoid of any utility whatsoever. 
This does not matter. In the course of time some other 
equally useless fact will be discovered, and when these 
two inutilities are brought together, something extremely 
useful may result therefrom. The man in the street, 
however, is likely to view things in a different light. He 


has a tendency to inquire what is the use of the things 
shown. Oceanography is a new word, a rather cumbersome 
word, and the question is often put as to whetlier what 
it represents is really of value. Some answers to such 
scepticism will be found in this museum. To begin with, 
the ordinary mortal associates the sea with waves, not to 
mention sea-sickness, and on entering the eastern hall 
he will find a relievo of waves. These are designed to 
scale, being stereophotogrammetrically measured by 
Kohlochutter. This is a good long word, and worthy of 
an Atlantic roller. But the great thing is to know what 
is the real size of waves, for no one can tell by merely 
looking at them. In a storm they are described as 
mountains high, though they rarely exceed 35 feet even 
in mid-Atlantic, and that is quite bad enough for most 

Having thus obtained some idea of the size of waves, 
we next come upon Professor Regnard's experiments for 
ascertaining how far down the light can penetrate into 
the water of the sea, and for conveying an electric light 
deep down into the water. Here we have the actual 
bottles and tubs, some of them small beer tubs, and 
various forms of floaters that were thrown overboard 
to ascertain the course of the ocean currents. Each con- 
tained a paper with the following request written in three 
languages : — " Anyone finding this paper is requested 
to remit it to the naval authority of his country in order 
that it may be forwarded to the French Government." 

Thus, for instance, in 1887, cruising the Gulf Stream 
for a distance of some 600 miles, between the Azores and 
Newfoundland, 931 floaters were dropped overboard. By 
the year 1892 as many as 226 of these had been picked up 
and reported to the authorities. The prince was therefore 
able to throw some new light on the course followed by the 
Gulf Stream. There is also a great variety of revolving 
machines with clock-work that look like anemometers, 
but their object is to measure the velocity of water 
currents and not that of the wind. 


Having thus examined the movements of the water 
we must consider the quahty of the water, and it will 
be seen that sea- water generally contains 35 per 1000, 
or 35 grammes of salts in a kilogramme of water ; about 
three quarters of these salts are common salt. Where 
many rivers fall into the sea the water is not quite so salt, 
but where there is much evaporation it is more salt. Thus 
the Baltic is poorest in salt, the proportion being only 10 
grammes per 1000, and the Red Sea the richest. If the 
sea were of equal depth throughout the world we should 
have a mass of water 3680 metres, or 4000 yards high, and 
if this were evaporated it would yield a bed of salts 72'4 
metres thick. In order of solubihty salts of lime would 
be at the bottom ; the amount, proportion, and position of 
the other salts are given. To faciUtate the realisation of what 
the depth of the sea means there are great squares of blue 
glass. The surface represents a square geographical mile 
or a sixth of a degree of latitude — that is, 2025 yards. 
The depth is measured in a similar proportion, but to 
make this even more easy to understand there are little 
models of the 32,000 ton Cunarders, the Maiiretaiiiu, 
and Lusitania, sailing on the surface of the water. One 
column represents water that has a deptli of 4500 metres, 
4905 )7vrds, while the big Cunarders from the keel to the 
highest deck are about 100 feet, or 30 metres. The next 
column represents a sea that is 9636 metres, or 10,500 
yards deep. The wooden socket on which one of these 
graphic diagrams of water stands is cut in exactly the same 
proportion so as to illustrate the greatest depth attained 
by any boring made in the solid earth. This is at Cynchow, 
in Upper Silesia, where they penetrated 2240 metres (2440 
yards) into the earth. Oceanographers bring up samples 
from depths exceeding 6000 metres, so there is knowledge 
of what is happening three times farther below the surface 
of the sea than below the surface of the land. 

Other models indicate tliat while the sea occupies the 
largest surface area of the earth its depth may vary from 
3000 to 6000 metres, but the height of the land only 


varies from 1000 to 2000 metres. Also there is very little 
land at these high altitudes, and it is not of much use. 
Half of the sea, on the contrary, is deeper than 4000 
metres ; and there is a tempting pyramid cut to scale 
to indicate how much silver this water contains. It 
amounts to no less than 13,800,000,000 tons of pure 
dissolved silver. On the other hand a very tiny pyramid 
represents the 32.5,760 tons of silver obtained since the 
discovery in lidS of America, and reckoned up to the 
year 1905. The pyramid of Gizeh, the greatest in Egypt, 
looks quite small by the side of the silver pyramid that 
could be built if it were possible to extract all the silver 
the sea contains. Indeed this pyramid of sea-born silver 
would be just as large as the cone-shaped Mont Agel 
that towers 3451 feet above the casino gardens. When 
to this store of silver is added the pearls, the mother-of- 
pearl, the coral, etc., obtained from the sea, it will be 
readily recognised that a graphic study of the ocean may 
not be devoid of practical utility. 

Monumental stairs give access to the first floor and 
to a splendid balcony. Here, as elsewhere, the mosaics, the 
carving, stained-glass windows, and other forms of decora- 
tiv^e work, all appropriately recall the sea and its many 
forms of animal and vegetable life. The disposition is the 
same as on the ground floor, a square central hall and 
two oblong halls on each side. In the centi'al and square 
hall there is a fully equipped whale-boat, with the small 
cannon to throw the harpoon, and all the other weapons 
necessary for hunting the huge cetacean inhabitants of 
the ocean. IJetween the beautiful columns of Brescia 
stone are models of the prince's yachts, the Princesse 
^lice I. and the Priitvcsse Alice II. In the corners revolv- 
ing frames hold seaweeds carefully labelled in three 
languages. Others contain photographs that give views 
of the life on board the prince's yachts. Here may be 
recognised the numerous and distinguislied persons who 
took part in the different expeditions. There are also 
photographs of some of the captures made, and interest 


is sure to be felt, especially in one very alarming monster, 
for it was caught barely a stone's throw from the museum, 
at the Pointe de la Vieille, and this not in the I'emote 
past, but on the 14th of June 1909. It is a very fierce- 
looking brute, armed with a triple row of teeth, and at 
least as big as a man. Such a neighbour does not suggest 
the advisability of bathing in the open sea. Scientists have 
bestowed on this menacing creature the name of Ocvyr/i/jta 
SpaUanzani. Perhaps such complicated nomenclature may 
deceive some into the belief that the fish comes from a 
distance, but that will not console those whom it may bite. 
The great hall to the west, on the first floor, is at 
present held in reserve for the increase of the collections. 
For the moment it serves to sort and classify specimens, 
and is thus a workshop to which the public is not ad- 
mitted. The hall on the east is devoted to the physical 
and chemical aspects of oceanography, to the larger 
appliances used for sounding and fishing, and also to 
certain industries of the sea. Immediately on entering, 
and to the right, are sponges, coral and pearls. Then come 
dried fish, such as stock-fish and molluscs. The gourmet 
will be interested in a collection of caviare, ranging in 
colour from the brown of the German lentil to dark and 
pale greens. No indication, however, is given to shoAV how 
flavour and colour correspond. After this we have furs. 
There is also a curious collection of parasites that fatten 
on fish, including the familiar cuttlefish which we give 
to our pet birds so that they may sharpen their beaks. 
Bouquets made of sea-plants, pottery, and fans decorated 
with the flora of the ocean, conclusively prove that the 
gardens of the sea can also contribute to beautify the 
dwellings of man. From the centre of the ceiling hang 
huge nets and all manner of strange devices to bring up 
the treasures of the deep. Here are models of the laiger 
nets or cages that can be opened when at a certain depth 
and closed again before they are hauled up. But for these 
it would be impossible to discover at what varying depths 
the diflerent species live. 


The two basements are for the most part devoted not 
to show but to work. Here ai-e situated several laboratories, 
including a well-fitted dark room for photography, a 
library for works on oceanography, various studios and 
workshops for investigation or the preparation of speci- 
mens, together with the offices of the administrative staff. 
These premises are all fitted with heating apparatus, and 
supplied with gas, soft water and sea-water. Small aquaria 
can be placed in the studios or workshops, and there 
are movable operating tables for dissection and other 
zoological, botanical, histological and biological researches. 
Any accredited student will find here all that is required 
for elaborate investigation. *■ 

On the lower of the two basements the public will 
not fail to visit the most attractive and enthralling por- 
tion of the museum. The east side of this basement is 
devoted entirely to the aquarium. Here are glass tanks 
that vary in length from 3 to 19 feet. They are 4 
feet wide, and from 2^ to 6 feet deep. The sea is just 
below, and a gas engine pumps up the sea-water that 
constantly flows through these tanks. But at first there 
was trouble. The outer side of the tanks is of plate 
glass, otherwise the fish could not be seen, and this glass 
cracked, broke and let the water out. If not promptly 
rescued the fish would have died. Nothing struck the 
glass, it seemed to break of its own accord ; and at first it 
was difficult to accoimt for so mysterious a phenomenon. 
The theory was started that there must have been 
earthquakes, doubtless very distant earthquakes, for the 
shocks were so slight that no one felt them, but still 
sufficient to crack glass held tightly in hard, inflexible 
iron frames. Then the more plausible suggestion was 
made that though there must be vibration for the glass 
to break this was not due to earthquakes. It was probably 
caused by the sea waves dashing against the rocks below. 
There might be small hollows where the air would be 
imprisoned and compressed by the inrushing water, and, 
on bursting forth again, produce minor explosions. There- 


upon Mr Robert S. Ash who, as an Enghsh surgeon- 
dentist, enjoys a reputation extending far beyond the 
principaUty, made a proposal that was most valuable 
because it was practical and simple. He urged that the 
iron frames should be lined with some flexible rubber-like 
material. This was done. The rigid glass and the rigid 
iron being now separated by a yielding material, the 
vibration, however caused, no longer splits the glass. 

Thus without further anxiety we can watch the 
mysterious life that has been lifted out of the mighty 
deep so that we may admire and wonder. It is a strange, 
an awe-inspiring sight. How little do we know of the 
beauty and grandeur that is close at hand ! At the opera 
on the other hill just opposite we see ladies dressed in 
silks of the most delicate hue, wearing precious stones 
that flash forth bright and coloured lights. Such splendours 
could not, however, be compared with the glorious tints 
of some of the fish, and the daintiness of some of the 
sea-flowers that now live in the aquarium of the Oceanic 
Museum. There are appalling monstrosities too, side by 
side with the frail exquisite creatures, beasts of great 
strength near elf-like beings to whom gentleness and 
beauty seem a sufficient protection. 

Labels and coloured drawings are provided to enable 
the visitor to understand a little of what he sees. But it 
is no great satisfaction to be told the I^atin name of a 
fish. It would awaken interest and stimulate the visitor 
to study some of the questions at issue if a few words 
were given concerning the habits of the fish, its use and 
origin. The tanks at the entrance of the aquarium con- 
tain a great variety of star-fish that will surprise by their 
difference in size and shape, their yellow to scarlet hues 
recalling the fruit of the arbutus-tree which grows so 
plentifully on the Riviera. Then follow extraordinary 
crabs and lobsters, eels, flat-fish, stumpy, short fish, green 
fish with transparent green fins of the same tint as the 
green sword-bladed seaweed that abounds on the coast 
of the Mediterranean. The labrus mixtus, the lip-fish 


and blue-striped wrasse are most beautiful, if seen in 
the right light. Nor do they endeavour to conceal them- 
selves ; on the contrary they come up close, as if disposed 
to stare out of countenance those who stare at them. 
The sea-horse near at hand is of a more retiring dis- 
position. The cruelty that mingles with the beauty of 
this life is exemplified by the scorjnena scrq/'a, the red 
scorpion fish. It lies watching with its bright transparent 
red eyes that outshine the finest ruby. It does not seem 
living, so quiet and motionless is its attitude, but it 
strikes the approaching prey with lightning speed and 
remorseless force. There are ferrets in the sea as on land, 
equally cruel, graceful and agile ; and though we may 
read of this in books we must go to Monaco to see them 
in life and action. As I looked and wondered, an admiring 
traveller standing near exclaimed that this was better 
than the aquarium at Naples, though not so good as 
that of Honolulu. At the farther end are great conger- 
eels, and here is a particularly fascinating and remarkable 
fish. He is podgy in shape, but when in the right light his 
shining scales are of a dark, deep, mysterious blue. A 
movement, however, a motion of the tail, makes the fish 
reflect different rays, and then he appears to be brown, 
till in turn this sombre tint changes to a silvery grey. 
Indeed many of these fish, the Murwna Helena, for 
instance, with brown body and green eyes, are constantly 
changing colour as they swim about. To watch their 
movements is like watching rockets that burst in the air. 
The closest attention is necessary not to miss the brilliant 
colours as they Hash out and disappear. 

There is also a large but shallow tank with live turtle 
in it, and some quite small glass tanks for the observation 
and study of diminutive animals, as these would be lost 
in a spacious and deep aquarium. From the scientific point 
of view it is not the more conspicuous animals and the 
big fish that are the most interesting, 'i'he tendency, of 
course, has been to study the larger species, but there is 
much of great interest in the customs and habits of com- 


paratively unknown small types, such as the gouania, 
the alpheides, etc., and they are likely to supply useful 
indications to marine biologists. It must always be borne 
in mind that though there is much to interest and 
fascinate the visitor even if he is absolutely ignorant of 
oceanography and all that appertains thereunto, still the 
main object is to encourage research. Therefore, it must 
not be imagined that all the collections made are shown 
to the public. A certain portion of these things is used 
for exhibits, but a considerable part of the specimens is 
held back, put in the laboratories, and placed at the 
disposal of specialists. Many specimens, especially when 
there are duplicates, are preserved in view of effecting 
exchanges with other museums. 

For twenty-five years the life of an unseen world has 
been brought to the surface, and to-day much of it is 
there in the museum ready to awaken the interest of the 
ignorant, and to supply the learned with the means of 
acquiring greater knowledge. No one capable of appre- 
ciating form and colour can fail to be enthralled by the 
vivid yet harmonious tints of the fauna and flora of the 
sea. In those who love and admire flowers, the sea- 
anemones, the multi-sized, many-shaped and coloured star- 
fishes, will excite equal or greater admiration. But the 
beauty of the flower intended to attract the fertilising agent 
is strictly utilitarian in its purpose. So also is this museum. 
It will spread the love of science, and it is the prince's 
conviction that all the forces of evil must succumb to 
science. " Science, which includes all Mght and all truth, 
is the force that draws men closer together." Science 
means peace, human progress, and " the conquest of the 
unknown is the only conquest worthy of the modern 

In the sea lie hidden the keys to all the sciences, for 
on the waters life began. The earliest micro-organisms are 
gathered from the sea and studied at the museum of 
5lonaco. These of course include the plankton, to which 
perhaps we all owe our existence. This fine living dust 


floats over the surface of the waters, penetrates into their 
depths, and, by destroying impurities, renders the exist- 
ence of higher organisms possible. The human body is 
composed mainly of water, and this water is closely akin 
to sea-water. Minute organisms preserve the purity of 
sea-water, and the preservation of our health depends on 
the triumph of the friendly over tlie hostile organisms 
that are constantly attempting to invade our bodies. This 
is a fact that should bring oceanographic science home to 
everyone. Such is the scope and utility of the evidence, 
the knowledge now accumulating in the new temple raised 
to the enlightenment that science gives, the life it inspires 
and preserves. On the ancient rock where Hercules, the 
god of strength, light and vivifying heat, was worshipped, 
now stands, with solid walls, the majestic and lofty 
museum. It is a noble because it is a useful structure. 
It will fire the ambition and create thirst for knowledge 
in the minds of the ignorant. It will provide a haven for 
the learned and studious. It is a place of wonder and 
delight to all, and it stands forth overlooking the sea — a 
lighthouse of science. 



NEXT in importance after oceanographic researches, 
so far as the principality is concerned, is the great 
impetus given to the study of anthropology and 
human palagontology. These are not new sciences, like 
oceanography, and are studied by a much larger number 
of persons ; therefore there is no need to demonstrate 
their importance ; and the fact that a historic group of 
rocks and caverns known as the Balzi-Rossi or Baousse- 
Roussc or l?oches Rouges — the red rocks of Men ton — 
used to form part of the principality naturally accounts 
for the fact that many years ago archaeologists came to 
Monaco. Just above these rocks is the picturesque village 
of Grimaldi. It was in the year 1351 that Charles 
Grimaldi, Lord of Monaco, Menton and Vintimille, 
bought this ground and gave his name to it. He also 
constructed a fort, the ruins of which were recently 
unearthed. Thej^ tower some eighty feet above the edge 
of a high cliff which forms part of the St Louis gorge. 
The rock is called La Grimaldi, and its cracks and 
crevices form grottoes. It seems that once the Romans, 
and perhaps their predecessors, explored the palaeolithic 
deposits of the Baousse-Roussc. An Englishman in 1770 
tried to dig into the Grotte du Prince. In 1786 de 
Saussure discovered a lime-kiln under the shelter of the 
Grotte des Enfants, 22 feet long; and other grottoes 
were used for the same purpose. Before 1848, Prince 
Florestan I. sent a case full of remains from these grottoes 
to Paris, but they were lost or destroyed during the revolu- 
tion. However, in 1865, Professor Broca visited thegrottoes, 




and insisted that they were refuges where people went to 
enjoy their meals in security — a sort of prehistoric Giro. 

VV^hen. in January 1870, the railway was built on the 
uncultivated strip of land in front of the first four caves 
the distinguished French geologist, M. Riviere, was there 
all day long striving to impress on the navvies respect for 
the sacredness of the soil they were digging into or 
exploding with mines. By June 1871, M. Riviere was 
able to take a large collection to Paris, and next autumn 
the Minister of Public Instruction gave him an official 
mission, so that he was able to dig deeply and open 
several grottoes. The " Memoirs," published in 1873, 
testify to his activity. He had found only a few petrified 
birds, including a falcon the size of an eagle ; but he came 
across many large animals such as wolves, antelopes, 
rhinoceroses, and finally human skeletons. There was the 
skeleton of the Cavillon grotto known in the world of 
anthropology as riiommc dc Mcnion. He was found some 
twenty feet above the stalagmitic level. This skeleton 
is now at the Paris Museum of Natural History, by 
the window on the first floor overlooking the Old Orleans 
railway station. The skull is stained with red, and a 
number of shells of snail-like animals adhere to it. These 
are the A7/.v.w of the Mediterranean. The late Dr Henry 
Rennet, of Menton, Professor Bennett of Edinburgh, and 
Dr .lolm Martin of Portsmouth, a distinguished dentist, 
were all present during the week it took to uncover, 
without damaging, the skeleton. It is that of a very tall 
man, with perfect teeth, who seems to have died in his 
sleep. The general opinion, which was endorsed by Sir 
Charles I^yell, is that he belonged to the palaeolithic 
period — that is, the epoch of the mammoth, when man 
had not yet learnt how to polisli stones. 

Most appropriately, at the Paris Natural History 
Museum, from the gallery close to the Menton skeleton 
a commanding view can be obtained of the life-sized 
reproduction of the mammoth-like Diplodoctis Carnegiei 
■which is at the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburg. This model 


is a gift of Mr Andrew Carnegie to M. Fallieres, President 
of the Republic. The Diplodocus was a giant reptile of the 
Secondary era, and lived at the end of the Jurassic period, 
on the borders of the tropical lagoons that stretched to 
the Rocky Mountains. It was found in Sheep Creek, 
jVlbany, co. Wyoming, and is 82 feet long and 13 
feet high. Thus very important discoveries made in 
America and in the principality of Monaco are close 
neighbours in the Paris Museum of Natural History. 

Soon other skeletons were found, including those of 
two children in what is now known as /a Groftc des 
Enfunts. The implements used by the men varied greatly, 
though the animals around them were much the same. 
The cut stones differed in size, and there was a total 
absence of tools made with bones. It was in 1882 that 
Prince Albert first began his researches. He dug with his 
own hands in the Banna grande, noting down at once 
whatever he discovered. His object was not so much to 
pick up specimens that might form a collection as to 
unravel, on the ground itself, every sort of evidence likely 
to give a picture that would facilitate the understanding 
of the epoch to which they belonged. Then he also con- 
ceived the idea of saving these grottoes and the precious 
evidence they contained froin the depredations of scientists 
and of idlers. It was indeed necessary to see that what 
still remained should not be destroyed and Avasted by 
unskilled explorers or ignorant tourists. ^Mlen the prince 
was obliged to leave he insisted that M. Saige, Con- 
servator of the Archives, should conduct the explorations 
on the same lines. Everything found was carefully sorted 
and classified in Paris, with the aid of M. Gantry, whose 
competence in such matters is universally recognised. 

The prince insisted on the careful study of levels. If 
for a certain depth there was nothing, this represented 
a period of non-habitation. The things found above this 
level would indicate the progress accomplished when 
compared with what was found below the barren stratum. 
Everything was noted on the spot and the earth boarded 


up so that it should not crumble down and mix the 
periods. The earth when carted away was removed hori- 
zontally, so as to keep to the same period. Then it was 
passed through a fine sieve, and thus small objects, such as 
pins, did not escape notice. To be more free and sure in 
his researches, the prince bought one of the grottoes, now 
known as the Grotte du Pr'uux. The rapid progress of 
anthropology which took place when the prince was yet 
quite a young man, and the discoveries made in the land 
of his ancestors, greatly stimulated his interests in all 
that was connected with the origin of man. 

Early in his researches the prince sought the assist- 
ance of the Chanoine I^. de Villeneuve and of M. 
JNlarcellin Boule, professor at the Paris Natural History 
Museum and editor of t Anthropologie. The services 
of Professor Verneau, for pure anthropology, and 
Professor Cartignac for prehistoric archaeology, were also 
secured. P^'inally, in 1906, the prince invited the Inter- 
national Congress of Anthropology to hold its Thirteenth 
Session at Monaco. Specialists from all parts of the world 
responded to this invitation, and were well pleased with 
such an opportunity of personally verifying the importance 
of the prince's researches. Already in 1902 the prince 
had determined to build a museum to contain what was 
discovered in the neighbourhood bearing on prehistoric 
anthropology. Professor Boule was commissioned to 
organise this museum, and now it is open to the public 
every day. Here the Chanoine de ^'^illeneuve, with his 
assistant, M. Frederic Leorenzi, are constantly at work, and 
they, <at least, know how to receive and encourage the 
ignorant inquirer. They do not take it for granted that 
the first-comer knows all about their science, and manifest 
impatience when their technical terms are not understood. 
Some learned professors are so absorbed in their studies 
that they fail to perceive that if someone makes inquiries it 
is precisely because he is ignorant. At the Anthropological 
Museum the reverend canon, though a man of science, 
has all the tact of a Catholic priest, and does not fail 


to inspire the most ignorant of his visitors with at least a 
gUmmer of liope. 

It would be an excellent thing if periodical excursions, 
at a fixed fee, could be organised to the grottoes at 
Menton, beginning or concluding with a visit to the 
museum at Monaco, M. Leorenzi and, at times, perhaps, 
the Chanoine de Villeneuve himself, giving explanations. 
For nine years, from 1895 to lOO^, M. Leorenzi dug and 
worked almost every day. The greater part of his time was 
devoted to the red rocks at Menton. But there were also 
explorations in the Bas-Moulin and in the St Martin rock 
near the Oceanographic Museum. In the Monaco rock — 
the far end is named after St Martin — some human 
palaeolithic fragments were disinterred, together with the 
remains of stags, wolves, leopards, horses, pigs and goats. 
There were also some marmots, though to-day these animals 
only live farther inland and much higher up the mountains. 
At the Bas-Moulin remains of the Neolithic Age and of 
man were found. This is the new or polished stone age. By 
that time, great Britain was already separated from the 
Continent and the Mediterranean had sunk far enough 
effectively to separate Europe from Africa. The woolly 
rliinoceros was extinct, and races of animals were beginning 
to part company, the musk sheep travelling towards tlie 
Arctic zone, the lion and the hippopotamus towards the 
tropical zones. 

After much collecting, the question of utihsing what 
had been discovered became more and more urgent. When 
a fossil is found, it is covered with earth or other matter. 
This has to be carefully removed and the bone found 
under such a covering must be consolidated so that it 
may be preserved, and marked so that it may be recognised 
and catalogued ; otherwise it will be of no service. The 
putting together of broken bones, the reconstitution of 
a shattered skeleton, the preparation of the specimen so 
that it may be placed in the glass case of a museum, 
require special knowledge and skill. The prince therefore 
sent M. Leorenzi to the Natural History Museum at 

TiiK Aniiihiipoi.oguat. MrsKi'M 


Paris, where he was thoroughly trained in tlie arts and 
crafts associated with anthropology. 

It was under the guidance of M. Leorenzi that I visited 
the prince's grotto. On an excellent road after an easy 
level walk from the caravan station at Menton, the grotto 
or cave is reached. The accompanying phototypographic 
illustration shows a small portion of the wall protecting 
the approach of the cavern. But M. Leorenzi was armed 
with a big and heavy key which opened the door in the wall. 
It is situated immediately to the left of the railway line 
and tunnel, looking towards Italy. The cavity now disclosed 
was absolutely filled up, and the digging began at the top, 
where the opening in the rock forms a sharp point. At 
first only modern things were found, such as stones of 
fruit, shells and nuts. A straight line at the top shows 
where the digging began. Numbers are affixed here and 
there to indicate various phases of the work. Thus we can 
note a stratum some seven or eight feet deep where 
nothing indicating habitation was found. Tiien a red line 
painted along the side of the cavern shows the finding- 
ground. As we reach the deeper layers of earth we come to 
a deposit where the flint implements are not so well made, 
and in the stratum marked C we get traces of the rhino- 
ceros and the elephant. 

At Monaco one of the really interesting features of the 
Anthropological Museum is the graphic and easily compre- 
hensible manner in which these researches are shown and 
explained. First there is a drawing giving a section of the 
cave, each stratimi being numbered and coloured. Close 
by are specimens, each bearing a paper of the same 
colour as that given to the layer of deposit from which it 
was extracted. Thus we can find at once the rough flint 
stones of the earlier periods, the cut flints ol" a later date 
and the polished stones and pottery of a date still more 
recent. And while the development of man may be ti-aced 
by the implements he made, so also is his mode of life 
recorded by the bones of the animals he ate, which have 
been petrified side by side with his own bones. 


At last we reach man himself, but who will tell us what 
sort of man, or how he got there ? We call him a Trog- 
lodyte, which only means that he dwelt in caves. As, 
however, his bones were found in a cave, this can hardly 
be considered a very illuminating piece of information. 
Some of the Troglodytes who lived in the caves of 
Grimaldi or Menton are said to have belonged to the 
earlier negroid race, and so we concluded that they came 
from Africa before the Mediterranean destroyed the over- 
land route. But no skin remains to tell us whether these 
men were black ; and now there are learned authorities 
who find that these bones compare better with the natives 
of Australia. The fact is, nobody quite knows, but every- 
body can see that this supposed negroid man had more 
teeth than modern men, that the bones of his limbs were 
longer, and his jaw protruded in a more bestial manner. 
As a contrast, there was also disinterred the skeleton of 
a Northern type of giant belonging to a more civilised and 
more modern race. Finally, in the highest strata, Greek 
and Roman remains were found. Thus is it possible to 
trace man back to the earliest times : but when I asked 
M. de Villeneuve how early this might be, he replied that 
he did not believe in dates. Probably man existed fifteen 
thousand years before our era, perhaps much earlier, but 
really he did not know. 

In the lowest marine layer of the Cave (hi Prince, 
just on the other side and under the wall in the ac- 
companying illustration, is a marine deposit. This is one 
mass of little sea-shells, and here was found the shell of 
the Cams rxija, which comes from the Indian Ocean, and 
the Strombus bubonius, a tropical shell to be seen in 
Senegal or some similar and very hot climate. In this, 
the lowest part of the cavern, we are in the Pliocene 
system, or period when man did not exist, though he 
seems to have arrived immediately after. Here is the 
priinitive elephant, the rhinoceros of hot climates, and 
especially the hippopotamus, which is so very susceptible 
to cold that the water at the " zoo " has to be especially 

The Anthropological Museum 
Northern tvpk ok (iiANT 


warmed for him. Then, as the cavern fills up, the climate 
becomes colder till we reach the glacial period ; and on 
this selfsame spot, only some feet higher, we find the 
reindeer and other frequenters of the Arctic regions. 
What are ancient temples by the side of this natural 
shelter provided by a slit, a crack occurring in a 
rock ? Here we have accumulations that tell us some- 
thing about the world before man existed. Then higher 
up we see the first appearance of man, the so-called 
negroid man who knew nothing, built nothing, but did 
manage to make a little fire by rubbing pieces of wood to- 
gether. This type is found everywhere and on both sides of 
the Atlantic. He hunted by himself, for he had not even 
learnt how to tame a dog. If there are any horses or cows 
it is because they had been killed and eaten, not because 
the negroid man knew how to domesticate them. 

There are nine grottoes in all at the red rocks of 
Menton, and the inhabited parts are carpeted with a 
stratum of cinders, the remains of innumerable fires. 
Here the animals were cooked, and some of their fossilised 
bones may still be dug up. But in these layers of cinders 
there are subdivisions. Burnt bones are the exception, 
the cinders are very small, mostly of herbs or brushwood. 
Only one large piece of petrified wood has been found, 
a piece of oak. There are five layers or periods of habita- 
tion in the Caverne du Prmce ; then we come to the 
marine clay that terminates such explorations. The 
distance from the highest to the lowest, or, in other words, 
the depth of the digging, is 71 feet, and it is the oldest 
of the caverns. It seems well established that there was 
a broad belt of land spread out in front of the rocks and 
mountains before the sea was reached. Here the animals 
whose remains are in the caverns, but who do not live 
in mountains, used to roam about, coming to the caves 
occasionally for shelter. And it was for the same purpose 
that men frequented the caverns, for they were not buried 
in them. To test this theory, the prince has sounded the 
whole coast and found that thei'e is a strip of ground 


varying from six to eight miles in width where the water 
at the deepest places is only ninety or a hundred feet deep. 
But at the limit of this ancient foreshore there comes a 
sharp descent as if the edge of a cliff had been reached. 

As in regard to the oceanographic research, so with 
respect to anthropology, the prince has defrayed the cost 
of publishing large and beautifully illustrated volumes 
recording the work done and the discoveries made. The 
first is " Historical and Descriptive," and is written by 
Canon L. de \'^illeneuve. The second is by Professor 
Marcellin Boule, treating of the Geology and Palaeontology, 
and the third is on Anthropology, by Dr Rene Verneau. 
As with oceanography so with regard to anthropology. 
All these works may be consulted at the museum 
or at the Municipal Library. No charge is made at the 
library, and every visitor to Monaco should go and see 
for himself, by the evidence these great and beautiful 
volumes give, what a mighty work has been done for the 
cause of the enlightenment conferred by science. 

In 1902, at Petites-Pjircnees and Haute-Garonne, 
M. F. Regnault, of the French Archteological Society, 
found in a grotto some red and black paintings of a pre- 
historic character. These were similar to those discovered 
at Altamira in Spain some years previously. M. de 
Santnold while out shooting, in 1868, had pushed his way 
into the Altamira cavern. But he was not a man of 
science, and there were very few men of science capable 
of judging the value of the discovery then made. This 
opportunity of tracing the arts and habits of the primitive 
inhabitants of Gaul and Iberia did not awaken much 
enthusiasm in Spain. But when something similar was 
found in France a small subvention was obtained from 
the Acadriiiie des InscTipiions ct liclles Leitrcn so that the 
cave of Altamira, in the north of Spain, might be better 
examined. Once inside, the explorers had to crawl and 
lie down on their backs to see the low and unequal roof 
that stretched out to the length of 130 feet. This 
neglected spot was now invaded by crowds, who came to 

The Cavf.rnk dv Prince: a Troi.odytk Dwiii.i.iNG 



find out what the explorers had come to see. There were 
many difficulties, but nevertheless Professor H. Breuil 
made some excellent copies of the paintings that existed 
on this roof. 

By that time, however, the small subsidy was exhausted, 
and no one had the means of publishing these copies. 
Here it was that the Prince of Monaco stepped into the 
breach and offered the printing establishment of the 
principality to reproduce in the most perfect and artistic 
manner possible the copies made by Professor H. Breuil. 
It is a mystery how the original paintings were done and 
their colouring preserved. There is this to be said, they 
cannot be seen by daylight. There are traces of one 
painting near the entrance, but it has faded. Inside the 
cave there is no light at all, so there must have been a 
good artificial light at the period. The execution is artistic. 
Some of the animals represented are 6 feet in length. 
The fact that there is paint inside tlie cracks in the 
stone suggests the use of something like a brush to 
push it in. Some sharp instrument, a flint perhaps, was 
employed to cut a portion of the design into the rock 
that formed the roof of the cave. Ochre is abundant in the 
neighbouring iron mines, and may explain the colouring. 
The Troglodytes who lived here were evidently hunters, 
and they depicted the animals they pursued, but some 
of these exist no longer, such as the primitive stag and 
the buffalo. In one gallery there are twenty-three fine 
pictures of animals, if a modern had painted these there 
would be some trace of the light employed. 

The reproduction of one of these pictures given here 
represents a bovine animal and a female bison. Above we 
see the portions of the design that are cut into the rock. 
The rest is coloured with brick-red or with black, and 
both pigments are admirably preserved. They are perfectly 
reproduced in the coloured illustration printed at Monaco. 
Three large volumes dealing with these prehistoric 
drawings and paintings have already been published at 
the prince's expense, and the knowledge of these dis- 


coveries saved for the use of present and future generations. 
Not content with this, and realising more and more the 
importance of such researches, the prince resolved to 
create in Paris an institute to encourage all possible studies 
relating to man. It is called the Institute of Human 
Palfeontology, and has been recognised as of " public 
utility " by the French Government. The prince has put 
at its head his old coadjutor. Professor Boule, and has 
also obtained the services of I'Abbe Breuil, who copied the 
paintings in the caverns, and Professor Obermaier. Then, 
so that the institute may live, the prince has given it an 
endowment of £80,000 or 2,000,000 francs. Further, he is 
erecting the building at his own expense, and it threatens 
to cost nearly as much. This will be a purely international 
institute and Sir Ray Lankester has been appointed to 
represent Great Britain. It will be situated close to the 
Ja7-din des Plantes and the JNIuseum of Natural History. 
Its great purpose is to help the science that seeks, 
especially by means of researches and digging, to unravel 
the history and origin of man. 







IT was during the reign of Charles III. that the 
classification of the archives was commenced. Some 
four years, from 1882 to 1886, were devoted to putting 
the papers in order. That portion of the palace which was 
used as the mint in the days when the Grimaldis coined 
their own money is now devoted to the housing of the 
archives. These are divided into three series of papers. 
First those of the Grimaldi family and Monaco, which 
comprise the secret archives of the princes and their 
secretaries, together with notary's deeds relating to pro- 
perty belonging to the princes and letters concerning their 
private lives. A few of these documents date back as far 
as the year 982. The second series are entitled " Terres de 
France," and deal with the duchy of \'^alentinois, other 
French titles or estates and the Matignon family. These 
papers take us away from Monaco and treat of the 
government of different parts of France, such as Cherbourg, 
the Channel Islands, etc. The third series, called the 
Dukes of Aumont and Mazarin series, bring us nearer 
still to general history. It is in this series that the letter 
from Oliver Cromwell is placed, and it affords us some 
insight into the character and policy of Cardinal Mazarin. 
It was the historian, M. (iustave Saige, who first put 
the aix'hives in order. But if confined in the palace at 
Monaco these documents would not have been of much 
use. Therefore it was decided to publish the more 
important among them, so that they might be consulted 
at the principal libraries in all parts of the world. Thus 

21. 'J 


in 1888 a volume of 716 pages was printed containing 
the reproduction of the correspondence, etc., dating from 
1412 to 1494. In 1890 a volume of 906 pages brought 
the correspondence up to 1540 ; and in 1891 a third 
volume of 724 pages gave us the chief contents of the 
archives from 1540 to 1641. Then, in 1905, a fourth 
volume of 640 pages appeared, which should be the first 
volume, as it contains historical documents relating to 
the principality anterior to the fifteenth century. Here 
will be found a good deal of evidence concerning the 
raids on the coasts of England by Monegasque ships. 
There are numerous letters from the three great 
Monegasque admirals who served the kings of Naples and 
of France — Rainier Grimaldi, his son, Charles Grimaldi, 
and his grandson, the second Rainier, each in his turn the 
chief of the house of Grimaldi. 

The Paris National Library has acquired a register 
of the accounts of the Treasury under Philippe de Valois, 
which contains minute details regarding the equipment 
and cost of the galleys armed from 1340 to 1346 at 
Monaco by Charles Grimaldi. This is followed by a 
description of their subsequent disarmament and sale to 
the King of France after the disastrous campaign of 
Crecy. Thus at Monaco we find not only the documents 
that compose the Monaco archives but, annexed to them, 
copies of other documents existing in other archives that 
supplement the information available on the spot. 

Of the 207 documents that are printed, dating before 
the fifteenth century, 20 are borrowed : the others had 
never been published and the originals are at the Palace 
of Monaco or in the archives of the Genoese Republic. 
Among the documents copied from other archives is one 
from the Record Office, London, Chancery, Miscellaneous 
Rolls, Bundle 14, No 15. It is a lengthy protest, written 
in Old French, emanating from English prelates, lords 
and merchants, against the enterprises of Rainier Grimaldi, 
Admiral of France, whom they accuse of hostile acts 
perpetrated in times of peace. They ask that Rainier 


shall be condemned and compensation given to the 
victims ; or that in default of this the King of France, in 
whose employ he was, should indemnify them. There are 
letters from Edward IIL to the Sicilian Government 
regarding the interference with Monegasque galleys 
which the King of England wished to hire, and many 
other documents bearing upon the naval wars waged 
against England by fleets from Monaco. 

The d'Aumont correspondence is very interesting, 
and is connected still more intimately with general 
history. Thus, for instance, some of the letters, briefly 
to summarise them, set forth that the war is going on 
badly. Dunkirk was besieged by the Spaniards. A fleet 
sent to its relief called at Dieppe, and took on board 
1500 men, provisions and ammunition. The Spanish ships 
could not have prevented this help from arriving, but 
Blake, in obedience to orders from Cromwell, attacked 
the fleet of the Duke of V^endome between Calais and 
Dunkirk and took 15 ships as prizes to Dover. Cromwell 
was displeased by the French Government's rejection 
of the proposal he had made with regard to Dunkirk, 
which he desired to buy. He offered to pay 2,000,000 
crowns and to lend 15,000 soldiers and 50 ships to the 
King of France and INlazarin to fight against the rebels 
and against Spain. jNIazarin, approving this offer, would 
have accepted it, but the queen could not make up her 
mind to abandon Dunkirk, and it was too evident that 
Cromwell's purpose was to restore to England another 
Calais. The French were much surprised at being attacked 
by the English. ^Vhen they protested that there was no 
war, ('romwell replied that it was retaliation for the 
pillage of English ships in the Mediterranean ; but he 
released tlie Frencli ships. In the meanwhile Dunkirk 

This vignette of history is an example of the glimpses 
that occur in studying the archives at Monaco. These 
archives, it must be noted, are becoming more and more 
valuable. Every year the archivist, M. L. H. Labande, 


goes for a few months to study other archives or 
celebrated libraries, and there copies any documents he 
may find that might help to explain or throw a new 
light on what exists at Monaco. Thus there will be ever- 
increasing attractions for the historian visiting Monaco. 
For those, on the other hand, who cannot go to Monaco, 
there are the printed volumes just mentioned, and many 
others ; in all about twenty or thirty publications dealing 
with what has been found in the archives of the princi- 
pality. The archives therefore are a very important 
institution, though sadly neglected by the majority of 
visitors. This neglect, however, will not continue for long. 
The general public will discover, what the world of 
science well knows, that Monaco is not merely a pleasure 
resort, but a centre where much excellent and serious 
work is carried on. 

Another centre of study is the International Peace 
Institute. It occupies a modest building, the chapel of the 
ancient hospital. This is near the Government buildings 
in the Place de la Visitation. The institute was founded 
and endowed by the Prince of Monaco in February 1903. 
In consists of an international peace library, where all the 
literature bearing on the question of the prevention of 
war is collected and placed at the disposal of the public. 
In a word, this is a centre of propaganda. The staff 
consists of ten Monegasques residing in the principality 
and forty-five elected foreign members. At the great 
Universal Exhibition held at Paris in 1900, M. Gaston 
Moch organised the exhibit of the International Peace 
Bureau, which was rewarded with the Grand Prix. The 
diagrams, the reproduction of the works of art and many 
of the objects composing this exhibition are now at the 
Monaco Peace Institute. During the season, from two to 
four P.M., the institute is open to the public. As it is just 
by the tram terminus, most visitors to Monaco must pass 
close to it, and should devote some time to acquiring at 
least a little knowledge concerning the efforts made to 
save the world from the scourge of Avar. 



There is an annual subvention of £240 assigned to the 
pubheation of works tliat may assist the adv^ocacy of peace. 
Thus among other books and pamphlets printed at 
JSIonaco for the Peace Institute is to be found one by 
M. E. Izard treating the problem from the Theo- 
sophical point of view. JNI. A. Delassas gives a summary 
of Pacifist instruction. For this purpose he quotes the 
arguments generally brought forward in favour of war, or 
at least showing the difficulty of preventing war, and then 
explains how to deal with them. L'Abbe Pichot is pub- 
lishing a new work for the Peace Institute whicii is likely 
to attract special attention. It proves that in the Middle 
Ages we were better off than in modern times for inter- 
national laws to prevent war. For example, there was a 
law, an international law, which set forth in what circum- 
stances war was justifiable, and when it could not be 
sanctioned. The Pope was the supreme authority, who 
could and did interfere to prevent wars. During the last 
few years the question of the prevention of war has been 
discussed at the annual congresses held by the Inter- 
national Federation of Miners, the miners feeling that 
they had only to stop the production of coal to render 
war impossible. These discussions were held by the re- 
presentatives of close upon 1,200,000 organised miners 
of America, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Great 
Britain, Sweden and Holland. No one can have followed 
the debates without realising how strong is the feeling in 
favour of a general international strike against war. But 
this is no new idea. Nothing could be more thorough, 
more absolute than the general strikes organised by the 
popes and carried out to stop war. The most famous was 
the general strike and boycott ordered by Pope Gregory 
VII. against Henry IV. of the Holy Roman Empire. The 
word Boycott, it is true, did not exist in those days, nor 
was there a Confederation Gencrale du Travail to 
popularise the term " general strike," but never were the 
two ideas more completely realised. 

All the barons and soldiers in the service of Henry IV. 


were released from their oath of obedience. None of 
his servants was allowed to execute the king's orders 
under the penalty of being in his turn excommunicated. 
No modern syndicalist ever dreamed of such a complete 
general strike, and its success created the historical and 
idiomatic expression : " to take the road to Canossa." 
Here Henry IV., barefooted, shivering in a scanty linen 
shirt, came to prostrate himself before the Pope and 
humbly beg his Holiness to end the general strike. 
L'Abbe Pichot in his work will not, I am sure, employ 
any of these horrible and threatening modern terms. 
Instead of the proclamation of a general strike we shall 
hear of a Papal Bull of Excommunication. And the 
signal for the cessation of the strike will be the granting 
of absolution or pardon. The fact remains that the 
Church, internationally organised, checked monarchs 
when they wished to pillage and to fight ; and that to- 
day the miners, internationally organised, contemplate a 
somewhat similar action. If for one moment we pause 
to reflect on the potentialities of these suggestions and 
consider that such thoughts are generated at Monaco, 
how can we look upon the principality as a place only fiit 
for frivolity and pleasure-hunting ? 

The real fact is that, whatever may be said about 
Monte Carlo, the best of all good company congi-egates 
at Monaco. Here the members of the aristocracy of 
intellect are sure of a welcome. From all parts of the 
world men of science are attracted to Monaco, and at 
the palace we may also meet great leaders in thought, in 
the arts, in politics and in literature. But more enjoyable 
by far than the formal receptions are the intimate 
breakfasts given at noon, and generally followed by coffee 
and liqueurs on the private terrace. Here some of the 
guests cluster round the tables, others enjoy the beautiful 
view from the parapet over the bay of Fontvieille to 
Cap d'Ail with the towering Tete de Chien rising in the 
background to protect the palace and the principality. 
The prince will often select one of his guests and make 

O " 




him pace up and down the terrace as if he were on the 
deck of a ship. This is the moment to get things said 
and explained which perhaps have been held back for 
want of a suitable opportunity. When his Excellency 
Monsieur Armand Fallieres, President of the French 
Republic, was on a visit to H.S.H. the Prince of Monaco 
he was made to pace this terrace, and M. Enrietti, the 
photographer, succeeded in taking a snapshot just as the 
prince was indulging in one of his best jokes. 

Subsequently Lieutenant Bouree was anxious to get 
a colour photograph of the President of the Republic, and 
succeeded admirably. The president's cheeks were rather 
Hushed at that moment, and the flesh tints are wonder- 
fully reproduced, as is the vivid colouring of the flowers 
and foliage. These colour photographs are most beautiful, 
and are invaluable as a record. When recently Lieutenant 
Bouree accompanied the prince to the courts of Austria, 
Belgium and Spain he showed some of the colour 
photographs taken during the later oceanographic 
expeditions. Though he put some of them in a lantern, in 
answer to my questions Lieutenant Bouree explained that 
they were of no use as ordinary lantern slides. First, an 
electric light of 50 amperes was necessary, and this could 
but rarely be obtained. Then it would not be safe to 
expose the colour photograph in such a light for more 
than ten seconds. This is not sufficient time to give any 
sort of explanation. Therefore, generally speaking, we 
must be content to look at colour photographs just as 
they are or through a magnifying-glass. When coffee is 
taken indoors instead of on the terrace, the guests who 
are not engaged in conversation are able to look at some 
of these colour photographs, and thus obtain a much 
better idea of what is seen during an oceanographic 

Apart from the sciences that can be studied to such 
advantage at Monaco, politicians and administrators 
would find much to learn and observe. Here essays in 
legislation may be made which a statesman would not 



dare to attempt in a great country. Monaco thus becomes 
a sort of legislative laboratory in which Europe may safely 
experiment. As an example in point, we may take the 
present high price of bread and meat, leading to many 
serious riots in France and Austria, and to strikes organised 
by the general public against the butchers and the bakers 
of several towns in the United States of America. During 
the Great French Revolution the celebrated law of the 
Maximum was enacted. Under this law the price of bread 
is fixed, and bakers are not at liberty to charge what they 
think proper. It will come as a surprise to many to hear 
that this celebrated law is in force in the principality, and 
not only in regard to bread but also with respect to meat. 
Now that the present high prices suggest the necessity of 
some such legislation it would surely be of practical use 
to see how the law of the Maximum works in Monaco. 

It must be confessed that, judging from the inquiries 
I have made, the results are not conclusive. First of all, 
there is not enough poverty in the principality for the 
public to be generally interested in securing the strict 
application of the law. Certainly if a butcher refuses to 
sell meat at the regulation price as fixed by the law, the 
customer can call a policeman and the butcher will be 
punished. But such a customer would ever after find it 
difficult to get served. People complain that it is not 
possible to get good meat under the law and that the 
prince himself pays more than the tariff prices. But if the 
law is not strictly applied to the price of meat it is very 
effective in regard to the weight. And if, on the pretext 
of giving choice bits, butchers evade the law, it is strictly 
obeyed by the bakers, and this is a great protection to the 
population. For the butcher it is urged that he often pays 
more for his meat than would possibly admit of his selling 
at the legal price. It seems as if the JNIaximum had not 
been fixed with due regard to the quality of meat 
necessary to satisfy a large section of the visitors to the 
principality. In any case, it is almost impossible to impose 
a tariff on a market when there are other markets close at 

■-'. u 

O < 


hand which escape from any such restrictions. The price 
of meat at Nice decides the price at Monaco far more 
effectively than the legislative enactments which are 
supposed to govern the principality. However, whether a 
success or a failure, the fact that the law of the Maximum 
exists at Monaco adds immensely to the interest of the 
place ; especially to-day, when in so many countries the 
dearness of provisions has become an urgent and threaten- 
ing problem. 

In many other respects, which would take too long 
to enumerate, new laws have been enacted, old ones 
modified and jurisdiction simplified. All this is interesting 
to those who study such matters, because there is at 
Monaco a field for experiment such as does not exist any- 
where else. A trial may be made here which it would be 
dangerous to attempt elsewhere ; and thus again does the 
little principality of Monaco render service in the advance 
of civilisation. 



THOUGH in any case the methods of administra- 
tion and the laws of the principaUty offer many 
points of importance, this has been greatly ac- 
centuated by the recent so-called constitutional agitation. 
Here in miniature will be found many of the leading 
interests that go to make the world's history. We can 
study them as shown on a small scale, and therefore are 
more likely to understand those currents that determine 
great events. Here then we have a population exempt 
from all direct taxation, living in the midst of wealth and 
prosperity, enjoying the benefits of lavish expenditure on 
local government to which they do not contribute, and 
yet, with all this, they are not content. On the contrary 
(it seems almost a case of mental aberration), they are 
actually clamouring for taxation. If we say. Pity the poor 
taxpayer, we are invited, in reply, to pity the wealthy 
Monegasque who does not pay any taxes. To be told it is 
a great misfortune not to have any taxes to pay is certainly 
a new experience, and this constitutes another interesting 
problem for the visitor to Monaco. Yet when we think of 
it, a reaction in favour of taxation is not only natural, but 
it might be taken as evidence of noble and high motives 
of the ambition to assume the duties and responsibilities 
of citizenship. The point is that though the inhabitants of 
the principality are very fortunate, they cannot lose sight 
of the fact that, collectively speaking, they possess nothing 
whatsoever. This does not matter so long as the present 
prosperity continues. But something might happen to the 
reigning family and the casino might be swept away. At 



such a moment, just when their resources were vanishing 
and their property losing three parts of its value, they 
would be called upon, for the first time in their lives, to 
pay taxes. 

The primary object of the agitation was to create a 
public fund, a Budget. There was at first no desire to 
spend such money. No one thought of creating places 
with emoluments to be given to agitators. The original 
idea was to collect some money to be put aside where 
it might accumulate. A people's sinking fund, a public 
property, was to be created. The people would then feel 
less dependent on the prince and the casino ; and they 
might help themselves should either or both fail. But such 
wise foresight soon degenerated. Appetites that had re- 
mained dormant awoke and began to see in the agitation 
various openings. Instead of urging that it was necessary 
to put something by for a rainy day, they now began to 
say that the principality was wasting its opportunities. 
There was a great talk concerning vast enterprises that 
were to provide employment and make fortunes. The 
deplorable thing about it all is tliat the people do not 
understand there is already far too much enterprise. 

Of course the principality is quite unsuitable for 
manufacturing enterprise. The land is far too dear and 
the difficulty of bringing provisions along this narrow 
ledge between the higli mountains and the deep sea v/ould 
handicap any ordinary factory or mill. Besides, while it 
would be difficult to feed, it would be quite impossible to 
lodge the workpeople. Then, as there are no native work- 
people in the principality, why spoil the beauty and 
tranquillity of this unique spot by importing a large 
underpaid and therefore turbulent proletaiiat ? ^Ionaco hjis 
one of the best climates and is one of the most beautiful 
places in Europe. Is not this a sufficient endowment? To 
ask for more is to court the destruction of what exists. 
People come for the climate and the scenery : not to 
liear the rattle of mills and breathe smoke from factory 


Apart from manufactories, merely as a centre for 
retail trade this milder form of enterprise has been over- 
done. There has been a good many failures, not because 
business is bad, but because businesses are started on a 
bad basis. Formerly if a man opened a shop he did this 
in his own town, where he knew many people and was 
acquainted with the local requirement. He carried on his 
trade as conscientiously and honestly as possible in order 
to win a good reputation and ensure the future of his 
children by creating a business he could leave to them. 

At JNIonte Carlo, tradesmen have come pouring in 
from various foreign countries, thinking they would make 
money in a very short time because there were no taxes 
to pay, and the place is developing with wonderful 
rapidity. Speculators of this description have no idea of 
winning a good reputation by honourable dealings ; they 
are strangers in a strange land, serving other strangers 
who have still less claim to be considered as natives 
or even as residents. Such customers are not likely 
to return. Thus there is no care shown to keep up a 
reputation, but merely the desire to make the utmost out 
of each individual transaction. This is all very foolish, 
because even those who do not return tell their friends to 
buy all they require before they come to Monaco ; and, 
when there, if they still need anything, then they are 
advised to do their shopping at Nice. 

The tradesmen here are not the traditional tradesmen. 
They have lost the old bourgeois virtues that made the 
political and social power of the bourgeoisie so great that 
under Louis Philippe they became the real governing 
class. At Monte Carlo they are a cosmopolitan horde of 
gamblers rather than tradesmen. They do not gamble at 
the casino, for they are not admitted, but their notions 
of trade are gambling notions rather than conceptions of 
earning an honest living by steady attention to work and 
the rendering of genuine service for a moderate profit. Of 
course this rapacity fails to develop the friendliness and 
neighbourly feelings which form such a delightful phase, 



especially of French retail trade. How agreeable it is to 
note that shopkeepers in the same district make a point 
of buying from each other. They are friends with one 
another and with many of their customers. This accounts 
for the comparative failure of stores in France. To the 
purchaser cheapness is not the sole object. 

Then come swooping down upon the principality great 
financial companies or syndicates, and they also want to 
gain fabulous sums in a very short time. Instead of im- 
proving it they spoil the place with the ugly buildings 
they rear for their businesses, just as if the casino was 
not making enough money for everyone without the 
coming of these financial companies to render the princi- 
pality insupportable. There has been too much success. 
The flood of money is corrupting everything. W^e long 
for the quiet and perfume of the lemon groves, the song 
of the birds, the sparkle and glitter of the fireflies ; we 
get the shriek of the motor car, the stench of its petrol 
and the flare of its acetylene lamp. 

In the Condamine district, and still more in the 
historical town of Monaco itself, we have somewhat less 
of the gambling element among tradesmen, and they have 
not altogether lost the old bourgeois virtues. The small 
retail shops are nearly all in the hands of Italians, some 
of whom have become nationalised. The others are so 
near home that they have not the notion of leaving as 
soon as they succeed in amassing a little money. They 
constitute a more stable element of the population. 
Whatever labour is required is also almost entirely 
supplied by Italians. Native Monegasques are far too well 
off' to tliink of doing liard, physical work, and it is difficult 
to see why they should urge the introduction of new 
enterprises in which they are quite incapable of taking 
any useful part. 

Fortunately, as already stated, there is a special 
Monegasque law concerning joint-stock and limited 
liability companies. They are more closely watched and 
controlled than in other countries, and there is not so 


much danger of seeing bubble companies floating in the 
principahty. In several cases, on the pretext that such 
enterprises practically enjoyed a monopoly, they have 
been made to pay a small sum ; and, what is more valuable, 
they have to show their accounts. Very wisely, these 
enterprises are, to a large extent, confined to one district. 
It is situated beyond the JNIonaco rock in the direction of 
Nice and called Fontvieille. Here a portion of the small 
bay is being reclaimed from the sea so that there shall 
be more room for future factories. At present the two 
principal establishments are a brewery on the Bavarian 
model and a very elaborate macaroni manufactory. Here 
again the visitor who needs food for thought will find it 
in the practical evidence these industries give on the beer 
and macaroni problems. We know that in England beer 
is an unsafe drink because there is no law to define its 
constituents ; hence such cases as the arsenic poisoning of 
beer-drinkers at Manchester. In Bavaria, for more than 
five hundred years, it has been a criminal offence to make 
beer with anything whatsoever but barley malt, hops, 
yeast and water. The beer at Monaco is brewed by German 
brewers from Bavaria, and the capital embarked in this 
enterprise amounts to £64,000. 

The macaroni factory cost £24,000 to establish, and 
the elaborate processes employed to produce these Itahan 
jiastes in a great variety of forms are an interesting sight. 
In England it is not realised that the macaroni problem 
is practically the bread problem in other words. At 
Monaco there are one hundred and twenty forms for 
exactly the same paste, varying from the well-known 
spaghetti, tagliarini and canneloni to the less-known 
bomboloti, cockle shells, cornets or little baskets. The 
substance rather than its shape is, however, the important 
part of the problem, and it stands thus : Macaroni is 
made not with ordinary flour but with semolina, derived 
from the transparent, "hard, for the most part, Russian 
wheat. This semolina contains from 50 to 55 per cent, of 
gluten or nitrogenous matter, and never less than from 



42 to 43 per cent. If we buy flour it will be made from 
tender, opaque wheat, such as the Canadian wheat, which 
yields only from 30 to 35 per cent, of nitrogenous matter. 
Now flour in France, as a result of protective duties, will 
cost from 50 to 52 centimes the kilogramme ; but before 
this can be eaten we must add the cost of the labour 
of making something with the flour and of the fuel 
used in cooking. The macaroni, already made, costs 
60 centimes the kilogramme, and needs less labour and fire 
for cooking. As macaroni contains from a quarter to two- 
fifths more nutriment, and only costs one-sixth more 
money, the answer to the problem favours macaroni as 
against flour. There is also the sanitary question as to how 
macaroni can be made without coming into contact with 
dirt of any description, and this also can be studied with 
great advantage in the factory at Fontvieille. 

Among other large undertakings there is the manu- 
facture of gas. It is proposed to remove this odoriferous 
establishment from the Condamine, to which it is no 
ornament, and install it in the industrial quarter of 
Fontvieille. We have also the electric power works, two 
steam laundries and a model bakery. Employing fewer 
persons, may be mentioned a manufactory of perfumes 
and an art pottery work. Altogether, the industries of 
the principality are valued at the following sums : — The 
casino, £15,000,000 ; the hotel industry, £1,320,000; other 
industries, £360,000— total, £16,640,000. These figures 
show more eloquently than any flow of rhetoric what the 
casino means to the country, and therefore it can be well 
understood that the inhabitants may feel a little anxious. 
The enterprise most likely to survive the disappearance 
of the casino is the manufactory of macaroni, for the 
macaroni is now sold extensively at Nice and other 
places outside the principality. Even without a casino — 
that is to say, a casino with gambling — the principal means 
of existence would remain the catering for strangers. 
Tliough in reduced numbers, they would still frequent 
the principality for the sake of its beauty and its climate. 


Therefore any sort of enterprise which would spoil the 
beauty of the place must prove a lasting injury. In any 
case, an enterprise run by foreigners witli foreign capital 
would not be of any assistance to the Monegasques should 
they find themselves suddenly stranded through the 
abolition of the casino. 

In the earlier stages, the agitation was directed against 
the Governor of the Principality, who was accused of 
having badly advised the prince. It was only the native 
Monegasques who took part in the movement. They 
called upon the prince to act more as a father to them, 
since they had no rights of citizenship and lived under 
the patriarchal system. It was the father's duty, and 
should be his pleasure, to give privileges to his children. 
The country was theirs and his, and they were tired of 
always having foreign functionaries forced upon them. 
Later, the prince himself came in for some share of the 
unpopularity and animosity which at first M^as directed 
solely against the governor. 

The prince was not slow to recognise that there was 
some foundation for these complaints, and has gone out 
of his way to confer posts upon natives instead of upon 
foreigners. The people also demanded to be more generally 
employed by the casino, and this has likewise been 
obtained. So there was some sense in the agitation, and 
it did bring about good results. Unfortunately there are 
not many able men in the country. Nor do the employees 
believe in the native administrative capacity. Still, when 
the agitation came to a climax and the people made a 
hostile demonstration before the palace the position was 
dangerous. Very fortimately no one was molested or hurt, 
otherwise bloodshed would have ensued. There can be no 
doubt that there was a strong feeling of resentment, and 
many demonstrators had revolvers in their pockets. Great 
bitterness was felt against the foreigners who had invaded 
and overrun the principality, doing everything there was 
to be done and keeping all the money. Why did these 
foreigners open shops and sell their goods so dear, com- 


pelHng the native jNIonegasque to go all the way to Nice 
for anything he might want ? It was not because the 
casino made so much money that greedy foreign shop- 
keepers were to extort exorbitant profits from the native 
JNlonegasques. There was also the more sordid idea that 
good things were going and they had no share in them. 
The country was overrun by foreigners, the natives had 
little or nothing to fall back upon, the dynasty was not 
stable, the casino might be closed at any moment — then 
what would become of the Monegasques ? 

If, on the other hand, no such catastrophes occurred, 
foreign financiers, for the benefit of foreign shareholders, 
would carry out vast schemes in the principality. For 
instance, it is proposed to reclaim from the sea land on 
which a boulevard would be built from the JMonte Carlo 
station round the bay to the eastern frontier of the 
principality. Thus fresh land, created by foreigners 
for the benefit of foreigners, would compete with and 
reduce the value of such land as the Monegasques might 
still possess in the Moulin district and up the sides of the 
mountains. Already the Condamine was suffering because 
the new town of Beausoleil had sprung into existence 
just outside the principality. All these things came to 
pass, the Monegasques were buffeted here and there 
by the rapid development of economic forces and they 
were not able to say a word or to influence in any way 
their own destinies. So they cried aloud for a Constitution 
and put revolvers in their pockets. 

Itwas in October 1910 that the agitation came to a head. 
When the hostile demonstration was made, serious trouble 
was feared. A story is even told of mysterious cases of 
wine brought to a celebrated hotel at Monte Carlo. At 
the same time a large number of sailors belonging to a 
British man-of-war anchored at Villefranche were un- 
expectedly given a holiday. But there were conditions 
attached to that holiday. It was to be spent in the 
principality and the sailors were to watch the flagstaff 
of the hotel, whicli had laid in a new stock of wine. 


Should a certain flag be hoisted, they were to hasten 
to the hotel as fast as possible. On their arrival the heavy 
wine-cases would be opened, rifles and ammunition ex- 
tracted from them and the sailors sent out to restore 
order, or, in any case, to protect British property. Several 
persons occupying high positions, who ought to know, 
have assured me that this story is correct. In any case, 
and of this there can be no doubt, French troops were 
held ready both at Villefranche and JNIenton to proceed 
at a moment's notice to Monaco. Any disturbance, 
especially any attack on property, would lead to foreign 
intervention ; then, as Frenchmen are the principal 
proprietors in Monaco, the question of annexation might 
arise. But the casino has rights that the French Govern- 
ment could no more recognise than the German Empire 
could recognise the rights of the casinos at Hom- 
burg, Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden. The future is not 

Fortunately no serious disturbance occurred, and the 
prince promised to grant some sort of constitution so 
that the Monegasques should have a voice in the govern- 
ment and administration of their country. But a most 
disconcerting discovery was now made. The concession 
came too late, for the Monegasques are already almost 
obliterated by the foreign invasion. One unforeseen result 
is that most of the Monegasque women have married 
foreigners, and therefore their children are not Mone- 
gasques. In 1861 the population of the principality 
numbered 1200, nearly all of whom were native 
Monegasques. The census of 1908 sets down the fixed 
population at 19,121, comprising only 1482 Monegasques 
by birth or by naturalisation. Of these latter not more 
than 635 were I'eal Monegasques, and thus, in about fifty 
years, the native population has decreased by about 50 
per cent. Then when it came to reckoning who among 
them could claim the right to vote it was found tliat 
though the electorate would amount to 448 voters, the 
electors were nearly all naturalised Italians, there being 


only 95 genuine, native-born Monegasques entitled to the 

What applies to the vote also applies to the ownership 
of the 380 acres that make up the principality. It was 
at that time estimated that 126 of these acres were 
covered with 1300 houses valued at £7,080,000. The land 
not yet built upon was considered to be worth £2,000,000. 
This total real estate of £9,080,000, in which the prince's 
estate is not included, is owned by 1300 different 
persons. Of these landowners 620 are French, 265 Italians, 
and 115 belong to other nationalities, and the value of 
the land possessed by these 1000 foreigners amounts to 
£7,880,000. The rest of the land, which is worth only 
£1,200,000, is shared by 300 Monegasques. With regard 
to personal property, such as shares in the various enter- 
prises mentioned above, the situation is the same. On the 
1st of January 1909 the total value of shares and 
debentures was set down at £15,880,000, but of all this 
property the jMonegasques themselves only possessed 
stock to the value of £400,000. No invasion could be 
more complete, except in one spot, Monaco town. Here 
one foreigner only, an English lady, bought a beautiful 
villa before the decree went forth that no part of the old 
historical town of JNIonaco should be sold to strangers. 
How independent and how immensely wealthy the 
principality would be to-day if the same law had been 
applied throughout, and all the foreign fortune-seekers 
compelled to content themselves with being the tenants 
of a Monegasque Commonwealth ! 

Now at this late hour, when the mischief has been 
done, when the Monegasques are well-nigh crushed out 
of existence, when their beautiful country has been dis- 
figured by incongruous, ugly commercial speculations, 
they have risen in their death-agony to claim a constitu- 
tion. The prince was too much of a Grimaldi — that is 
to say, of a Monegasque — to refuse. Too late, perhaps, 
to be of much use, a trial will be made, and Monegasques 
have now a voice in the affairs of their country. But 


a voice in the face of economic forces recalls Canute 
bidding the tide to stop. 

The Constitution bears date 5th January 1911. It 
consists of seven Chapters and fifty-eight Articles. The 
supreme sovereignty of the prince is maintained, but 
there is now a national or public domain, distinct from 
the prince's private domain though drawn from the latter. 
The expenditure, as already explained, is divided into the 
Consolidated Services and the Interior Services, the latter 
being submitted to the criticism of the popular repre- 
sentatives. Individual liberty, freedom of speech, meeting, 
association, the right of petitions, freedom of religion and 
the freedom not to observe religious fete days, is granted 
to all INIonegasque citizens. 

The function of Governor of the Principahty is 
abolished, being replaced by that of Minister of State : 
this minister represents the prince in all circumstances, 
and presides over the various assemblies or councils. The 
prince appoints three functionaries, who might be called 
Cabinet Ministers : one for the Home Office, another for 
the Treasury, and a third for the Public Works Depart- 
ment. These three, with the Minister of State, the First 
President of the Court of Appeal and the Procurator- 
General, constitute the Council of State. This body 
frames laws and ordinances and prepares the annual 
Budget, all of which are submitted to the prince. 

Universal suffi'age is granted, and all Monegasques 
may vote for the election of a National Council, consisting 
of twenty-one members appointed for four years. The 
council is to meet twice a year, and oftener if necessary. 
It can be dissolved by the prince on the advice of the 
Council of State, but new elections must be held within 
three months. Though the initiation of laws belongs to 
the prince the council can demand that the prince shall 
propose a law they desire to see pronmlgated. In the 
event of the necessity arising for the imposition of direct 
taxation this could not be done without a vote of the 
National Council. Thus it comes about that some 


Monegasques are agitating in favour of taxation. On the 
principle that •' he who pays calls tlie tune," they argue 
that they will have no real power till they pay for it. Yet 
though they do not pay, the National Council is per- 
mitted to discuss and criticise the expenditure on public 
works, fine arts, schools, the hospital, health and charity 
departments. Apart from the National Council, three 
municipalities are created for the three communes — 
Monaco, the Condamine and Monte Carlo. 

The National Council has now met several times, and 
of course it complains that its powers are not sufficiently 
extensive. The trouble is that the population, as a whole, 
has never been taught the duties of citizenship, the sense 
of public responsibility has not been inculcated during 
childhood ; and the chief object-lesson received is that the 
casino has made an immense amount of money, therefore 
the Monegasques think they also should be able to make 
much money — it is a demoralising influence. Then there 
is the further complication that the vast majority of the 
population, though foreigners, have to be considered. 

At first, when the Monegasques desired to have 
a voice in the government of their own country, the 
population of the principality, though in the main 
foreign, looked on benevolently. But now the situation 
has changed. The handful of Alonegasques want to have 
a Budget ; they want to impose direct taxes on the vast 
majority of residents who are not Monegasques. These 
latter see no ad\antage to be gained by paying the taxes 
from which they have always been exempt. Why should 
they pay merely to allow a very small minority of fellow- 
inhabitants to enjoy the power and prestige of manipulat- 
ing a Budget? VVhy should a rich majority create a 
Budget for the advantage of a poor minority ? The 
Monegasques constitute but one-twelfth of the population, 
and of course the eleven-twelfths of the inhabitants do not 
see matters in the same light. The complication is due 
to the difference of nationalities. A council dealing 
purely with municipal affairs might be elected by every 


resident, whatever his nationality, Hke the Sanitary Board 
at Tangiers. Each voter at Tangiers, however, contributes 
towards the expenses incurred by the Board he elects. 
But why have such an international Board or ISIunicipal 
Council at Monaco when there is no need of making any 
payments ? If it should ever be necessary to impose taxes 
then it will be time enough to speak of electing a 
municipality to represent not one-twelfth but the whole 
of the population. 

In the meanwhile, so long as the prince and the 
casino do all that is necessary, the foreigner, who conies 
to the principality to make money rather than to attend 
to politics, is quite satisfied with his irresponsible position. 
He enjoys living in a country where there is no political 
squabbling: he has enough of politics at home. On the 
other hand, it is quite easy to understand that the native 
Monegasque, who is at home, should feel humiliated to 
think he had no voice whatsoever in the concerns of his 
own native country. So efforts are being made to satisfy 
the Monegasque without imperilling the foreigner : not an 
altogether easy task. 



ANEW treaty now allows the Monegasque police 
to pursue and arrest fugitives over the frontier 
line on condition that they are immediately given 
over to the French police. Quite recently a criminal might 
escape by running perhaps only a few hundred yards. This 
might carry him over the border and into France. Here 
he could enjoy breathing-time, safe in the knowledge that 
formalities must be gone through before the French police 
took up the matter and continued the pursuit the Mone- 
gasque police had begun. This is one of the reasons why, 
apart from the desire to avoid scandals and disturbances, 
the Monegasque police preferred prevention to punish- 
ment. It is quite natural that Monte Carlo should attract 
all sorts of criminals, more especially those of the pick- 
pocket persuasion. The play is for cash. Cheques and bills 
are of course not accepted, nor are counters used. The 
players must have ready money, which they generally put 
in their pockets, so that it is easily accessible to the pick- 
pocket as well as to themselves. Very large amounts are 
thus loosely carried. If during the season a census could 
be taken of the ready cash and bank-notes carried by those 
present, the amount per head or the average per cent, 
would be greater than could be found in any other spot 
in the world. In bonds, shares, cheques, bills, etc., larger 
sums are brought to a stock exchange or leading market, 
but the thief cannot easily dispose of these securities. He 
likes bank-notes, or, better still, gold, and these abound at 
Monte Carlo ; they fall in glittering cascades upon the 




Many thousand persons enter the gaming-rooms in the 
course of a single day. A large proportion have their 
pockets well filled, at least on arrival. Besides, if the 
enterprising pickpocket is afflicted with doubts and 
blessed with patience, he has only to watch till he spots 
the rare player who is satisfied to leave the tables while 
still the winner of a good round sum. It is true that, when 
the pickpocket is watching the players, the police are 
watching the pickpocket ; but, like the game which 
attracts thief and thief-catcher, with uncertain results. 
There is a good tale told of a detective set to w^atch a 
notorious pickpocket who had gained admission to the 
gaming-saloons. The detective kept so close to the thief 
that he never discovered anything ; but this proximity 
provided the thief with an excellent opportunity of safely 
stealing the detective's scarf-pin ! There is one thing, 
however, to be said in favour of the criminal class fre- 
quenting Monte Carlo : they are quite worthy of the other 
classes which make a point of visiting this fashionable 
resort. We have no vulgar " area sneaks " here. The milk- 
can may hang outside the door of house or flat and no one 
will condescend to steal the milk. Petty larceny is well 
and good for London suburbs and other commonplace 
abodes. On the contrary, the Monte Carlo thief is difficult 
to catch because he is such a refined and high-class 
personality that the police hardly dare venture to arrest 
him, however politely. 

The headquarters of the police at Monaco occupies 
part of the Government House. It is not called the Pre- 
fecture of Police, but bears the title of Public Safety — 
Surete Puhlique — and its chief is M. Joseph Henri Simard, 
JDirecteur de la Sxirete. Now M. Simard is the proud 
owner of Max, the wolf-like dog of Gronendael breed, 
which has been carefully trained as a police dog. At the 
brilliant international Dog Competition held in the Con- 
damine during the spring of 1911, I had seen this dog win 
prizes by reason of its irresistible ardour in devouring the 
padding protecting the limbs of a very honest individual 


dressed to personate a villainous apache. In 1912 he was 
again equally successful. On the occasion of my first visit 
to M. Simard, he happened to enter the Government 
Offices a few yai-ds in front of me, and I watched with 
pleasure the joyful bounds of his beautiful dog as it 
played about while following its master. When I entered 
M. Simard's private office. Max sprang to its feet and, 
with dignified deliberation, strode up till its nose was within 
an inch of my leg. A studious sniff followed; then, standing 
still but watchful, without any fuss, show of teeth or 
barking, it gave just one low but emphatic growl. There 
was no mistaking the dog's meaning, and I felt myself as 
much a prisoner as if handcuffs and manacles had been 
affixed to my limbs. Fortunately a friendly word from its 
master sufficed ; the dog wagged its tail and returned to 
its usual post of observation under the office-desk at JNI. 
Simard's feet. 

Having explained the object of my business, I was 
referred to M. Theotime Farine, whose special business it 
is to watch over the people who visit the principality. As 
a detective of no ordinary talent he must have rendered 
eminent service to the Russian Imperial family, for he has 
received both orders and decorations from Russia. With 
M. Farine, I was soon plunged in an interesting conversa- 
tion. The police of Monaco, he explained, pride themselves 
on their elaborate organisation and practice of preventive 
measures. Their great object is to be so thoroughly 
acquainted with all swindlers, sharpers, pickpockets and 
similar gentry as to render their lives unendurable from 
the moment they enter the principality. The detectives 
so dog their footsteps that in alarm they depart without 
attempting to steal anything. On such occasions the police 
will spend the whole night watching in the hotel where 
the suspected person has taken a room, and thus the thief 
is sometimes caught in the act. There are police agents 
who have been living in the principality for so many years 
that they have become familiar with the faces of nearly 
all the regular frequenters. This is most useful, as it 


prevents a great deal of weary and futile watching. Still, 
much depends upon hazard, for there is a constant flow of 
new-comers whose features cannot be known and who are 
probably very honourable people. 

Detection is rendered more difficult because it is the 
aristocracy of the criminal classes who frequent Monte 
Carlo. The visitor of good birth and breeding need have 
no apprehension. His refined senses will not be offended 
in any way. He will be robbed with the utmost courtesy, 
and by some very elegant, well-conducted and wealthy 
person. Indeed, one of the best chances of catching a 
thief is the probability that he will overplay his part. His 
luggage will be just a little too good and expensive, or 
he will wear rather too much jewellery. Of course these 
ingenious adventurers go to winter quarters in the most 
expensive style and by the dearest route. Only very rich 
people can aiFord to rival the Riviera sharper and thief in 
his mode of travelling. Thus may we rest in peace. There 
is in such facts a merciful dispensation. Only those who 
can afford the loss are likely to be robbed. 

Of late years it has been the fashion among this class 
of criminals to adopt American manners, perhaps because 
some of the boldest and most skilful thieves actually 
came from the States, following those of their countrymen 
who had "struck oil." Early in 1911 the police arrested 
an American who frequented very good society and had 
put up at one of the best hotels at Nice. On opening his 
luggage there were found a complete and most scientific 
burglar's kit, two trick roulettes and packs of marked 
cards. Not only are these light-fingered gentlemen 
perfectly dressed, they are also very courteous. Some of 
them are Avell read, and ingratiate themselves both by 
their obliging manners and their entertaining conver- 
sation. However, this is not a sufficient reason to justify 
the haughty, insulting indifference English travellers are 
apt to display towards the stranger who attempts to be 
polite and agreeable. Politeness is a virtue, honesty is a 
virtue ; and though we may suspect the absence of the 


latter that is not reason enough for exiling the former. 
It will be time to turn a cold shoulder on a fellow- 
traveller when he suggests a game of cards or any other 
course involving a money issue. 

When these fashionable thieves reach their hotel, and 
it is generally one of the very best and most expensive 
in the place, the difficulty of recognising and convicting 
them only increases. Just as they wear elegant clothes, 
have the best trunks and the most valuable jewellery, so 
also are they provided with a plentiful supply of money. 
Their first care is to interview the proprietor or manager 
of the Iiotel and ask him to keep their money in his safe. 
As this is a usual custom, assent is readily given, and the 
new arrival hands over such a large sum as entirely to 
disarm all suspicion. M. Farine assured me that he had 
known professional thieves deposit in the hotel safe as 
mucli as £1000. There was one case of a pickpocket who 
gave his hotelkeeper 160,000 francs, or £2400. When the 
police come to inform the hotel manager that there is a 
thief among his guests, the warning is naturally greeted 
with expressions of surprise and incredulity. Yet if this 
warning were not given the manager of the hotel, by 
answering favourably questions asked concerning his 
lodger, might help the rogue to effect his purpose. When 
a chance acquaintance is made in travelling or at an hotel 
one of the few methods available of obtaining some 
information about the stranger is to inquire if he is 
known at the hotel. The manager may then reply that 
though he does not know much about his guest, still as 
he is a very well-conducted person and has deposited a 
large sum in the hotel safe there is no reason to doubt his 
respectability. On the other hand, if the hotel manager 
has been put on his guard by the police, he will be careful 
not to say anything that might be construed as a recom- 
mendation wliich would help the thief to impose on his 

Some of these hotel " rats," to use the graphic French 
term, have all sorts of pincers with which they can turn a 


key that is on the other side of the door. They can then 
enter and help themselves. If the occupant is asleep they 
will increase the profundity of his slumbers by the aid of 
chloroform. On leaving, the thief with his admirable tools 
locks the door again. Next morning the victim awakes 
and finds his door locked from the inside just as he had 
locked it himself before going to bed. Evidently no one 
has come in by the door, nor indeed in any other way. 
There have been no burglai-s this time, for everything is 
in exactly the same position as on the previous evening, 
and there were several objects lying about — a gold watch 
perhaps — which would be worth stealing but which have 
not been touched. It is perhaps much later in the day that 
the pocket-book chai'ged with bank-notes is missed. What 
has happened ? One thing seems quiet clear : no robbery 
was committed in the hotel. The door was locked in the 
evening and it was still locked in the morning. There is 
not a scratch or a mark anywhere to reveal the entrance 
of a thief, and there were so many other things that 
might have been stolen but were not tampered with. The 
book with the notes, it is more natural to suppose, was 
lost, dropped or snatched out of the pocket when its 
owner was aM'ay on some excursion or had reluctantly 
consented to participate in the gathering of a rather 
mixed but jovial company, where, however, he had enjo3'^ed 
himself mightily. Then pockets are so easilj^ picked in the 
crowd round the gambling-tables. At the hotel obviously 
nothing was lost or stolen, and the one person the police 
suspect has given the most absolute proof that he is a 
man of means. 

That is why the police set detectives to watch at night 
in the hotels, even at the risk of terrifying some inmate 
whose suspicions will be awakened by seeing a stranger 
loitering in the passages. Thus the detective runs every 
risk of being mistaken for a desperate burglar, and may 
consider himself fortunate if some amateur defender of 
law and order does not take a shot at him with a revolver. 
Desperate crimes attended with bloodshed are, however, 


very rare in the principality. In 1907 there was the 
celebrated Gould affair, when a lady was murdered and 
cut into pieces by her friends and an attempt made to 
get rid of the body by putting it in a box. 

The next notorious theft with violence took place at 
five o'clock in the afternoon on the 28th of December 1911. 
By eight o'clock that same evening the three men con- 
cerned were arrested. They had entered the apartment of 
a beautiful Italian actress named Signorina Liona, sprung 
on her ser\ant, treated her with some violence and left 
her securely bound and fainting on the floor. The men 
made off with some money and a large quantity of very 
valuable jewellery. Part of this, and the jewel-box, were 
buried in the sand on the Larvotto beach. The servant, 
restored to her senses, was able to give so clear a descrip- 
tion of the three men that two of them were arrested in 
the principality shortly after they had perpetrated the 
crime. The third managed to get as far as Vintimille, 
Here, however, he had to wait some time for a train, and 
strolled about in the streets. A Monegasque detective, 
who was watching, and who had received by telegraph a 
full description of the crime and the criminals, thought he 
recognised the man. He at once asked the Italian police 
to interrogate the stranger, who was accordingly invited 
to step into the police office. Here he gave such satis- 
factory answers that he was about to be released when 
the Monegasque detective noticed that he had never taken 
off his cap. Attention having been drawn to this, the 
stranger was told to remove his cap ; on his doing so 
some jewels fell on to the floor. He was at once 
arrested, but his trial did not take place till the 22nd 
of May 1912, at Oneglia, in Italy. In the meanwhile 
his brother, who had participated in the crime and was 
imprisoned at Monaco, committed suicide in his cell, 
on the 1st of .lanuary 1912. Perhaps it was on this 
account that a plea of insanity or irresponsibility was 
set up. At any rate, the Italian court acquitted their 
prisoner. The important and notable feature of the affair 


is the rapidity with which the culprits were arrested. The 
whole of the jewels also were recovered ; not a single thing 
was lost. 

Crimes with violence are extremely rare in the 
principality. There may be quarrels accompanied with 
violence among Italians, but these are honest if hot- 
tempered individuals. The police place the greatest faith 
in ostentatious shadowing. As already stated, when a 
criminal finds he is watched at every turn he generally 
goes away. It is easier to prevent a crime than to capture 
the criminal after it has been perpetrated. But the police 
have no light task. An enormous number of people come 
into the principality. Many of them — the majority of 
them — are not strangers but neighbours, coming from the 
outskirts, from Nice, Menton and other places. They will 
return home the same evening, and may be back again 
in the principality the next day. Nevertheless, however 
numerous the cases of duplicating may be the fact remains 
that, coming by train, tramway or other means of loco- 
motion, the persons entering the principality during the 
year 1911 numbered 1,587,130. How is such a crowd to 
be adequately watched ? 

According to an official report giving a summary of 
legal proceedings during the ten years from 1898 to 1907, 
there were 4 convictions for murder during this period, 
and altogether 34 convictions for serious crimes entailing 
heavy penalties. There took place 11,229 prosecutions, 
most of them for insignificant minor offences, such as 
letting off a squib in the streets, blocking the thorough- 
fare, singing at night, dropping something out of a window 
and infringing various administrative regulations. It is 
interesting to note that of all these prosecutions 8459 
were directed against Italians, 1885 against French, 566 
against Monegasques, 185 against Germans, 51 against 
Swiss, and only 31 against British subjects, though they are 
numerous in the principality. The Russians came in for 
23 prosecutions, and other nationalities not mentioned 
for 29. There is not the slightest doubt, and the figures 



quoted testify to the fact, that the greatest personal 
security is enjoyed by residents in the principaUty. This 
indeed is one of its attractions, and many people en- 
deavour to make a home on this beautiful spot because 
they feel so safe and well guarded. 



THE greatest, the most legitimate claim to pre- 
ference Monaco can make is its climate. The whole 
of the Riviera from San Remo to Cannes, and 
again, but farther on, Hyeres, adduce identically the same 
reason as their justification in taking the title of winter 
stations. The JNIaritime Alps or offshoots from this great 
mountain-range protect all these places from the cold 
northerly winds, though here and there, maybe, a gap cut 
by a river lets some cold wind through and makes things 
uncomfortable. There is no such river in the principality. 
Direct to the north, and quite close at hand. Mount Agel 
rises to a height of 3770 feet. An offshoot of this mountain 
to the north-east passes above the romantic village of 
Roquebrune to advance some distance out to sea and 
form the Cap Martin. On the other side of Mount Agel, 
toward the west, there are lower mountains, but no in- 
terruption in the succession of protecting hills. First comes 
the battle mountain. La Turbie, with its Augustan trophy 
built at an altitude of 2620 feet, and then the Tete de 
Chien, 1880 feet, terminates the amphitheatre which, with- 
out any break, shelters the principality from the cold 
northern winds. The mistral, it is true, blows in spite of 
all this shelter, but by the time it has leapt over the lofty 
peaks and has been deflected down on the other side it 
has lost much of its rude violence. It comes to carry away 
the dust, to oxidise and purify its particles by blowing 
them about in the blazing sunshine, and to announce that 
rain and uncertain weather are over. The mistral is not 
an enemy ; it is rather a brusque, boisterous friend which, 


MiDwiMKR Sun Bath on thk Casino Tekkace 


like a spring cleaning, creates alarming discomfort while 
rendering genuine service. 

The more perfect the shelter, the more likely is the 
atmosphere to become oppressive, like the air in a hot- 
house ; but, with the exception of the Condamine district 
and the Bas-Moulin, the principality escapes from this 
inconvenience. The houses are not built on a beach at the 
seashore. They are built on the sides of mountains. The 
building land available rises to a height of 500 feet, and 
there are comparatively few houses at a lower level than 
200 feet above the sea. This ensures a constant if slight 
circulation of air, which prevents the feeling of depression 
and acts as a gentle stimulant. As the subsoil consists 
mainly of rock, and is situated on the mountain-side, the 
gradient towards the sea is very steep ; we thus obtain 
very efficient natural drainage. There are no accumulations 
ofstagnant water or of mud. After the severest rainfall the 
roads are dry again in a few hours. Thus the principality 
is remarkably free from mist and damp. The air is always 
exceptionally dry ; and excess of cold or heat is much 
more endurable if the air is not moist. 

The purity of the air is assured by the immense 
uninhabited space occupied by the mountains on the one 
side and tlie wide expanse of sea on the other side. These 
constitute two inexhaustible sources of germ-free atmos- 
phere. The strip of land running between the mountains 
and the sea, which man befouls, is so narrow that the 
impurities engendered are promptly dispersed by the 
constiint admixture of pure air blown in upon it from one 
or the other side. Then the enormous volume of water 
that bathes the whole length of the narrow principality 
throws off in winter some of the heat it has stored in 
summer ; while, in the hot weather, on the contrary, 
it helps to keep the temperature cool. Thus there is 
a summer as well as a winter season, when visitors come 
from Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Brazil and other hot places 
to enjoy the comparative coolness of the principality. 
But we have the reverse to every medal. The more 


attractive the place the greater the number of visitors. 
With the increase of popularity comes the danger of 
overcrowding. Already some houses have been built 
in defiance of the most elementary laws of health. The 
back of the lower part of these very lofty dwellings is 
so close against the mountain-side that there are some 
rooms which can never be reached by nature's disinfectors 
— the direct rays of light and sunshine. Human beings 
should not be allowed to sleep in such rooms, however 
elegantly they may be furnished. The attempt to house 
too many people on one spot and other sanitary defects 
all arise from the same cause, too much success. 

On the other hand, homage must be rendered to the 
principality for its activity and readiness to apply sanitary 
measures and reforms. In this it has often given a precious 
example to the entire Riviera. Before the necessity of 
drainage was appreciated in this part of the world 
attempts were already made to construct sewers in 
Monaco. Here the narrowness of the streets and their 
rocky foundations made this work of cutting down into 
the solid stone, which was begun in 1885, very difficult 
and expensive. At that time, of the 68,000 houses which 
Paris then possessed, only 1100 were drained direct into 
sewers, and might, in that respect, be considered in a 
satisfactory condition. By 1894 the principality adopted 
the English water-carriage system of draining everything 
into the sewers. The abolition of cesspools and other such 
abominations was therefore decreed and enforced. In the 
course of a few years, some fifteen miles of sewers were 
built. For the low-lying districts (to prevent draining into 
the port) Shone ejectors were installed, being placed in 
the Condamine to raise the sewage to a higher level so 
that it could reach the main outfall at Fontvieille. This 
English method has been working automatically in the 
Condamine all day and all night for now fourteen 
years without ever getting out of order. A technical com- 
mission, recently appointed to investigate the condition 
of the drainage, gives high praise to the wonderful 


manner in which this system has stood the test of 

The report of tlie commission on the state of the 
sewers is a very disconcerting document. In a word, 
the principahty has altogether outgrown its system of 
drainage. The sewers are now too small, they overflow 
or burst and there is no efficient ventilation. Without 
entering into details of an unsavoury description, it may 
be said that everyone knowing anything about the subject 
readily admits that a new scheme must be devised to 
meet the altered state of affairs due to the great increase 
of population. This, there is no doubt, will be taken in 
hand at an early date ; and, in the meanwhile, it cannot 
be said that the principality is properly drained. Such 
is the consequence of too much or too rapid success. A 
few years ago Monaco had the reputation of being the 
best-drained place on the Riviera. But if what is invisible 
within the sewers is now in an unsatisfactory condition, the 
surface cleaning or scavenging is perfect. Nowhere in the 
world would it be possible to find cleaner, better swept 
and watered streets, paths and public gardens. The 
principality first on the Riviera employed a destructor 
so that all the rubbish and household refuse should be 
consumed by fire as soon as collected. The Horsfall system 
of Leeds was installed at Fontvieille, and here 56 cubic 
metres of refuse can be reduced to ashes in a day. (A 
cubic metre is rather more than 35 cubic feet.) The 
heat engendered exceeding 900° centigrade, it is utilised 
to cremate carcasses, condemned meat and other obnoxious 
organic matter. Little or no smoke or smell results, and 
the principality is promptly freed from rubbish which 
if allowed to accumulate soon becomes dangerous. 

The disinfector is not, as is often the case, near the 
destructor, but just outside the hospital. In respect to 
the disinfection of clothes, bedding, etc., the principality 
is ahead not only of its neighbouring winter stations but 
of great countries, particularly of England. There are two 
things we do not yet possess in England ; first, com- 


pulsory notification of pulmonary tuberculosis, which 
is still optional ; second, compulsory insurance against 
disinfection. If a hotel or lodging-house keeper has to 
pay for the disinfection of a room occupied by a tenant 
notified as suffering from an infectious or a tuberculous 
disease, he may occasionally save his money by not 
fulfilling this duty. In the principality the authorities 
are not satisfied to incur this risk. For all the poorer 
inhabitants they disinfect gratuitously ; on the hotel and 
lodging-house keepers compulsory insurance is imposed. 
Whether they have cases of infectious diseases or not, 
they all pay a fixed sum per annum, and the premises are 
disinfected whenever necessary without any further charge. 
Nor can this be considered a burden, for the sum levied 
only amounts to one franc per annum per bed. Thus 
there is no money to be saved by not obeying the law. 
It would be a great advantage to the public at large 
if some similar system were applied in all countries. A 
special cart takes away the bedding, curtains, carpets, 
clothes, etc. The room itself is disinfected with formol ; 
and there is a specially trained staff of disinfectors. 

Again, and in this the principality should be more 
widely imitated in England, and certainly in the 
United States of America, the Sanitary Authorities do 
not entrust their meat-supply to the tender mercies of 
private butchers. No private slaughter - houses are 
sanctioned. A municipal abattoir has been constructed, 
well away from any dAvellings or general traffic. It is 
situated under the Oceanographic Rluseum on a narrow 
ledge of rock just over the sea and at the far extremity 
and below the town of Monaco. Purified by the sea-winds, 
and placed in this isolated spot the abattoir can incon- 
venience no one. Here veterinary surgeons, paid by the 
Government and having no interest in the trade, are ever 
on the watch to see that the animals are healthy and the 
meat wholesome, and that there is no cruelty. Indeed, 
throughout the principality the prevention of cruelty 
is strictly enforced, except with regard to pigeon-shooting. 



There are also very severe laws concerning the constant 
inspection, entailing the right of entry, of private stables, 
so that unhealthy and unhappy conditions for animals are 
not allowed. Needless to say the control of food, and 
especially of milk, is becoming more and more rigorous. 
Those dealers who bring in milk from outside the 
principality must also bring twice a year a certificate 
from a veterinary surgeon showing that their cows are 
in good health. This surveillance giv^es rise to many 
prosecutions and condemnations ; sentences of imprison- 
ment as well as tines are unhesitatingly inflicted. Any 
false statement on a label is also severely punished. 

The water-supply is in a state of transition. A large 
portion of the drinking water comes from the same supply 
as that drunk at Nice. This is the water of the V(^subie, 
and of late it has been sterilised by the introduction of 
ozone. But a local water-supply is collected in the princi- 
pality. No fault has been found with it, though in these 
days the fact that water is pure when examined is not 
considered a sufficient guarantee. There is no knowing 
when or how it may get contaminated. Therefore before 
delivering this water to the consumer it is now proposed 
to ensure its purity by submitting it to the action of the 
ultra-violet rays. 

Another admirable institution which exists in Paris, 
Bordeaux and several French towns, as well as in the 
principality, is the Casier Sanitaire. The Sanitary Authority 
has for every house a cas-ier, or small case or portfolio. In 
this is placed a plan of the house, giving its sanitary 
services, a description of the number of rooms, cubic space 
and other details, such as the nature of the water-supply, 
or of the trades, if any, carried on inside. In time there 
accumulates in the casier the sanitary history of the 
house. When anything happens a sheet of paper is dropped 
into the casier, and the paper by its colour tells what 
has occurred. Particulars of deaths, diseases notified, dis- 
infection carried out, with dates and details, are all to be 
found in the portfolio. Placed in dictionary order, the 


sanitary history of any one house can be ascertained in a 
moment, and the sanitary authorities are thus precisely 
informed before they take action. These sanitary house 
passports, as they are sometimes called, are most practical 
and useful, and when once in working order save much 
time, trouble, and not a few errors. What, however, is still 
needed is a better and more scientific method of house 
inspection. The condition of the air inside the sewers has 
never been analysed, and there are no efficient means of 
testing whether the house drains are airtight. In a word, 
the population has not yet been educated to the point of 
understanding how great is the danger of allowing air from 
the sewers and drains to enter dwellings. Mere outside 
cleanliness does not suffice : sometimes it is dangerously 
deceptive. One very good thing has been done during the 
year 1912. The water cistern of nearly every house in the 
principality has been inspected. Regular inspection is 
the next best thing to total abolition. Of course the water 
should come direct from the main and not be stored in 
a cistern for mice and birds to fall in, get drowned, and, 
decomposing with other organic matter, pollute what 
would otherwise be a pure water-supply. Some houses in 
the principality have done away with this dangerous 
contrivance and do get their water direct from the 

One of the most notable sanitary features of the 
principality is its Model Hospital. It was inaugurated 
in 1902 by the prince, who was then accompanied by 
the Conference of the International Association of the 
Medical Press. This is a body of severe and expert critics, 
but no fault was found and much praise was bestowed. It 
was described in The Lancet at the time ; and in May 
1911 the result in the treatment of patients was analysed. 
From this it appears that during the first year 78 opera- 
tions of major and 20 of minor surgery were performed ; 
2 deaths resulted, 1 only being the consequence of the 
operation. By 1909 the reputation of the hospital had so 
spread that there were 204 major and 44 minor surgical 


operations performed, resulting in only 6 deaths. During 
the first seven years there were 868 major and 200 minor 
operations. Of these 1068 patients operated upon, 23 died 
in consequence of the operation they had undergone, and 
30 died from some other cause. Thus the avei'age total 
mortality, calculated on seven years' experience, resulting 
directly from operations, did not amount to more than 
2'1 per cent. Taking more recent figures given since the 
publication of The Lancet's article, the hospital staff 
in 1911 performed 267 operations, and there were only 
3 deaths resulting from the operations and 11 deaths 
from other causes ; so that 253 patients were cured. 
This means an operation mortality of 1 •! per cent, and a 
general mortality, including the direct effect of operations, 
equal to 5 per cent. If these more recent figures be added 
to those collected since the opening of the hospital we 
have, as the average of nine years, a general mortality of 
5 per cent, among patients operated upon, and a specific 
mortality due to the failure of the operations of 1"8 per 

It is only necessary to compare these figures with the 
statistics published by other hospitals in other parts of the 
world to realise the enormous advantage enjoyed by those 
patients who have the good fortune to be operated upon in 
the Monaco Hospital. The Lancet says : " These favour- 
able results are due, not merely to the undoubted surgical 
skill displayed, but, according to Dr Cailland's [the principal 
operator] own testimony, to the great safety in anaesthesia 
resulting from the use of the Roth-Droeger-Guglielminetti 
apparatus, to the admirable topographical position of the 
hospital, and to the lavish care bestowed on the patients. 
Indeed the topographical position of the hospital con- 
stitutes in itself a treatment that has proved effective even 
in some advanced cases." 

On the side of the mountain under the Tcte de Chien 
a ledge has been cut into the rock measuring 2800 metres 
square. Here, in the midst of trees and flowers, at a height 
of 260 feet above the sea, a series of pavilions has been 


built, all facing due south. Cases of tuberculous peritonitis, J 

tubercular affection of the limbs and arthritis are simply i 

wheeled out and left in the open to be cured by breathing 

the saline air and by the penetrating, purifying action of 

the direct rays of sunshine. A wing called the Pavilion 

Koch has been built expressly for the sunshine treatment 

of children suffering from tubercle of the bones. It is the 

wholesomeness of the situation that aids the healing of 

surgical cases while acting in a specific manner on diseases m 

such as these just mentioned. The land and the building, * 

without including any furniture, surgical instruments or 

fittings, cost £80,000, which, as usual, came out of the 

prince's private purse, and he particularly insisted upon 

having the best hospital possible without any regard to 


Nor is the hospital intended exclusively for the poor. 
There are wards where persons of small means can be 
treated for three shillings and fourpence or four shillings 
per day, and a pavilion has been built and furnished in 
a luxurious style for wealthy patients, called the Villa 
Albert. It has its own operating-room, and there is an 
English trained nurse. This is a great comfort to British 
or American visitors who cannot speak French and fall ill 
while in the principality. Especially when an operation is 
necessary, nothing can be more trying than to be invalided 
in an hotel. But at the Villa Albert, for from eight shillings 
to sixteen shillings a day, according to the room selected, 
the patient can have every comfort as if in a high-class 
hotel, the technical nursing needed, and the attendance 
of any physician he chooses to consult. This is indeed 
a boon, for hotel servants cannot be expected to give 
proper attention to patients. The position is even more 
terrible if the visitor contracts an infectious disease. He 
then becomes not merely a nuisance but a danger to 
all in the hotel or lodging-house where he is residing. 
As a rule, in such cases, he is taken off by force to the 
common hospital. Now, and higher up the mountain than 
the new hospital, a luxurious fever or isolation hospital has 




been built. It contains paying wards and private rooms, and 
all the modern contrivances, such as glass compartments 
for the isolation of children from each other, though all are 
under the watch of the one nurse in the same ward. 

Consequently the visitor need no longer view with 
apprehension the possibility of falling ill when away from 
home if he is going to Monaco. Whether suffering from 
infectious or other disease, medical or surgical, he can 
have every care, every luxury, and an altogether ex- 
ceptional chance of recovery at the Model Hospital, which 
has been built according to the most modern principles 
and regardless of expense. This is one of the institu- 
tions Monaco has the most reason to be proud of, and 
visitors should not leave the principality without paying 
the hospital a visit so as to see for themselves the great 
and humanitarian work that has been accomplished. 





OB\"IOUSLY the fundamental principle of roulette 
must have come into existence when humanity 
had so far progressed as to make wheels and 
organise games of chance. The early Britons may have 
turned one of their war chariots over on its side, painted 
the upper wheel in different colours and sent it whirling 
round. A spear stuck in the ground so that the point 
might be near the edge of the wheel would answer very 
well as a winning-post. To-day in Greenland a board 
serves as a pivot. The players sit round and a revolving 
finger-piece in stopping points out the winner. So the 
early Briton who backed the colour which stopped 
opposite the point of the spear would win the game. 
Whether, in the absence of a casino police, the losers 
would allow him to carry off the prize is another matter. 
In my juvenile days, playing with other children in the 
gardens of the Champs Elysees, I was early initiated in 
the mysteries of the roulette brought round by the 
mdrcluuidcx dc plaisirs. The dear old ladies who thus 
announced themselves as merchants of pleasure carried — 
and still carry, for they have survived the change of many 
a government and dynasty — tin cylinders about three 
feet deep and one foot wide. The " pleasures " are kept 
cool, dry and crisp inside, for what would be a pleasure 
that was not crisp ? It would be like a cracknel that did 
not crackle. How sweet they were, how delicately 
flavoured, how thin and light ! It was all pleasure and 
no food. There was nothing in them to spoil our appetites. 
We could consume scores without the risk of a scolding 

R 257 


for being unable to eat our dinners properly. Yet they 
were quite large ; larger, though hardly thicker, than a 
sheet of notepaper, and folded gracefully like the petal of 
a giant flower. But before the lid of the cylinder containing 
a vast store of these pleasures was removed, a halfpenny 
had to be paid, and then the gambling began. 

Since there was no wheel to turn, the instrument was 
not exactly a roulette. Spikes like pegs standing upright 
divided the circumference of the lid into equal compart- 
ments, each bearing a number. From the centre we sent a 
hand whirling round. It was more like the game the Green- 
landers play, but it was a happy game, because we always 
won. It would not do to mar the cheerfulness of the Champs 
Elysees with sounds of lamentation from the children 
who had lost. But we often won only one plaisir, less 
frequently two or more, and it was the uncertainty as 
to the result which caused all the excitement. Then there 
was just one out of the many compartments that re- 
presented the gi'os lot. This meant a pile of pleasures, 
something altogether beyond the combined dreams of 
avarice and greed. When someone did win this big prize, 
there was an outburst of delirious joy in that happy child- 
land that can only be compared to the demonstrations 
which used to take place in the good old days when 
players were allowed to break the bank at Monte Carlo. 

Perhaps all this was very wicked. Cei'tainly I soon 
became a gambler of the worst type, plunging recklessly 
so long as my nurse or fond parents provided the half- 
pence. Was it very wrong of them to sympathise with me 
when I failed to pull off a big number ? Were they by 
their loving indulgence sowing tares that would grow 
up and choke the good harvest ? If so, how many other 
games and joys of childhood must be nipped in the bud ! 
Indeed, very serious essays have been published de- 
nouncing Christmas tree festivities. The children sit 
round, excited by long anticipation and the many lights 
glittering on the tree ; from the branches hang numerous 
presents, and in its little hand each child clutches the 


ticket bearing the numbei* that determines which of all 
these presents it shall receive. Afterwards what envy, 
malice and hatred are engendered in the mind of the 
children who have not been fortunate and would prefer 
what some other child has got. Evidently if the roulette 
at Monte Carlo, like its predecessors at Baden-Baden, 
Wiesbaden and Homburg, is to be suppressed, then the 
strong arm of the law must also cut down the Christmas 
tree. If people gamble at Monte Carlo it is entirely of 
their own free will ; but before the Christmas tree the 
child is absolutely helpless. 

The excitement of a lottery, the joy of winning at what 
is to all intents and purposes a game of hazard, are forced 
upon the child by its parents. It would be preposterous 
to expect that children should resist and refuse on moral 
grounds to attend Christmas festivities. Yet the mind of a 
child is more impressionable than that of an adult. At 
Monte Carlo juveniles are rigorously excluded, and adults 
must procure a special permission before they can enter 
the gaming-rooms. Again, at charity and other bazaars, 
and at country fairs, how many wheels are there for holiday 
folks to send spinning round in the hope of winning a 
large piece of gingerbread, a china dog, or, it may be, a 
real live rabbit ? From childhood upwards, in a thousand 
different ways, games of hazard have been enjoyed, and are 
but rarely prevented. The sermons and denunciations of 
moralists, the laws and police have proved equally in- 
effectual. Tlie love of getting something for nothing still 
prevails. It is always possible to bet in one way or another, 
to speculate on 'Change or to invest in risky enterprises 
that will yield large profits in the unlikely event of their 
proving successful. 

The hope of quickly and easily winning by a happy 
chance what requires so much trouble to earn has always 
acted as a strong temptation, leading too frequently to 
disastrous results. In face of this melancholy fact the 
obvious but very commonplace attitude to observe is one 
of virtuous indignation. Convention bids us vigorously 


denounce gambling as a terrible vice which calls for 
immediate suppression. There is also a tendency to forget 
that natural instincts, like measles, cannot be suppressed, 
though they may be driven inwards or underground, where 
they will become far more dangerous. To the thoughful it 
is obvious that this " off with his head " policy is no solu- 
tion of the difficulty. The decapitated one will none the 
less have desired to gamble. To penalise the deed is 
useless : it is necessary to destroy the desire. Meanwhile, 
until men are guided by a higher ambition than the 
excitement of games, it may be of more practical benefit 
to bear in mind that the devil or Evil has been well 
defined as misdirected energy. But for the energy that 
engenders the spirit of enterprise the world would stagnate. 
That playing games of hazard is among the least worthy 
manifestations of the spirit of enterprise may be readily 
admitted. Indeed, as suggested above, it may even be 
maintained that, on the contrary, the desire to gamble 
arises from a lack of energy, patience and courage. It is 
because a man has not sufficient firmness to go forth and 
make his way by the accomplishment of some useful woi-k 
that he resorts to the easy device of winning money 
at games of chance. Probably both explanations are 
partly correct. The very timid and unenterprising rarely 
become gamblers ; while the more bold and venturous 
not unfrequently find the rewards of legitimate industry 
desperately slow in coming. 

In any case, in all times the more enterprising and less 
honest have found surer profit in seeking to ensnare those 
who, for whatever reason, resorted to games of hazard. 
Thus cheats and thieves early became the associates of 
gamblers. But action engenders reaction, and roulette 
represents the reaction against robbery. The great 
philosopher, divine and mathematician, Blaise Pascal, was 
passionately fond of games. Perhaps this was a weakness, 
but then one of Pascal's most celebrated sayings compares 
man to a reed : " Man is a reed, the feeblest reed in 
nature, but he is a reed t/iat thinks " ; and Pascal did think. 


He thought so well that he discovered the laws governing 
the weight of air, the equilibrium of liquids, the arithmeti- 
cal triangle, the calculation of probabilities, the hydraulic 
press and the theory of the cycloid or roulette. From his 
very birth, according to Michaud's " Biographie Univer- 
selle," Pascal devoted himself to " researches concerning 
combinations in games of hazard." His letters, written in 
1654, to the mathematician Fermat, on games of chance, 
constitute a classic. Then because he wrote a " history of 
the roulette or trochoid or cycloid " and a " general treatise 
on the roulette and the dimensions of the curved lines 
of all roulettes " the impression was engendered that he 
invented the roulette used for gambling purposes. But the 
word roulette as used by Pascal applies to sometliing that 
rolls along like a wheel. The curved line is the line which 
a spot marked on the circumference of the wheel would 
draw in space as the wheel rolled forward. The proba- 
bilities are that the discoveries of this great geometrician 
on the laws of chance did encourage the belief that with 
a mathematically accurate instrument cheating would be 
impossible and the player would then only have to 
contend with the laws of chance. The circumference of 
the roulette wheel can be divided so as to give to each 
division its precise share of the circle. 

Roulette realised the honest gamester's ideal. It drove 
away the cheat and the thief. Whatever objections there 
may be to games of hazard there is still more objection to 
stealing and swindhng. Yet even to-day, as in Pascal's 
time, if a gambler risks his money on a throw of dice, he 
may meet someone Avho uses loaded dice. Should the 
player prefer cards, there are any number of cardsharpers 
about. Even if he only plays in the most respectable clubs 
or in the best society, spelt with ever so big an S, the 
presence of royalty itself has not prevented baccarat 
scandals. Cheating has been attempted even where there 
was the least reason to fear dishonest practices ; in the 
palaces of kings as in the lowest gambling hells. Ever 
since men have given such subjects a thought, they have 


endeavoured to discover a method or invent an instrument 
that would render swindling impossible. The great en- 
cyclopaedia, the original encyclopaedia that so powerfully 
contributed to bring about the French Revolution, the 
encyclopsedia of Diderot and d'Alembert, says in the 
second edition : " At the public games held in the hotels 
of Sevres and of Soissons, in Paris, roulette was imagined so 
that players might risk their money in complete security." 
Though roulettes of a sort have existed from time 
immemorial, the marvellous ingenuity with which the 
numbers are selected and distributed round the Monte 
Carlo wheel is a comparatively modern device. Something 
similar existed in the seventeenth century. Pascal died in 
1662, and soon after his death roulette began to be 
recognised as the most honest form of gambling it was 
possible to establish. Thus when nearly a century later, 
in 1760, it was decided to legalise gambling it was the 
game of roulette which found special favour in the eyes 
of the police authorities. Efforts, it is true, were made on 
previous occasions to bring gambling under police control, 
but they had never been successful ; at least, not on a 
large scale. History tells us, for instance, that in the reign 
of Henri IV. there were fifty gaming establishments 
which paid a daily tax to the police ; and the king himself 
was a notorious gambler ; though Sully ultimately con- 
trived to check this form of royal extravagance. Attempts 
were also made to classify the gambling resorts. There 
were a few luxurious hells for the rich, and many commoner 
places for the poor. Elaborate etiquette, combined with 
stately ceremonies, was instituted to keep the former select. 
Nevertheless the story is told of a distinguished gambler 
to whom some remonstrances were made. Among other 
things, he was told that all the patrons of the high-class 
saloon he had the privilege of frequenting were honest 
people. The player thereupon replied ; " Yes, I am well 
aware of this. They are honest people one of whom gets 
hanged every week when perchance the law is disposed 
to do its duty." 


The court setting the example, simpler folks also thought 
it was the proper thing to gamble. Later on Cardinal 
Mazarin from Italy introduced new games of hazard and 
found in Louis XIV^. a ready pupil. The highest dignitaries 
of the Church as well as of the court played, and for large 
sums. As an inspiring example of the true spirit of 
Christianity prevailing even among the princes of the 
Church, it is related that Cardinal d'Este, having invited 
Cai-dinal de JMedici to dinner, contrived to let the latter 
win at cards some ten thousand crowns. On being re- 
proached for playing so badly. Cardinal d'Este replied 
that it was poor hospitality to allow one's guests to go 
away in a bad humour ; it did not favour the digestion, 
and the guests were apt to think they had been made to 
pay for their dinner. 

Cardinal Mazarin not only himself played but 
persuaded the king to allow him to establish numerous 
authorised gaming-houses for playing hoca, a game with 
thirty chances, including two zeros in favour of the bank. 
After a while, the public protested that the bank was 
robbing the people for the benefit of the cardinal. The 
Parliament of Paris showed its reverence for the cardinal 
and its due appreciation of the proceeding by proposing 
to enact a law inflicting the death penalty on all who 
played hoca. This was a brave threat, but it added zest 
to the pleasure and privilege of playing this very game in 
court circles. Not only did gambling become more and 
more usual at court, but cheating at cards was not 
excluded. The great ladies of the court became so abso- 
lutely unscrupulous that passwords were invented to 
enable them to communicate to each other the amounts 
gained by illegitimate means. This was especially the 
case at the receptions given by Madame de Maintenon. 

For the sake of securing the presence at court of 
willing gamblers most disreputable persons were admitted. 
Lemontey, a distinguished man of letters, in his essay 
on the Monarchical Establishment of I^ouis XIV., gives 
the names of several individuals who had been convicted 


of theft and of coining false money, and who were never- 
theless received at court when there was any gambling 
going forward. The Due de Saint-Simon makes similar 
complaints ; and adds that many members of the 
aristocracy employed as valets and lackeys soldiers of 
fortune " addicted to all the vices, and as familiar with 
theft and assassination as with eating and drinking." Thus 
it is that Moliere and otlier contemporaneous authors so 
constantly represent valets as rogues. These unscrupulous 
servants were useful in doing the dirty work of their 
masters. No one can read the history of those times 
without being impressed by the better management of 
modern casinos. For safety and absence of swindling the 
twentieth-century casino compares favourably with the 
court of the great monarch. The improvement represented 
by the methods of which INIonte Carlo is the leading 
example can be fully appreciated only by acquiring some 
knowledge of the abominations practised in the past. It 
is perhaps because the gambling resorts of former times 
were appropriately called hells that to-day so many 
persons describe IVIonte Carlo as an earthly paradise. 

The scandal was so great that in 1691 I^ouis XIV. 
found it necessary to take action against these degrading 
abuses. He issued a decree punishing the playing of games 
of chance by heavy fines or imprisonment for not more 
than six months. This threat did not, however, have 
greater effect than the stronger fulminations of the Paris 
Parliament. A few years later an edict threatened cavalry 
officers with the death penalty if caught gambhng. 
Nevertheless people still gambled, and under the Regency 
the evil was even more widespread. For a short time, 
however, the love of gambling was converted by John 
Law into a fever for speculation. Tiie Scotsman who, as 
Voltaire said, became a Frenchman, the Protestant who 
became a Catholic, the adventurer who became a prince, 
the banker who became a cabinet minister, carried 
everything before him, at least for a season. The 
superstitious will be interested in the fact that near Law's 


offices in the rue Quincampoix there was a hunchback. 
This individual reaped a golden harvest by lending his 
back to stock-jobbers and others so that they might 
write out on it their orders for the purchase or sale of 
Law's shares. The luck that hunchbacks bring was there- 
fore recognised long before the building of modern casinos, 
nor has their popularity died out. There was a hunchback 
who frequented the gaming-rooms at Monte Carlo, ^^'hen- 
ever anyone ventured to strike his hunch lie quickly turned 
round and informed the caressing stranger that his fee 
was twenty francs ! In spite, however, of the hunchback 
in the rue Quincampoix, the big bubble burst in 1720. 
The people, having vented their disappointment by 
sacking Law's houses and destroying his carriages, 
returned to the gambling hells they had deserted in his 

At last, when Paris was ruled by M. de Sartines, this 
celebrated Chief of Police determined to I'egulate what it 
had proved impossible to abolish. To his mind, the policy 
of organising and controlling that which could not be 
prevented was by far the safest course to pursue. There- 
fore he authorised the opening of houses for certain games, 
notably roulette, and an ordinance to that effect was 
issued in 1760. Henceforward games of hazard were only 
to be played in licensed places, and all clandestine 
gambling hells sternly suppressed. But M. de Sartines was 
not anxious to limit and circumscribe the evil. He was 
determined to utilise the dynamic force wastefulness and 
evil propensities represent, and so canalise and direct them 
as to provide the moti\e power needed to accomplish 
good works and realise serious economies. In authorising 
the opening of a gaming saloon, he not only decreed what 
games should be played and what rules should be enforced 
but also wiiat was to be done with the money the 
gamblers were sure to lose. As it so happened that the 
need of more hospitals was keenly felt at that time, he 
conceived the admirable idea of employing the money 
spent in pleasure for the relief of distress. From that day 


forth it has been the law in France that no one shall 
gamble either in a public establishment or on the turf 
without first paying a handsome quota for the mainten- 
ance of hospitals and the succour of the poor. 

In England we impose a direct tax on some un- 
necessary luxuries, such as armorial bearings and dogs ; 
but, while twelve millions of our population live on or 
below the poverty line, we might tax pleasures on 
behalf of the poor. In France, on every seat taken at a 
theatre a percentage is reserved for the hospitals. All the 
gambling in the casinos is heavily taxed for the poor. 
No betting on the racecourses is allowed except through 
the agency of the Pcui Mutriel, which shares its profits 
with the Assistance PuhUque, the administration that has 
charge of the hospitals and all forms of poor relief. At 
Monte Carlo also the claim is made that by canalising 
the evil of gambling the administration of the casino 
attempts to direct its effects to a good purpose. Certainly 
the people, many of them very foolish people, who have 
lost their money at the tables have created far-reaching 
prosperity. By gambling elsewhere and in hidden places 
the money lost would not be employed to such good 
purpose. Of this we may be certain if for no other reason 
than that there is nowhere else the same blaze of 
publicity. Public opinion is a force that compels even the 

Thus M. de Sartines, who first attempted on a large 
scale to organise the means whereby good results could 
be derived from an acknowledged evil, deserves a place of 
honour in the annals of the gambling world. The gamblers 
themselves have the best of reasons to cherish his name 
with grateful feelings. He not only rendered cheating and 
robbery more difficult, and therefore less frequent, but he 
supplied to all gamblers this supreme consolation, that 
the money they had flung away was not absolutely lost, 
for some of it would be employed for the best of all pur- 
poses — that of reducing the sum-total of human misery. 

It must not be thought, however, that the good 



intentions of M. de Sartines were at once realised. A great 
many clandestine hells remained open, and so many 
scandals occurred tliat Parliament was again forced to 
intervene. A law was passed condemning bankers who 
kept unauthorised gaming places to be branded with a 
hot iron, Hogged, or at least put in the pillory. Thereupon 
the foreign ambassadors, profiting by the fact that 
embassies are extra-territorial, allowed one or two rooms 
to be used for gambling purposes. Instead of the poor of 
Paris it was the foreign ambassadors, notably the Prussian, 
^^enetian and Swedish envoys, who pocketed a part of the 
profits. Among the places where gambling used to be 
authorised was the Cafe de la Regence. This cafe still 
exists, and ranks as one of the oldest historical caf^s in Paris. 
It is situated just opposite the Theatre Fran^ais, and was 
one of the favourite liaunts of Theophile Gautier. To-day 
it is celebrated for the special excellence of its absinthe, 
and as the resort of chess-players and of Scandinavian 
visitors. But the greatest centre of gambling was just 
opposite, in the Palais Royal. Political changes and revolu- 
tions did not affect these places, though, like the cafes, 
they were each apt to acquire a special political tone. 
At one time there were as many as thirty such establish- 
ments in the Palais Royal. The royalist party especially 
patronised No. 50. No. 36 was the most respectable, for 
no women were admitted and no strong drink served. 
There were also armed " chuckers-out " to expel undesir- 
ables. When, in 1814, the allied forces occupied Paris 
these houses did a great business with the foreign officers. 
The Duke of Wellington did not gamble, but his colleague, 
Marshal Bliicher, was a constant visitor to No. 154 Palais 
Royal, playing very high and expressing his dissatisfaction 
because he was not allowed to put down more than £400 
at a time. 

In many of these places other attractions were provided. 
Light refreshments could always be obtained, and very 
excellent thougli cheap dinners were generally given twice 
a week. Ladies, sometimes ladies of title and distinction, 


were occasionally invited to preside at the tables, and 
received fees for doing so. But behind all this gaiety and 
dissipation the various governments, as they succeeded 
each other, did not fail to make these establishments pay 
for the relief of the poor. In Dulaure's great history of 
Paris, published in 1821, it is stated that in 1818 the 
Government received £280,000 from these gaming houses, 
which left them £300,000 net profit. At that time there 
were in all seven tables for trenie-ci-nn, nine for roulette, 
and one each for passe-dix, craps, hazard and hirihi. Under 
the first Revolution, the First Empire and the Restoration 
the licensed gambling saloons had continued to prosper. 
But after the Revolution of 1830, the end of the 
White Terror and the Reaction, a determined agitation 
was set on foot, at first merely to clear out the evil 
company which the proximity of gambling attracted to 
the Palais Royal. But there had been a few suicides, 
especially at No. 113 ; and No. 154 was so crowded on 
Sundays as to become a nuisance. Debates on these 
grievances were held in Parliament, and finally, in 1836. a 
law was passed to close every gambling resort on the 1st 
of January 1838. Many descriptions have been given of 
this last day, and the great crowds that gathered in front 
of the more notorious resorts. Outside Frascati's an un- 
happy gambler shot himself before the assembled public, 
because now that gambling was abolished he had no hope 
of winning back his losses. At the sinister No. 113 there 
was also a suicide on this last day, that of a workman. 

Needless to say, gambling was not really abolished ; 
but its worst phase — that of encouraging gambling among 
poor men like this ill-fated workman — was suppressed. 
Gainbling — that is to say, the form of gambling which 
consists of playing at games of hazard — was now in the 
main restricted to the better class of private clubs. Here 
the majority of members can afford to lose. 




THOUGH thus far a good deal has been said about 
gambling in France, this vice was as prevalent in 
other coiuitries, and especially in England. History 
does seem to show that the endeavour to control, 
while tolerating, gambling was first attempted in France. 
What was begun in France was perfected in Germany, 
and reached its apogee at Monte Carlo. Therefore, in 
tracing the evolution which brought about present 
conditions, the development of events in France has a 
more direct bearing on the subject. This does not, how- 
ever, in any way justify a belief that in England we were 
less afflicted by such evils. There is any amount of 
evidence to the contrary, and recently a comprehensive 
summary of the history of gambling, by Mr Ralph Nevill, 
was published in a book entitled '* Light Come, Light 
Go." Here will be found an account of the vast sums lost 
by English gamblers in England. Like the kings of France, 
the kings of England were addicted to this vice. At Blyth 
House a table used to be preserved on which the Prince 
Regent staked and won £40,000 from the celebrated 
gambler, Harry Mellish. On one occasion Harry Mellish 
lost £97,000 ; another time he won about £100,000. Under 
the Georges not only did gambling prevail in more or less 
disreputable resorts, but also at Brooks's, at White's, at the 
Thatched House, and other high-class clubs. 

In private houses gamblers were welcome, though 
they did not always constitute a choice company. One of 
the dukes of Buckingham, who lived where Buckingham 
Palace now stands, used to entertain once a year the 
frequenters of a celebrated gambling hell in Marylebone. 


The nature of this company may be inferred from the 
elegant toast which his Grace solemnly proposed on each 
of these festive occasions : 

" May as many of us as remain unhanged next year 
meet here again." 

To-day on this very spot the King of England 
drinks to the foreign potentates whom he entertains at 
Buckingham Palace. 

Throughout the West End of London up to the year 
1845 there were an untold number of gambling hells. 
These were sometimes appi-opriately called slaughter- 
houses. In private dwellings it was also the fashion to 
gamble extravagantly. Ladies who lived in St James's 
Square were notorious for such entertainments, and in the 
course of the eighteenth century the game of E.O. was 
introduced. This was a precursor of the modern roulette. 
It was a round table with places marked off at the edge 
on which to put the stakes. In the centre there was 
a roulette or wheel which could be spun round in one 
direction while a ball was sent round in another. The 
wheel was divided into twenty partitions marked E and 
twenty marked O. Two were called bar-holes, and when 
the ball fell in these the bank won half and did not pay 
the other half. It was the zero of roulette, only there 
were two zeros in forty chances instead of one in thirty- 
seven, as at jVIonte Carlo. This was considered a great 
improvement on dice. Nevertheless when the floor of the 
Middle Temple Hall was taken up, close upon a hundred 
sets of dice were found. They had fallen through the 
chinks in the boards. 

In 1797 the Countess of Buckingham, Lady Elizabeth 
Luttrell and other leaders of society were prosecuted and 
fined at the Marlborough Police Court for illegally playing 
games of hazard. During the course of the proceedings 
it came out that some of the best families had borrowed 
from a money-lender, involved in the trial, £180,000 
exclusively for gambling purposes. The Duchess of 
Devonshire, in 1805, was publicly credited with losing 


£176,000 at faro. Though money is much cheaper to-day, 
these are figures that can be compared with the most 
extravagant stories and legends of INIonto Carlo. Charles 
James Fox, by the time he was twenty-five years old, had 
ruined himself with no worthier object than the pleasure 
of playing at faro. Sometimes the play ended dramatically. 
In 1755 Lord Montford lost his fortune at White's and shot 
himself. Sir John Bland lost £32,000 at a sitting, and also 
shot himself, selecting for this purpose the road from Calais 
to Paris. It is on record that at the Cocoa Tree Club, 
in 1780, no less than £180,000 was lost in a week. Thus 
large losses, some followed by suicides, were associated 
with gambling long before Baden-Baden, Homburg and 
Monte Carlo came into existence. I^ord de Ros, Premier 
Baron of England, who died in 1837, brought an action 
against The Satirist because it had accused him of unfair 
play. This event inspired Theodore Hook to write the 
following epitaph : — 

" Here lies England's Premier Baron 

Patiently awaiting the last trump." 

It must not be imagined that every gambler lost. Some 
few not only won but were wise enough to keep their 
gains. Thus Colonel Panton invested the money he won 
at a gambling house in Piccadilly. He bought some land 
between Leicester Square and the Haymarket, and here 
built Panton Street, which bears his name to this day. 

It cannot be claimed that there is anything new in 
the idea of running a luxurious casino on the products 
of gambling. Nor can this be described as something 
specially belonging to the Continent. Among many 
others who distinguished themselves in ventures of this 
description there was a certain fishmonger called AVilliam 
Crockford. According to " Doings in London," illustrated 
by Cruikshank, he first opened a hell in King Street. 
From Lord Thanet, Lord Granville and three of their 
friends he contrived to win about £100.000, and soon 
possessed the capital necessary to establish the celebrated 
Crockford's in St James's Street. This magnificent club 


or casino cost £94,000 for furnishing alone. The chef, 
Monsieur Eustach, received a salary of £1200 a year. 
In 1827 there were 1200 members, each paying £25 
annual subscription. The diplomatic corps was admitted 
free. But the members were not respectful. They could 
not forget Mr Crockford's original calling in life, and 
persisted in naming the palace he had built the 
Fishmongers Hall. Yet Mr Crockford was not a snob. 
He did not repudiate his origin. On the contrary, he 
proudly traced his good fortune back to the selling of 
sound and fresh fish, especially shell-fish, at the noted old 
fish shop first established just outside Temple Bar in the 
reign of Henry VHI. During all his life he preserved 
a keen affection for the old narrow wooden house with 
its projecting gables and quaint appearance, and would 
not allow it to be altered for any consideration. 

Mr Crockford engaged Wyatt, the celebrated architect, 
to build his club in St James's Street, which was con- 
structed in 1827. To-day this building, with some altera- 
tions, has been converted into the Devonshire Club. After 
Crockford's death neither the club in St James's Street nor 
the fish shop at Temple Bar prospered. The latter became 
a hairdresser's shop ; then a second-hand book dealer 
occupied the premises till they were pulled down to make 
room for the new I^aw Courts. The owner of what may 
be considered the most successful and important gambling 
club ever established in England died in May 1844. 
Mr T. Raikes, in the Jmvrnal, thus records the event: 

" That arch-gambler Crockford is dead, and has left 
an immense fortune. He was originally a low fishmonger 
in Fish Street Hill, near the Mommient; then a 'leg' 
at Newmarket and a keeper of ' hells ' in London. He 
finally set up the club in St James's Street opposite to 
A\^hite's, with a hazard bank, by which he won all the 
disposable money of the men of fashion in London, which 
was supposed to be near two millions." 

At his death, however, it was found that Mr Crockford 


left only £700,000, for he had lost a good deal in mining 
speculations. Mr Raikes says his end was accelerated by 
anxiety with regard to his bets on the Derby. This is 
curious and inconsistent. Proprietors of gambling establish- 
ments are far too well informed to indulge in gambling. 
Indeed it is related that some young friend having once 
asked him for advice Mr Crockford replied : 

" I'll tell you what it is, young man. You may call 
mains at hazard till your hair grows out of your hat and 
your toes grow out of your boots ; my advice to you is 
not to call any mains at all." 

As an example of the luxury and extravagance 
prevailing at Crockford's, it is said that the dice alone 
cost £2000 a year. A guinea was paid for each pair, and 
three new pairs were provided every day ; but apart from 
this supply players often called for new pairs of dice in 
the hope of changing their luck. 

After Crockford's death, the place soon fell to pieces 
and lost its reputation. During that time of decadence 
an incident occurred that may have contributed to bring 
Monte Carlo into existence. In his " Life of Napoleon the 
Third," Mr Blanchard Jerrold records that in 1847 the 
proprietor of Crockford's was compelled to return to 
Prince Napoleon a sum of £2000 "which a cheat had 
endeavoured to extort from him in that dangerous 
establishment." In a footnote it is stated that this same 
proprietor, a successor, but an unsuccessful successor, of 
the celebrated Crockford, was so reduced in circumstances 
that in 1865 he begged money from the emperor. 
Perhaps his unpleasant experience at Crockford's may 
have so far enlightened the emperor as to make him 
appreciate the more honest methods of administration 
established by M. Fran(,'ois Blanc at Homburg. Conse- 
quently the emperor did not object when the Homburg 
enterprise was transferred to Monte Carlo. The emperor, 
it is true, had no legal right to interfere, for Monaco is 
an independent principality ; but nevertheless it was very 
important to secure his good will. Monaco could not have 


resisted had the French Government thought fit to forbid 
gambUng. Such a proceeding might be most arbitrary and 
opposed to treaty rights, but no European power would 
have drawn the sword to defend, for the sake of M. Blanc 
and his roulette-tables, the treaties that guarantee the 
independence of Monaco. Fortunately for M. Blanc, the 
emperor while in exile in London had seen what 
unauthorised and uncontrolled gambling establishments 
were like. He was one of Crockford's many victims, and 
perhaps this made him look with favour on the safer 
methods applied at Homburg. Napoleon IIL knew full 
well that if a casino with roulette-tables was properly 
managed it would bring wealth and prosperity to the 
whole neighbouring country. In Germany, and notably 
at Homburg, this had been very conclusively demon- 
strated. Yet in no instance had there been such fraud and 
cheating as that which the emperor himself had experi- 
enced in some of the best but uncontrolled gambling 
resorts of England. The newly annexed province of Nice 
and the winter stations on the French Riviera, which were 
beginning to attract visitors, would all derive enormous 
benefit from their proximity to a Homburg transplanted 
to the principality of Monaco. On the other hand, it 
would be the Prince of Monaco and not the Emperor 
of the French who would have to support the blame and 
abuse that were sure to be hurled against the casino and 
the gambling. 

Though British legislature is phenomenally slow to 
move, especially when it is a question of interfering with 
financial matters, so many persons had been ruined by 
gambling that on the 8th of August 1845 an Act to 
amend the law against games and wagers was passed. 
This law compelled many houses or clubs to close, because 
gambling was their chief purpose. Such resorts were, 
however, soon reopened ; not, it is true, for games of 
hazard such as dice, faro or roulette, but as betting 
centres. By 1850 there were some four hundred houses of 
this description. Here bets from sixpence and upwards 


were taken on races and other events. If the owner made 
a bad book he bolted, leaving behind him debts that 
sometimes amounted to several thousands of pounds, 
like the notorious Dwyer of St Martin's Lane. When in 
1851 Miss Nancy, contrary to his anticipations, won the 
Chester Cup, Dwyer absconded, leaving debts to the 
amount of £25,000. Volumes could be and have been 
written describing scandals of this description, and they 
might be read with advantage by those persons who feel 
inclined to fling stones at the Monte Carlo casino. Frauds 
of this character were so frequent that in July 1852 
another Act was passed. Its object was the suppression 
of betting houses, and it sanctioned the infliction of fines 
up to £100, and imprisonment with hard labour up to six 
months. Nevertheless to this day there is no difliculty in 
backing a horse, while clandestine gambling hells are 
constantly discovered and raided by the police in various 
parts of the provinces and the metropolis. 

Mrs Grundy may frown. Englishmen may pretend to 
be proud of British virtue and of British institutions ; but 
with regard to gambling we cannot afford to throw stones. 
Still less should we venture to sling such missiles at a 
principality where there is no Stock Exchange, no horse 
racing, no betting, and where neither native nor resident 
can gamble ; for it is only foreigners and aliens who are 
allowed to approach the closely guarded gaming-tables. 
No doubt gambling is altogether bad, but the British, 
which of all people is the most prone to hypocrisy, should 
be very modest and reserved when speaking of this vice. 
In any case the Monte Carlo casino, without the slightest 
hypocritical pretence, opens its doors to foreign gamblers 
who are rich enough to travel so far for the pleasure of 
playing. In England gambling is not restricted to 
foreigners, or even to those who can afford to lose. From 
the poorest errand-boy up to the plutocrat and the 
aristocrat all contrive to back horses, bet on football and 
other matches, or to speculate on 'Change. The latter is 
probably the most ruinous and disastrous of all gambling 


institutions. During a debate on the Budget in the House 
of Commons it was stated that 90 per cent, of the 
business transacted on the London Stock Exchange was 
of a gambUng character. Among the various speakers, Mr 
Markham frankly confessed that he had gambled on 
'Change and lost. It seemed to him that these trans- 
actions might very well be taxed. The Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, however, replied that such a tax would 
stop genuine business. 

On the 13th of March 1907, Mr Field, in the House 
of Commons, asked if the Chancellor were aware that in 
transactions on the London Stock Exchange the terms of 
the Leeman's Act 7-e bank shares transfers are openly 
violated : and whether he would take measures to ensure 
that members of the London Stock Exchange should be 
required to observe the safeguard imposed by law to 
prevent gambling in bank shares. Mr Asquith replied : 

" I have no information on the subject ; but the effect 
of the Act is merely to invalidate certain contracts if 
entered into. If people choose to enter into such contracts 
there is nothing to prevent their doing so, but they do so 
at their own risk, since these contracts cannot be enforced. 
The Act imposes no penalty for entering into such con- 
tracts unless there be false entries of numbers and names 

Thus this form of gambling on the London Stock 
Exchange is assimilated to other gambling outside where 
it is not possible to sue for gambling debts. No attempt 
was made in the House to deny the prevalence of gambling 
on the Stock Exchange. Then why do so many persons 
say it is wicked to go to Monte Carlo and yet are not 
shocked when people frequent the city ? If the only 
business done on the Stock Exchange were legitimate 
business, one-tenth of the brokers now engaged would 
suffice. At Berlin, a jobber on the Stock Exchange is 
called a sckinder — i.e. " skinner " — and his clients rinder 
or " cattle," an allusion to their stupidity. Why are the 
" skinned " " cattle " of the Berlin Stock Exchange pre- 


ferred to the " shorn sheep " or " plucked birds " of the 
Monte Carlo casino ? The latter, in any case, do not pay 
so heavy a brokerage and have a much better chance of 

The commission paid in England to the stockbroker 
is generally ^ per cent., and A for the "cover system." 
This seems much less than the 1^ per cent, brokerage 
the zero represents for the simple chances at roulette. 
But that does not apply to gambling transactions. The 
buyer of £4000 of shares pays | per cent, or £5 com- 
mission. It would be a poor business for the broker 
if the purchaser kept these shares for several years. 
The gambler, of course, proposes to sell again in a few 
days, or at most in a few weeks. In the latter event 
another commission will have to be paid to the broker. 
This brokerage must not be compared with the nominal 
value of the shares the gambler never intended to 
keep and probably could not have paid for, but with 
the actual amount of money produced. At Monte Carlo 
the calculations are based, not on the money players may 
be disposed to risk, but on what they put on the tables. 
The only money the gambler produces on the Stock 
Exchange is the sum needed to meet the difference 
between the purchase and sale price of the shares. It is 
this difference which constitutes the speculation, the bet 
or gambling deal. If the brokerage paid be compared with 
this latter sum it will reach a much higher percentage 
than that charged at Monte Carlo. In " Chance and Luck " 
Mr Richard A. Proctor estimates that the iV per cent, 
commission paid on "cover" transactions practically 
amounts to 6^ per cent, on the speculator's money. 
Further he very conclusively demonstrates how rarely 
such speculators clear any profit. 

The risk incurred at roulette is mathematically defined, 
and never varies by the smallest conceivable fraction. On 
the Stock Exchange so great are the interests which 
engender misrepresentation, the booming of those who 
wish to sell, the slanderous abuse of those who want to 


buy, that by far the safest plan is to speculate in the 
opposite sense to the advice received. Monte Carlo, like 
the Stock Exchange, may tempt to gambling, but it does 
not ci'eate an atmosphere of misrepresentation. No amount 
of lies will produce a series of reds or even of blacks. 

The construction of the Monte Carlo roulettes renders 
cheating absolutely impossible, though faked roulettes have 
been employed in secret gambling hells. The " Rules and 
Usages " of the Stock Exchange do not prevent all manner 
of frauds, and the promotion of bogus companies has 
become a fine art. ^Vhen the Water Gas Company came 
to grief in 1894 the public obtained some insight into such 
proceedings. They learned that brokers in the country 
were asked to order three times as many shares as they 
required, and promises were made that only a third of 
what they asked for would be allotted to them. These 
facts were brought before the Lord Chief Justice in 
March 1896, and it was then further elicited that the 
brokers in league were advised not to sell till after a 
special settlement. By this means the shares were cornered 
and the price forced up twenty-one points in a month. But 
it is not the purpose of this volume to deal with Stock 
Exchange swindling, whether British or foreign. 

What is called speculation on 'Change — what is, to all 
intents and purposes, mere gambling — not only entails a 
terrible waste of intelligence, energy and time, but is 
the cause of daily ruin and of innumerable suicides. The 
author of " The Gambling World " relates, for instance, 
that after the great exhibition at \^ienna there was such 
a sudden difference in the prices of certain securities 
bought and sold on the Vienna Bourse that in the space 
of two months there were no fewer than thirty-three 
suicides in Austria alone, all being attributed to this 
crisis on 'Change. And in England how many suicides did 
the Liberator frauds cause ? On that occasion about 
£2,000,000 of money disappeared under the very noses 
of the directors. Lying prospectuses and cooked balance- 
sheets all helped to ensnare the public. About the same 


time a banking firm collapsed in the city. The loss was set 
down at £600,000, and this money had been deposited for 
the most part by poor and thrifty people. The head partner 
committed suicide, and therefore the Treasury, we are told 
by the same author, stopped the prosecution. Why ? The 
investors, poor souls, got one shilling in the pound. It 
would be interesting to inquire whether any of these 
defrauded investors are disposed to sign a petition for 
closing the casino at Monte Carlo, or whether they would 
prefer that something should be done to exercise a better 
and more effective control over the financial transactions 
that take place Avithin the historic precincts of the city of 

Gambling is undoubtedly an evil, and its suppression 
would be a benefit to humanity ; but the most dishonest 
and dangerous forms of gambling should be dealt with 
first. People must not be ensnared into gambling ventures 
under the pretext of bona fide and honourable investments. 
Where gambling is practised in the broad daylight, under 
immutable and cleai-ly defined conditions that render 
deception or cheating impossible, the conditions begin to 
differ. When, further, it is found that a large part of the 
profits are devoted to the relief of taxation and to the special 
benefit of the poor ; and tliat to obtain these profits no 
one is tempted to play, no bogus prospectuses are issued 
to allure investors ; we may, perhaps, conclude that this 
is a form of gambling we can continue to tolerate till 
such time, at least, as gambling on 'Change and on the 
turf has been definitely abolished. 

What is here recorded of France and England applies 
to other nations. All live in glass houses, and none can 
afford to throw stones. Thus, for example, to take but one 
single and recent incident : McChirc's Magazine for 
October 1911 publishes an account of the "recall" at 
Seattle, written by Mr Burton J. Hendrick. Here the 
mayor before his election in 1910 promised to have a 
"restricted area" for gambling, prostitution and kindred 
social evils. In the execution of this promise, Seattle itself 


became a " restricted area " of vice for the north-western 
states. The Northern Club, the great gambUng emporium, 
earned 200,000 dollars in fifty-four days : not a bad be- 
ginning. One of the largest houses of ill-fame netted for 
its proprietors from 10,000 to 12,000 dollars per month. 
The chief of the police received ten dollars a month from 
each woman in its employ, and as there were nearly a 
hundred of them it made a good income. A huge venture 
was started called the Hillside Improvement Company, 
where the largest home of vice was to contain 250 rooms 
with suitable occupants, so as to bring in half-a-million 
dollars a year. But the Public Welfare League succeeded 
in getting a petition for the " recall " of the mayor 
signed by the required 25 per cent, of the electors. 
AVomen voters, especially workgirls and shopgirls, being 
the principal victims, helped largely. When, as the result 
of this petition, a decent mayor and chief of police were 
appointed, 2000 or 3000 men and women of the least 
desirable description left Seattle. 

But enough. No one defends gambling, the directors 
of the Monte Carlo casino not excluded. It is all very 
well to play when it is only play, but when people lose 
more than they can afford it ceases to be play. When 
an innocent amusement thus degenerates into gambling 
it is universally condemned. Therefore if this can be 
restricted or prevented, well and good ; but let there be 
no hypocrisy about it, no picking motes out of other 
people's eyes and neglecting the beam in one's own. It 
w^ould be unjust and bad policy to attack that which 
is most honest and best controlled while we have at home 
sinks of iniquity that are still untouched. 



OBVIOUSLY the abolition of public gaming 
establishments in France greatly enhanced the 
fortunes of the German watering-places on or 
near the Rhine. At most of these resorts there were 
gaming-tables, and under the pretext of drinking the 
waters a large number of people indulged their gambling 
proclivities. Even William, the first Emperor of United 
Germany, used in his younger days to play at Aix-la- 
Chapelle ; and it is related that on one occasion he gave 
all his winnings to a distressed officer who was watching 
him. But now the French also came to the German 
resorts ; not only the gamblers, but bankers with their 
roulette-tables and their large capital. Skilled croupiers 
trained in prosperous French gambling houses established 
themselves on German territory. Nevertheless it requires 
men of special genius and enterprise to create what is 
now understood by the term casino. Thus, for instance, 
the Romans had discovered the virtue of the waters at 
Baden-Baden and named the place Civitas Aurelice 
Aqiieims. The modern world only began to realise that 
there were valuable mineral waters at Baden-Baden when 
in 1808 a " Conversationshaus " was opened and gaming- 
tables set up. The same may be said of Wiesbaden, where 
the Romans also discovered the waters, though they were 
not extensively utilised till the Kursaal, with its celebrated 
twenty-four Doric columns, was built in 1810. Much may 
be said about the beautiful surrounding scenery and the 
real benefit to be derived from the mineral springs ; 
but neither Baden-Baden nor Wiesbaden would ever 


have acquired their modern popularity had it not been 
for the enterprise and genius of such men as Benazet, 
Dupressoir and other managers who knew how to spend 
and pay in a lavish, regal manner. Thus though but 
the lessee of the gaming-tables, M. Benazet was 
generally recognised as the uncrowned monarch, and 
popularly known as le roi de Bade. His personal appear- 
ance helped to justify this sobriquet. He had a 
commanding presence, jet-black hair, a large, hooked nose, 
but his was the Arab, not the Jewish, type. By a strange 
idiosyncrasy, which was much noticed and created not 
a little amusement, his vanity was concentrated on his 
silk stockings, which he never failed to show off. 

Aided by his striking personality, but still more by his 
personal tact, ]\I. Benazet became a general favourite, and 
people, as it were, held their breath when his name was 
mentioned. It seemed to spell gold and things that 
glittered. He personified all that was comprised in the 
name Baden-Baden, and these two words had become 
a magic formula. What could success, rewarded by a 
holiday, mean, if not a few weeks at Baden-Baden ? The 
conversation house, though it had been rebuilt in 1824, 
could not satisfy the Oriental conception of luxury that 
dwelt in M. Benazet's imagination. Consequently, in 1854, 
it was greatly enlarged, with ambitious architectural 
developments and most gorgeous decoration. So also at 
Wiesbaden, in 1862, was the Kursaal rebuilt in palatial 
style, and many other towns sought fortune by establishing 
Kursaals with gambling-tables. These flourished more 
or less at Schwalback, Kissingen, Ems, Spa in Belgium, 
but close to the Prussian frontier, and many other places. 
A gaming saloon was opened even at a railway station, at 
Kathen, but it acquired such a bad reputation that it was 
closed in 1845 by the Duke of Anhalt-Kothen. 

While these developments were taking place two 
Frenchmen were watching, and wondering whether they 
might venture to participate in the tide of emigration 
which had carried so many promoters of gambling houses 


from France to Germany. These were the twin brothers, 
Louis Joseph and Francois Blanc. They were born at 
Courthezon in the department of Vaucluse, and their 
father seems to have had some business connected with 
the Bordeaux Exchange. In any case, the two brothers, 
while in no wise wealthy, possessed a small capital which 
they were eager to invest in some specially profitable 
manner. The successful career of M. Benazet and men of 
his stamp was to them an enlightening example. Fortun- 
ately no one had discovered or thought of Homburg. 
This was the more remarkable as it possessed great 
advantages ; for the weaker and the more impecunious 
the government the easier the negotiations. The Grand 
duchy of Baden and the duchy of Nassau, with 
Wiesbaden as its capital, were both important princi- 
palities, especially when compared with the landgraviate 
of Hesse- Homburg. 

The landgraviate was created under Prince Frederick I. 
in 1622, and the present princely residence was built by 
his successor, Frederick IL, better known as the Silver 
Leg. It was not till 176G that the Landgrave Frederick 
Louis began to call attention to the mineral springs 
whicli ultimately became the real and permanent source 
of the town's fame and fortune. The landgrave even 
succeeded in attracting some German princes to Homburg, 
but they were all too poor to be of much use. Greater by 
far was the achievement of the next reigning prince, for 
he married Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George 
in. of England. The British princess brought with her a 
solid £10,000 a year to add to the 20,000 florins which 
constituted the Civil List of the reigning sovereigns of 
Hesse-Homburg. The brothers of the landgrave had 
only 6000 florins a year, and to increase this very modest 
income had to serve, some in the Prussian, others in the 
Austrian army. Ultimately they or their descendants 
fought against each other during the Austro-Prussian War 
of 1866. The £10,000 from the British Civil List, a sum 
we could ill afford at the time, was the first gleam of real 


prosperity that shone on the landgraviate. Gardens and 
walks were laid out ; some old houses were pulled down 
and other improvements effected. The people in their 
gratitude named their principal spring the Elisabeth- 
brunnen, after the British consort of the landgrave. At 
last visitors were sufficiently numerous for an official 
record to be kept. The first of these documents is dated 
1834., and that year there were 155 visitors to Homburg. 
Two years later this figure was almost doubled, for 294 
visitors went to Homburg in 1836 ; and 1839 saw a still 
greater increase, the number reaching 829. 

A great change was now approaching : the construction 
of railways had begun. The German gambling resorts, 
already profiting largely by the abolition of public 
gaming houses in France, had reason to anticipate still 
greater advantages from the more rapid, more easy and 
cheaper mode of travelling promised by the railways. The 
brothers Blanc determined to secure a firm footing in 
time to benefit by this boon when it came. They had not, 
it is true, sufficient capital ; but if luck favoured them at 
first their position for the future would be secui'e. They 
put on as bold an appearance as possible ; and by good 
fortune they had to deal with a new landgrave, who was 
much oppressed by the financial difficulties of his little 
principality. Larger countries than his had been lifted 
out of poverty and insignificance by the presence of a 
well-conducted Kursaal ; and perhaps the brothers Blanc 
were the right men to effect such a transformation. The 
Landgrave Philip gave them permission to establish 
gaming-tables, but their slender resources obliged them to 
begin in a very modest manner. It was in 1841 that the 
roulette wheel spun round in Homburg for the first time, 
in a small house close to the Ludovic spring, which is 
now used for an institute of mechano-therapeutics. 

To this day the old inhabitants of Homburg recall 
the advent of the two brothers with their roulette-tables, 
regret their departure, and laugh over the many clever 
things they did. The modern glories of Monte Carlo shed 


a lustre over Homburg. But for Homburg there would 
have been no Monte Carlo ; indeed if M. Francois Blanc 
had not married a native of the landgraviate it is very 
probable that the uninhabited hill of the Spelugnes would 
only be known for the caverns after which it is named. 
It required the genius of a Francois Blanc to convert 
this arid hill of the caves into Monte Carlo. While 
indulging in speculations as to what might not have 
been, it may be permissible to go a step farther back and 
to argue that if Louis XIV. of France had not revoked 
the Edict of Nantes there would have been no Monte 
Carlo. By this act of intolerance, which bears the date of 
1685, Louis XIV^. drove some 300,000 Huguenots out of 
France. Many of thein were excellent workers, yet they 
were compelled to go and enrich by their labour the 
industries of other countries. A few of the fugitives 
obtained land and created a small French village on the 
outskirts of Homburg. They could not of course remain 
French subjects for a century and a half, but they still 
retained the French language and many Fi'ench customs. 
Among the descendants of these old Huguenot exiles, 
occupying a very humble position, in spite of his ancient 
lineage, was one Gaspard Henzal. He married Catherine 
Stemler, who gave birth, on the 23rd September 1833, at 
Friedrichsdorf ( Homburg), to a daughter, duly christened 
Marie Charlotte. When this little daughter grew up she 
was taught French in memory of her French descent, and 
as the brothers Blanc knew very little German they were 
glad to accept her services to help in translating and in 
housekeeping. Not much time elapsed before she found 
means of rendering herself almost indispensable. Being 
both clever and good-looking, she ultimately became so 
great a favourite that the position was quite compromising. 
Attempts were made at separation, with the usual 
accompaniment of tears and wild counsels of despair. In 
reality, though at first unwilling to admit the fact, 
M. Fran9ois Blanc was by this time deeply in love with his 
young housekeeper, but feared she was of too lowly a 


position and too ignorant to be his wife. Besides, he was 
so much older, and he had two sons, Charles and Camille. 
At last, as Mademoiselle Henzal was really very intelli- 
gent, and M. Francois Blanc felt he could not cure 
himself of his love, he offered to marry her if she would 
first go to a High School and be properly educated. These 
terms were accepted with enthusiasm, and the future 
Madame Blanc profited to the utmost by the education 
she received. It was on the 20th June 1854, at the Town 
Hall of the Second District [arrondissemerit) of Paris, that 
Mademoiselle Henzal was married to M. Fran<,'ois Blanc, 
and by her devotion and wise advice she soon repaid her 
husband for all the trouble he had taken. 

In some respects Madame Blanc showed herself as 
capable of advising and of ruling as M. Francois Blanc 
himself. Madame Blanc was notably well able to look 
into the future, and persistently warned M. Blanc that 
gambling would be abolished. In vain M. Blanc assured 
her that the Government of Hesse-Homburg had given 
him every guarantee ; Madame Blanc as persistently 
retorted by inquiring who had guaranteed Hesse-Homburg. 
Madame Blanc had the perspicacity to see that such 
petty principalities would not last much longer. To her 
German unity was no dream but an approaching reality. 
The roar of the cannon of Sadowa was not needed to 
awaken her to the danger of the situation. Three years previ- 
ously — ^that is, in 1863 — M. Francois Blanc had already 
secured the Monaco concession, and it was Madame Blanc 
who made this choice and insisted that it would be quite 
possible to transfer to Monaco the glories of Homburg. 
Now, but for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes there 
would have been no French Huguenot settlement near 
Homburg ready to provide a fascinating interpreter. If 
M. Francois Blanc had married someone with other tastes 
it is not likely that he would have invested his fortune in 
the principality of Monaco. Hence it may be argued that 
but for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes it is prob- 
able there would have been no Monte Carlo. This may 


be said with all the more confidence as no one else was 
capable of creating the Monte Carlo casino. Several others 
had tried before M. Blanc came to Monaco, and had 
signally failed. 

To return to the fortunes of the Blanc brothei's 
and their earlier efforts, it soon became evident that 
M. Fran(;ois Blanc was destined to take the lead, for he 
showed himself to be an enterprising manager, a profound 
financier and an able diplomat. Nevertheless, if luck had 
not been in his favour in the first instance, the venture 
might have failed for want of capital. Even to this day it 
is still related by the old inhabitants of Homburg that at 
first all the roulem/x in the till did not contain gold coins. 
By holding one end of a genuine joulcmhv and giving the 
other end a sharp rap on the table the paper tears in the 
middle and the gold pieces drop out. Care was taken, now 
and again, to perform this interesting operation so as to 
inspire confidence and to conceal the fact that some of 
the rouleavx only contained a round piece of wood. The 
croupier could easily tell by the weight which were the 
real and which the dummy roideamv. When, however, 
the winnings began to accunmlate, gold was substituted for 
wood, as there was no further need to employ dummies. 

This little stratagem on the part of the bank was 
innocence itself compared with the fraudulent practices 
attempted by some of the players. They also played with 
rouleaux, but these were sometimes made with false coins 
carefully mixed with lead so as to weigh the same as gold. 
To defeat this manoeuvre the bank cut away small portions 
of the paper so that a part of some of the gold coins could 
be seen. This was soon imitated, real coins being placed 
opposite the holes and false ones in the space between. 
Thus it came about that the use of rouleaux was entirely 
abolished. They were popular in times gone by and very 
convenient for manipulating large sums, but they lent 
themselves too readily to various forms of swindling. 
When there is so much money lying loose on a table it 
is not surprising if thieves and swindlers gather round, 


feeling that there surely must be some way of purloining 
a little of it. 

Among the first visitors to the roulette newly estab- 
lished at Homburg there came from the great castle that 
overshadows the neighbouring town of Hanau the Kur- 
furst von Hessen. This gentleman was an all-important 
local notability, somewhat impetuous and reckless. He 
soon contrived to lose 100,000 gulden at roulette, and this 
was the commencement of the Blanc brothers' good fortune. 
It was believed at the time that this sum was larger than 
the original capital they were able to invest in the venture. 
Now there would be no difficulty in replacing the wooden 
rouleaux by real gold. Yet the advantage thus gained at 
a time when it was most needed was soon to be converted 
into a serious and permanent loss for the town of 
Homburg. The Kurfiirst von Hessen, having gambled 
away all his disposable cash, applied to the proprietor of 
the gambling concession for a loan, so that he might win 
it back again. But IVIessieurs Blanc did not see the matter 
in quite the same light. They were, on the contrary, con- 
gratulating themselves on having bridged over the great 
difficulty and peril of commencing a business with in- 
sufficient capital. They had enough experience to know 
that a gambler never wins his money back ; for, however 
lucky he may be, he always continues playing till the luck 
changes and he once more loses everything. How then 
would the Kurfiirst von Hessen repay the money he 
proposed to borrow ? 

These were the days when all princely families that 
respected themselves thought they were in honour bound 
to imitate the palace of Versailles by having an orangerie. 
Orange-trees to bring out in the garden during summer, 
to lock up in a hothouse in the winter, were pre-eminently 
the fashionable mark of distinction. In his castle at Hanau, 
the Kurfiirst von Hessen had a very fine portable orange 
grove, and the Blanc brothers rightly concluded that these 
orange-trees would impart an air of distinction to the 
casino they already thought of building. The ultimate 


result was that the aristocratic orange-trees were pledged 
for a loan of vulgar money, and this to the extent of 
40,000 gulden. In spite, however, of such reinforcements 
in hard cash, the Kurfiu-st von Hessen never won back 
his 100,000 gulden, and died before he was able to repay 
the loan on the orange-trees. His successor was very 
angry. His pride of estate was sorely wounded by the 
absence of the orange-trees. They were the heirlooms of a 
great and aristocratic family, and were never intended to 
grace the approaches of a roulette-table. The new Kurfiirst 
von Hessen proudly declared that he meant to have the 
orange-trees back, and despatched a haughty message to 
that effect. A very polite reply was returned. The casino 
administration was charmed, and most willing to restore 
tlie orange-trees, as soon as the 40,000 gulden advanced 
were repaid. The negotiations now degenerated into a 
quarrel, for as the Lord of Hanau had neither money nor 
law on his side, all he could do was to use strong language 
and swear vengeance. 

Unfortunately an early opportunity of revenge 
occurred. Railways were now being constructed in all 
directions, and it was proposed to connect Homburg with 
Frankfort by rail. Such a line would have to pass through 
a part of the Kurfiirst von Hessen's estate, and here the 
opportunity of revenge presented itself. The nobleman 
at once assumed an attitude of virtuous indignation and 
would not allow a foot of his land to be touched. His 
estate should not be desecrated by noisy, smoking railway 
trains filled with gamblers from all parts of the world. 
As a result of this miserable quarrel every person, whether 
a gambler or a poor peasant going to market, who has 
occasion to travel by train between Homburg and Frank- 
fort must follow a roundabout route so as to avoid the 
estates of the Kurfiirst von Hessen. If the line could 
have been constructed across these estates the journey 
from Frankfort to Homburg would take about twenty 
instead of thirty-five minutes. The gambling at Homburg 
has long since been abolished ; nevertheless this delay is 


still endured because once upon a time a petty German 
lordling lost his temper over a gambling debt of 40,000 

It should also be noted that the other parties to the 
quarrel nearly lost the orange-trees. If the orange blossom 
is the symbol of matrimony, and if, as generally admitted, 
gamblers are not good husbands, it is quite in keeping 
with their meaning that the orange-trees should not have 
prospered in the vicinity of gambling-tables. In any case, 
they began to sicken even unto death till another British 
princess came to favour the fortunes of Homburg. The 
late Empress F'rederick, eldest daughter of her late 
Majesty V'^ictoria, Queen of England, who was at that 
time Crown Princess of Prussia, bought the orange-trees 
and had them transferred to her garden at Kronberg. 
Here a skilled gardener restored them to health. 

The first year after the installation of roulette at 
Homburg the number of visitors was doubled ; but this 
did not mean much, for it only amounted to 1732. Five 
years later, however, in 1847, it was 5187, and in 1830 
rose to 10,105. This for some time seemed to be about 
the high-water mark, for in 1865 the number of visitors 
had only increased to 12,473. Nevertheless this was quite 
sufficient to ensure the fortunes of Homburg and the 
Blanc family. JNIr Percy Fitzgerald, in his " Fatal Zero, a 
Homburg Diary," gives a picture of the popularity of the 
town in the sixties. His clever study, written to show 
how a sanctimonious prig is likely to become the worst 
gambler of the whole company, affords also some insight 
into the allurements and attractions of the gay town. As 
a contrast to this somewhat severe and serious book, but 
dealing with the same period, we have the amusing 
frivolities in which the late George Augustus Sala ex- 
celled. " Make your Game" is the title of his book, and 
in it Sala describes himself as the " man with the iron 
chest." Doubtless this was the coffer constructed to carry 
away the treasure to be secured at Homburg by the aid of 
the wonderful system he had studied so deeply. What this 


system was is best described in Sala's own inimitable 
words. He had " applied it in theory at home, both to 
roulette and rouge ct iioir ; then essayed it, as he termed 
it, with ' blank cartridge,' using haricot beans in lieu of 
money, and carefully debiting and crediting hiniself with 
the loss and profit ; he had worked out hundreds of 
diagrams on paper, entirely to his own satisfaction, and at 
one time stood to win no less than seventy-one thousand 
six hundred and tliree haricot beans ; and finally, he 
arrived at the mature conclusion that his system was 
really infallible, and that, properly played, it must as 
infalhbly bring liim in a large fortune. The munificence 
of his intentions, at this stage of his enthusiastic castle- 
building, with respect to the already-mentioned Julia, could 
only be equalled by the Monte Christo-like extravagance 
of his plans for purchasing landed estates in Devonshire, 
baronial titles in Germany, and for releasing the sumptu- 
ous diamonds of his family from the tribulation under 
which they had so long lain at the hands of certain com- 
mercial firms of Lombard extraction. The red-nosed man, 
in fact, had secretly determined, as soon as his fortune 
was made, to ' have his rights,' and ' show the world what 
he was made of ' " 

The wonderful system, if indeed it ever had any other 
existence than that born of journalistic imagination, 
utterly failed to work. The author confesses that "the 
chandeliers and the money-clinking got into his head, 
somehow, and confused it." Therefore he concludes with 
the following excellent piece of advice : — 

" Consider all these things, my son, and be wise ere 
you steam up the Rhine towards Homburg-von-der- 
Hode ; for if you go there, and be made of ordinary flesh 
and blood — I am not writing for oy.sters or icebergs — you 
must play, and will in all probability leave your skin 
behind you. 

" Of course there are the people who have won, do 
win, and will win in Homburg, and at Baden and else- 
where. There are the tremendous and almost superhuman 


runs of luck such as no bank can foresee or withstand ; 
such as enriched the notorious Baron de Worms and gave 
a hundred thousand francs clear profit apiece to two 
players who did not in the least need such a bonus — the 
late Prince Lucien Bonaparte, and the Austrian General 
Haynau, of detestable memory. Then — there is no use in 
denying it — there are the people who are born to be lucky 
at games of chance, and who, at whatsoever game they 
play — loo, poker, roulette, or blind hookey — can almost 
be certified to come off the winners. But, en revanche, 
these lucky ones generally outstep the boundaries of their 
luck by greedy persistence or by audaciously rash specula- 
tions. They ride the free horse to death, tire out the 
patience of Fortune and are ruined in the long run." 

Sala and his companions did not make their game 
very successfully at roulette but they made some very 
amusing pen-and-ink sketches. One of these, representing 
a corner of the roulette-table, is here reproduced. Standing 
behind, to the left of an old lady with corkscrew curls, 
is G. A. S. himself frowning at his waning fortunes. The 
stout gentleman with the flowing moustache is the late 
Horace, better known as " Ponny," Mayhew. In the 
pocket of his capacious waistcoat he always carried 
a goodly store of sixpenny bits. If anyone in his presence 
said something humorous or made a good joke he at once 
handed him over a sixpenny bit, and nothing would induce 
him to take it back. On the other hand, having thus 
relieved his conscience, he had no further scruples in 
sending the joke to Punch. The third member of the 
party, called " the slim gentleman," comes next. He may 
be recognised by his long liair, nose and tie. This was 
none other than the elder Vizetelly, irreverently called 
Wizenbelly in press circles, who for many years was one 
of the leading artists on the staff of The lUusti'cited 
London Xezvs. The interesting trio, having failed to 
break the bank, contented themselves by writing nursery 
rhymes about the whole process, of which the following 
are some samples : — 


=="- c: 

m': 3: 


" A flat he would a-gambling go. 
Heigh ho ! says Roulette, 
Whether the banker would let him or no ; 
With his raky, shaky croupier and cards. 
Heigh ho, sa3s Antony Roulette." 

Then we are told that 

" Humpty Dumpty laid on the Noir — 
Humpty Dumpty lost ; and he swore 
Not all his gold watch, pin, sleeve-buttons and chain. 
Can pay Humpty's loss at the Kursaal again." 

Finally we are invited to note " how vigorous is the 
metrical flow of 

" ' High diddle fiddle, Roulette's all a diddle. 
When you win you jump out of your skin ; 
But the banker he laughs to see such sport. 
And the croupe runs arvaij iiilh the tin.' " 

Sometimes, however, as Sala admits in the passage 
just quoted, it is the player who "runs away with the tin." 
Fortunately for the Blanc family, the players with 
phenomenal luck only came after ordinary gamblers had 
lost so much that such an onslaught could be faced 
without fear. As notorious in his day as the " Wells who 
broke the Bank at Monte Carlo," there was Garcia's run 
on red at Homburg. With £80 this adventurer, for he 
had no better reputation than the Wells of Monte Carlo, 
won £20,000 on red. An Englishman who was playing at 
the same time, and who very naturally supposed that Garcia 
was forcing his luck and that the series of reds could not 
continue much longer, well-nigh ruined himself by backing 
black. In " Chance and Luck " the late Richard A. 
Proctor, editor oi Knordedge, alludes to Garcia's wonderful 
luck. The distinguished astronomer, mathematician and 
Egyptologist quotes the following description of Garcia's 
triumphs at Homburg, who " commenced his gambling 
career by staking very small sums ; but, by the most 
extraordinary luck, he was able to increase his capital 


to such an extent that he now rarely stakes under the 
maximum, and ahnost always wins. They say that when 
the croupiers see him place his money on the table, they 
immediately prepare to pay him, without waiting to see 
if he has actually won, and that they have offered him 
a handsome sum down to desist from playing while he 
remains here. Crowds of people stand outside the Kursaal 
doors every morning, awaiting his arrival, when he comes 
following him into the room, and staking as he stakes. 
When he ceases playing they accompany him to the door, 
and shower on him congratulations and thanks for the 
good fortune he has brought them. See how all the 
people make way for him at the table, and how deferential 
are the subdued greetings of his acquaintances ! He does 
not bring much money with him, his luck is too great 
to require it. He takes some notes out of a case, and places 
maximums on black and couJeur. A crowd of eager hands 
are immediately outstretched from all parts of the table, 
heaping up silver and gold and notes on the spaces on which 
he has staked his money, till there scarcely seems room 
for another coin, while the other spaces on the table only 
contain a few florins staked by sceptics who refuse to believe 
in the count's luck." He wins ; and the narrative proceeds 
to describe his continued successes until he rises from the 
table a winner of 100,000 francs at that sitting. 

According to one version, Garcia's luck turned ; 
he had lost everything except £6000 ; when his luck 
returned he had another series on red, winning fourteen 
times in succession, and retired with £50,000 ; some 
say more. It is difficult, however, to ascertain what 
precisely happened. Though most of the books written 
on the subject allude to Garcia's wonderful luck the 
accounts differ at least in matters of detail. The author 
of " The Gambling World " says that after winning 
£70,000 at Homburg one year he returned the next 
season and lost £80,000. After that this author relates 
that he went altogether to the bad, frequenting private 
gambling hells, where he got into disgrace. On the other 


hand, one of the old casino employees now at INIonte 
Carlo, but formerly at Homburg, told me that he knew 
Garcia very well and that he won 3,000,000 francs, 
or £120,000. In 1869 Garcia was at Monte Carlo. He 
was a Spaniard, and ultimately retired from the world 
to join the Trappist Order, with whom he died. 

In 1866 the war broke out between Russia and Austria, 
and then Madame Blanc's prescience was fully vindicated. 
Hesse-Homburg might guarantee the casino, but after 
the battle of Sadowa there remained no power willing 
and capable of guaranteeing Hesse-Homburg. Frankfort 
and all the surrounding country, including Homburg, 
was swallowed up by Prussia at a single mouthful. The 
landgrave of Hesse-Homburg was abolished. Its capital, 
Homburg, became simply a town in the krcis or district 
of Ober-Taunus and an integral part of the kingdom 
of Prussia. But gambling houses had been abolished in 
the kingdom of Prussia long ago. However, some respect 
had to be shown to vested interests. Then it was thought 
only decent to give the casino time to provide means for 
the payment of its own funeral, and everyone agreed that 
it was well entitled to a most expensive and first-class 
funeral. The casino was therefore allowed to continue till 
the 31st of December 1872, but it had to pay an annual 
tax of £24,000 as Hombiu'g, denuded of the resources the 
casino brought, would need a reserve fund to bury its old 
life and start on a new existence. Therefore visitors were 
still made welcome, and in spite of the impending end 
continued to increase till their number in 1869 amounted 
to 19,843. Even in 1870, during the Franco-German War, 
there were 10,841 visitors. The next year, regardless of 
the bitterness caused by the war, there came 18,867 
visitors; and 1872 was the record year, with its list of 

This was the culminating point : on the 1st of January 
1873 workmen only were admitted to the casino, so that 
the gaming-tables might be removed. On all sides the 
situation was viewed with blank despair. The French, who 


had so greatly contributed to the elegance and gaiety of 
Homburg, would certainly not come, nor the Russians, 
the Italians, nor the wealthy diamond lords from South 
America. No one would come unless it were a few quiet 
English folks just to drink the waters. Nevertheless 
£150,000 out of the tax the casino administration had 
been made to pay was invested at 5 per cent, interest. 
This constituted an endowment for the upkeep of the 
palatial casino, the magnificent park and gardens and all 
the many improvements for taking the waters. Entertain- 
ments could still be given, though there was not money 
enough to pay for the best artists and performers. As 
the visitors could no longer contribute by playing roulette, 
a direct tax is imposed on them. It used to be sixteen, 
now it is twenty marks or shillings for every visitor who 
remains more than three days at Homburg. But what 
would the town have done if it had been obliged to 
provide its own parks and build its casino ? 

Of course the old style of prosperity has departed, but 
sufficient remains to show that after all Homburg did not 
depend exclusively on gambling. To the great surprise of 
the inhabitants, 9287 visitors came during the first year 
after the abolition of the games. In 1860, when gambling 
was in full activity, there was nearly the same number of 
visitors — namely, 9570. In twelve years, with the aid of the 
resources derived from the games, the number of visitors 
increased to 21,001. When this aid was no longer forth- 
coming, during the twelve years that followed the abolition 
of gambling, the increase of visitors to Homburg only 
reached the figure of 11,079. This was in 1885, and since 
then the progress has continued at the same slow rate. 
These figures are of equal importance to those who favour 
and those who oppose the abolition of the gaming at 
Monte Carlo. They show that at Homburg, as is un- 
doubtedly the case to-day at Monte Carlo, there is a 
considerable number of visitors who went and still go 
there not to gamble but in spite of the gambling. Visitors 
continue to frequent Homburg for the sake of its waters 


as they would continue to spend the winter at Monte 
Carlo for the sake of its climate and beauty. Nevertheless, 
neither Homburg nor Monte Carlo, nor the Riviera 
generally, would have been so extensively patronised by 
those who do not gamble but for the celebrity given to 
these places by M. Fran9ois Blanc and his successors. 



EV^EN before the annexation by France of Nice and 
Savoy, comprising therein the rebelUous JNIone- 
gasque communes of Menton and Roquebrune, 
Charles III. wisely recognised that the only future for his 
little principality was its conversion into a pleasure and 
health resort. His hold on four-fifths of the principality 
was precarious. What with Sardinian emissaries striving 
to foment dissatisfaction so as to create a pretext for 
annexation, and the real causes of complaint — the ex- 
cessive taxation, combined with the unrelieved prospect 
of prolonged poverty — the Monegasques had been in a 
rebellious frame of mind ever since 1848. Something had 
to be done to relieve taxation, to lessen the causes of 
discontent and make the people understand that they had 
every advantage in remaining an independent principality 
instead of allowing themselves to be absorbed by the 
King of Piedmont. Obviously, money was wanted, and 
money is made in manufacturing centres, where com- 
munication is rapid and easy ; not in out-of-the-way, 
inaccessible and purely agricultural districts like Monaco. 
What the principality produced could not be readily dis- 
posed of as there was no easy means of transport. Boys 
trod on the finest peaches to get the stones because the fruit 
itself was too heavy to carry to places where it might be 
sold. Few of the inhabitants had ever seen such a thing 
as a gold coin ; but Prince Charles knew something of 
the golden harvest reaped by the casinos of Baden-Baden, 
Wiesbaden and other places. As an alternative between 
the dismemberment and continued poverty of the 



principality, a casino, if an evil, seemed by far the lesser 
evil. Perfection in this world being unknown, perhaps true 
wisdom resides in the ability to recognise the lesser evil of 

Casinos, however, are not to be had for the asking. 
At Hyeres, many years ago, I met a gentleman who 
gambled away all his money at Baden-Baden. When thus 
ruined he called on M. Benazet and explained that having 
lost all his money playing against the bank, he now 
wished to place himself on the other side and work for 
the bank. Glad to recruit a gentleman of good education 
and distinguished manners, JNl. Benazet willingly employed 
him. In the course of time his coui-age and industry were 
duly rewarded, and now he was in a position to come to 
Hyeres so as to obtain a concession to start a casino in 
that town. Then it was, after hearing these preliminary 
explanations, that I was made to understand what a very 
difficult thing it is to organise and manage a casino. 
Indeed, it seems to be quite a technique in itself, and I 
was assured that many years of work in the lower grades 
of the service were necessary before it was safe to assume 
the supreme command. Apparently it was for want of any 
such apprenticeship that the early casinos at Monaco were 
egregious failures. 

The first to make the attempt were M. Napoleon 
Langlois and M. Albert Aubert. The latter was a 
journalist, and contributed to the comic paper, the 
Charivari — not that such literary ability is any evidence 
of capacity in casino management. Nevertheless these 
two partners managed to found a society with a capital of 
£100,000, and in 185G obtained a concession from Prince 
Charles which was to last thirty years. They secured as 
premises the rather large house — large for those days 
— which faces the palace and overlooks the great square. 
This building still exists, and now serves as the barracks 
of the palace guards. Here, on the 14th of October 18.50, 
the roulette wheel was sent spirming round for the first 
time in the principality. If ultimately this proved to be 


the wheel of fortune, at first it only brought ruin. The 
initiators soon got tired, and were very pleased to hand 
over all their privileges to another society. The repre- 
sentative of this was the Marquis d'Arnesano, and fresh 
blood was infused into it in the person of M. Frossard de 
Lilbonne. The new combination got into harness on the 
15th of November 1857, yet by the 31st of December of 
the same year they had sold out to M. Daval. Thus in 
one year and two months the casino changed proprietors 
three times. Evidently the old employee of M. Benazet I 
had met at Hyeres was quiet right when he insisted that 
it required special knowledge, and above all special tact, 
to run a casino. 

M. Daval seems to have been the first manager who 
possessed the right sort of instinct. He at least understood 
that a casino could not prosper in silence. Like a show 
at the fair, there must be a big drum outside. Therefore 
M. Daval determined upon a new inauguration and a 
splendid banquet. All the notabilities, functionaries, artists, 
literary men anywhere within reach must not only be 
invited but brought to Monaco in carriages specially hired 
for the purpose. There was to be a lavish display of 
ribbons on the harness of the horses combining the 
Monegasque and the French colours, and thus each 
can-iage was in itself a good advertisement. Then there 
were the speeches at the banquet, which of course would 
be reported far and wide. Finally, as a climax. Prince 
Charles himself was to appear at the dessert. With over- 
flowing bowls, everyone drank to everyone else, and above 
all to the success of the casino and its new manager. 
In spite of greater dash and ability, M. Daval had to give 
up the struggle in less than two years, and died miserably 
in a hospital at Marseilles. 

Play did not continue all the time in the same building, 
but was transferred to a house grandiloquently called 
" The Palace," which belonged to ]\L Dumond, the former 
partner of M. de \'^illemessant of Figcuo fame. This 
building, with appropriate alterations, now serves for the 

Till-; Croupikrs of the old Monegasquk Gambling Tables watching 

Front a conteittporary lirmviii^ 


Government Offices overlooking the Place de la Visitation. 
Close by there stood the Cafe dii Soleil, about which 
sinister stories are told. Though, in these early days, a 
minimum stake of two francs was allowed, there were 
players who had not even this sum remaining. They then 
congregated at the cafe and played for pennies or half- 
franc pieces, till at last someone would so far redeem 
his fortunes as to be the possessor of a complete two- 
franc piece ; then he could return to the casino and have 
one more chance. But even players with only two-franc 
pieces to risk were quite rare. Hours would go by and no 
one come to play. The croupiers, weary of waiting, would 
go out and walk about smoking cigarettes. At last 
someone had the liappy idea of placing a telescope on the 
ramparts. Through this glass a good watch could be kept 
on the road, and if anyone appeared, or a carriage came 
in sight that suggested the approach of players, it would 
be time enough for the croupiers to go back to the casino 
and take their accustomed places at the roulette-table. 
The illustration representing croupiers at Monaco watching 
for players is reproduced from M. Charles Limousin's 
bright little book, the " Guide du Joueur," published 
in 1899. 

Not only did the casino remove from what is now 
the barracks to the present Government House, it also 
went down to the Condamine during the winter months, 
and occupied one of the rare dwellings that existed amid 
the violets grown for Rimmel's perfumery. This was the 
Villa Belle- Vue, which the casino christened Palais de la 
Condamine. It still exists, just off the rue Grimaldi, witli 
its back against the railway line and not far from the 
gorge of St Devote. But more ambitious projects were 
entertained. If the casino was to be a success, new 
buildings would have to be constructed, and above all 
hotels and villas must be built where the visitors, if 
anything ever induced them to come, might find com- 
fortable accommodation. There were the Sp(^lugnes, arid 
rocks (so named from the word spehmca, cavern) con- 


taining caves which were supposed to have served as 
sepulchres in times gone by. The end of these barren rocks 
is washed by the sea. It was a good place to find sea- 
urchins, mussels and other shell-fish of delicate flavour. 
In 1828, Carlo Alberto, King of Sardinia and Piedmont, 
father of Victor-Emmanuel, the first King of United 
Italy, lent a number of convicts to the Prince of Monaco 
in order that they might build the road from Monaco to 
Menton, stipulating that the prince should feed them 
while they were at work. The Count de Rey was then 
proprietor of the Spelugnes, a bare and worthless 
property, and he had an ingenious idea. When the road to 
JNIenton was finished, he obtained leave, in his turn, to 
employ the convicts. Under his direction they gathered 
earth wherever earth could be gathered, and deposited 
it upon the bare rocks of the promontory of the Spelugnes. 
As soon as he had thus secured enough earth, the count 
planted vines, fig, orange and lemon trees. By 1835 land 
was bearing a plentiful harvest of fruit. To-day, if the 
gardens at Monte Carlo are so beautiful, a grateful thought 
might perhaps be spared for those poor convicts who 
rendered this possible by laboriously carrying the fertile 
earth up to the summit of the barren rocks. 

Now the directors of the casino cast longing eyes on 
this spot, perhaps because of its beautiful situation, but 
more probably because the land brought up by the 
convicts had not, in spite of the lemon-trees, acquired any 
great value. In the Condamine, where the flowers were 
grown for a celebrated perfumery, it would cost much 
more to buy building sites. Besides, the Count de Rey 
was willing to sell. Thus it came about that on the 13th of 
May 18.58 the foundation stone of the Monte Carlo casino 
was laid, though in those days this name had not yet 
been chosen. Prince Charles, not discouraged by the 
previous failures, sent his son and heir, only ten years old, 
to lay the foundation stone. It appears, according to the 
records, that it was raining most violently all the time, 
but the young prince acquitted himself of his functions 


so well that it was proposed to call the new casino the 
Eli/sce Alberto. 

Messieurs Lefevre, Griois and Jagot, who had suc- 
ceeded INI. Daval as proprietors of the casino concession, 
secured the collaboration of M. Godineau de la Bretonnerie, 
an architect of recognised merit. But there were many 
difficulties in store. The very next year came the war that 
ended at Solferino. Italy and France were fighting Austria, 
and on the 18tli of January 1895 the Sardinian steamer 
Mulfatauo arrived at Monaco to embark the Piedmontese 
garrison. These troops were now needed at Turin in view 
of the approaching war. Freed from this restraint, plots 
and counter-plots prospered in the principality. In the 
meanwhile, the building of the casino was turning out 
ill. As the walls rose from their rocky foundation the rock 
itself began to give way. The architect reported, however, 
that the foundations were sound enough but that bad build- 
ing materials had been employed. A fierce quarrel ensued, 
and the architect, utterly disgusted, packed his trunks 
and left not only Monaco but Europe. It is said he went 
to Abyssinia, wliere he became a cabinet minister in the 
government of King Theodorus. All these difficulties and 
the threatened war did not help on the casino business, 
and there was much trouble in finding money to pay the 
workmen engaged on the new building. The fact that the 
workmen were now clamouring for their wages was 
skilfully utilised to suggest an attack on Monaco, with 
the prospect of pillaging the palace and of proclaiming 
the revolution, though it is not quite clear for what 
purpose a revolution was to be effected. Doubtless 
different leaders had different programmes. 

On the 6th of February 1859 an armed mob was per- 
ceived marching upon the town. But the National Guards 
were quickly assembled. The gates of the old town were 
closed and cannon brought to bear upon the approaches. 
When they were near enougli, the prince's aide-de-camp, 
Viscount Grandsaigne, with some armed followers, 
sallied forth to meet the mob. But the latter, who had 


hoped to surprise the town, at once lost heart and threw 
down their arms. About fifty would-be rebels were 
arrested, and the leaders condemned to terms of imprison- 
ment varying from six months to two years ; but they 
were all liberated by the prince before the conclusion of 
their sentences. Such disturbances naturally helped to 
retard the construction of the casino. It was not till the 
month of May 1862 that the new building on the pro- 
montory of the Spelugnes was at last inaugurated. It was 
but a modest structure, something like a rather large 
villa. Such as it was, it stood almost alone. Free gifts of 
land had been offered to those who would undertake to 
build some sort of dwelling on the sites ; not a single 
person accepted the offer. Thus fifty-two years ago land 
at Monte Carlo was to be had for nothing, and to-day it 
is as valuable as if situated in a central part of Paris or 
London. Yet just at the time when people were asked to 
accept this land as a gift the railway from Marseilles, 
then in course of construction, had already reached 
Cagnes, which is only a few miles on the other side of 
Nice. Notwithstanding tliis approach of the railway, no 
one seems to have foreseen the great effect that it would 
have on the prosperity of the principality. 

It was the difficulty of communication that killed all 
the enterprises attempted. There was no direct road from 
Nice. The Corniche road, though very picturesque, was 
very long and circuitous. It was only in the year 1860 
that an approximatively regular service by sea was estab- 
lished. An old ramshackle steamer called the Palmaria 
went from Nice to Monaco and back every day, " weather 
permitting." It took two hours to travel fifteen miles, 
and the Pahnai-'ui never ventured out at all if the sea 
looked unfavourable. As for punctuality, the captain was 
always willing to wait if there was a chance of securing 
an extra passenger, and it was quite a common thing to 
see people come i-unning down to the Condamine waving 
their handkerchiefs and shouting to the steamer to wait 
for them. After a year or two the Palmaria w^as withdrawn 







and replaced by a more seaworthy boat christened, for 
the occasion, the Cluwles III. This ship could actually 
accommodate, with some semblance of comfort, sixty pas- 
sengers, and it was just as well that it did not take more. 
At the Spelugnes there were but two modest hotels and 
restaurants — the Hotel de Paris, parent of the present 
palatial and costly resort, and the Hotel d'Angleterre, 
which occupied the site of the modern JMonte Carlo post 
office. The Hotel de Paris was run by the casino 
administration, and soon became the Providence of un- 
fortunate players. Over and over again those who had lost 
went to the Hotel de Paris, dined first, and then confessed 
they had no money. Nothing much was said ; the bill was 
placed in a well-filled drawer to be ultimately entered in 
the profit and loss account. 

All this time, it cannot be said that the casino had 
been of much political use. It had brought no great 
prosperity. Tliere was, at any rate, not enough improve- 
ment to induce the comnmnes of Menton and Roquebrune 
to abandon their rebellious attitude towards the Prince of 
Monaco. Tlierefore when, after the war of 1859, Nice and 
Savoy were handed over to France, the two communes, 
as we have seen, voted in favour of being included in this 
annexation. Thus the policy of sanctioning the establish- 
ment of a casino failed in its main purpose ; it did not 
save tlie principality from dismemberment. Neverthe- 
less the time was now approaching when it would 
bring the long-anticipated and oft-deferred prosperity, 
and this to an extent that has exceeded the wildest 

Towards the end of the year 1862, M. Fran9ois Blanc 
happened to be in Paris, and M. Ijcfebvre, then manager 
of the casino, asked one of his friends to sound him with 
a view to his purchasing the Monaco concession. M. Blanc 
was very guarded in his answer, saying that he would 
make iiKpiiries and consider the matter. What ensued 
was originally related by M. Marie de Saint-Germain, a 
poet who, since 1860, came during the winter to Monaco 


for the sake of his health. His brief description of the all- 
important transaction has been repeated by almost every 
person who has written on the subject. The fact is that 
the old story cannot be avoided, as everyone wants to 
know in detail how M. Francois Blanc became the pos- 
sessor of the casino. It was on the 31st of March 1863 
that M. Blanc, having finally made up his mind, called on 
M. Lefebvre at his office. Then, as M. Marie de Saint- 
Germain tells us, M. Blanc said : 

" You want to sell your concession and I am willing to 
buy it. Now think the matter over. I will come "back at 
three o'clock for I must catch the steamer that leaves at 
four o'clock and I want the affair to be settled before I 
return to Nice." 

The price agreed upon was £68,000, to be paid in three 
drafts on the Bank of France. M. de Pagau, the Secretary- 
General of the Government, was hastily called upon to 
submit the proposal to Charles III. ; and, as M. Francois 
Blanc's reputation had travelled before him, everyone was 
eager to conclude the bargain. M. Blanc was not delayed ; 
he caught his steamer and returned in good time to Nice, 
everything having been satisfactorily settled. 

On the 1st of April 1863 M. Blanc formed the com- 
pany known as La Societc unoniimc des Bains de Mer et dn 
Cercle dcs Etrangers a Monaco. Thus, in the a ery title 
of the company, it is particularly specified that the casino 
is to be a club for foreigners and not for the public in 
general. The concession was to last fifty years, the capital 
was to consist of £600,000 divided into 30,000 shares of 
£20 each. So widespread was the reputation M. Blanc 
had acquired by reason of his successful management of 
the Homburg casino that there was a great demand for 
the shares. Many very illustrious persons were anxious to 
place their money in M. Blanc's keeping, and to share the 
profits he was likely to make. Though some of them were 
by profession teachers of morality they do not seem to 
have taken any special trouble to ascertain whether 
roulette might be considered a reforming influence. 





Among the first to purchase casino shares was the 
cardinal who afterwards became Pope Leo XIII. 

It was not till the 1st of June 18G6 that Prince 
Charles issued an ordinance dividing his principality once 
again into three towns. Instead of Monaco, Roquebrune 
and JSIenton, as formerly, there would be INIonaco, the 
Condamine and IMonte Carlo. The district from the 
valley of St Devote right over the hill and promontory of 
the Spelugnes to the eastern end of the principality and 
the road called Franciosi was henceforth to be called 
Monte Carlo. M. Blanc, it is true, was still busy at Hom- 
burg, but it was nevertheless clear that when the railway 
reached the principality, there now being no lack of 
capital to develop its resources, a great and rapid growth 
would take place. Rural districts would become urban 
districts, and the two new communes would have a 
sufficient population to justify their existence as com- 

The first casino built by M. Godineau de la Breton- 
nerie for M. Daval and his successors occupied the site 
and was scarcely larger than what is now known as the 
atrium. The vestibule in front of the atrium did not then 
exist. This was built many years later. In the plan of the 
casino I ha\e endeavoured, by adding dates to the different 
sections, to give the history of the growth of the casino at 
a glance. The date 18G1 occurs twice, and is placed where 
in the first casino two extremities were walled off. The 
central portion, now called the atrium, contained the old 
concert and ball room ; at one end were the roulette-tables 
and at the other the smoking and reading rooms. The 
accompanying illustration of the north side of the casino 
in the early sixties shows that it was but a modest building, 
standing in the midst of a scene of desolation, newly made 
roads bordering flower-beds where nothing had had time 
to grow. It was not till 1872 that an important addition 
was made to the casino. This was called the Moorish 
Room, and was the work of the architect, M. Dutrou. It 
was considered very original and attractive at the time, 


and was so large that there was ample room for five 
roulette or trciite-ct-quarante tables. To-day, however, it 
has been much altered and redecorated. All trace of 
Moorish art has disappeared, and it is now known as the 
Salle Schmit. 

When the Salle Mauresque was built the casino 
terraces were also constructed, and preceded the building 
of the opera or theatre, thus providing a suitable site for 
that great monument. Another illustration will give some 
idea of the aspect of the casino on its south side, that 
which overlooks the sea. The photograph was taken at a 
later period, when some of the plants had grown. On one 
side of the original building, to the right of the picture, 
can be seen a small portion of M. Dutrou's new gaming- 
room, the Salle Mauresque. The photograph, therefore, 
was taken after 1872 but before 1878. 





UP to 1878 the casino had no theatre; only a 
concert-room or festival hall, which measured no 
more than 100 feet in length and 40 feet in width. 
Nor was this hall lofty ; the ceiling was but 26 feet from 
the floor. Here M. Rom^o Accursi, who conducted the 
band during the summer season at the casino of Vichy, 
organised the concerts given during the Monte Carlo 
winter season. Ultimately his orchestra numbered some 
seventy performers, and even in those early days they 
were all excellent musicians. In the evening this concert 
hall was often converted into a ballroom. On other 
occasions a few actors and actresses, notably from the 
Palais Royal Theatre, and Madame Judic from the 
Theatre des Varietds, Paris, came down and performed 
some of their best parts. This helped to accentuate the 
need of a theatre. At Baden-Baden, under the rule of the 
great Benazet, the same thing had happened. First there 
were concerts ; then it became necessary to build a theatre. 
Here, from 1866 up to the war of 1870, some of the most 
popular plays were performed by the best actors. This was 
not sufficient. Soon the theatre of the Baden-Baden 
casino acquired such a high reputation that original 
plays were written expressly to be produced for the first 
time on its boards. 

Monsieur Fran(,'ois Blanc could not rest satisfied with 
a small concert-room ; besides, as audiences increased, 
people began to grumble. The railway to Monaco was 
opened in 1868. C)ne year after the war, in 1872, the 
number of passengers booking to Monaco was 160,949. 


By 1875, only three years later, the number rose to 
215,017. Something had to be done, and this on a large 
scale ; but in July 1877 death overtook M. Francois Blanc 
before anything definite had been decided upon. Madame 
Blanc, however, who had been her husband's good genius 
on more than one occasion, was well qualified to preserve 
the spirit of enterprise and the generous traditions which 
distinguished JNl. Francois Blanc's administration. The 
determination to build a theatre was upheld, and it was 
further resolved that the casino itself should be greatly 
embellished. The little concert-room was comfortable 
enough, but absolutely devoid of any architectural preten- 
sions, and the casino, in spite of the Moorish decorations 
of its new gaming-room, was quite an ordinary, common- 
place building. 

To decide upon building is an easy matter, particularly 
when there is enough money in hand to carry out such 
a resolution. It is not so easy to determine the style of 
the building and to secure the services of a competent 
architect. Obviously it would be advantageous to have 
something original ; something that would make people 
talk and cause disputes between different schools of art. 
Controversies of this description had just taken place over 
the new Grand Opera at Paris, more especially about 
the sculpture on the exterior ; notably Carpeaux's group 
representing " La Danse." It may be remembered that one 
indignant critic threw a bottle of ink at the nude figures, 
and of course this outrage greatly enhanced the popularity 
of the sculptor and of his work. Now it so happened that 
M. Francois Blanc had indirectly been of great service 
to M. Charles Gamier, the architect of the Grand Opera. 
The building was planned and the greater part constructed 
during the latter days of the Second Empire, but the war 
and the Revolution came before the work was finished. 
After the calamitous results of the war, the Government 
was more concerned in reconstituting the French nation 
than in completing the opera house. Yet if this and other 
similar public works could be carried forward with borrowed 





money the Government would gladly give its assent. The 
nation was so heavily burdened with war taxes that it 
could not afford to do more than pay interest on loans 
raised for such purposes. A law was enacted, that bears 
date of the 24th March 1874, authorising the Ministry of 
Public Works to borrow from financial societies or from 
private individuals the money necessary to complete the 
building and decoration of the Grand Opera. Thereupon 
M. Francois Blanc came forward and offered to lend the 
necessary money. A decree was issued, dated 10th May 
1874, signed by Marshal Mac-Mahon as President of the 
Republic, and by M. R. de Larcy as Minister of Public 
Works, accepting from M. Francois Blanc a loan, at 
6 per cent, interest, of 4,900,000 francs (£196,000) to be 
spent in the completion of the new Grand Opera.^ 

From the very first M. Franc^ois Blanc felt that the 
possession of wealth entailed great responsibilities and 
duties which were not to be met by the occasional despatch 
of a cheque to some charitable institution. Wealth must 
be invested in such a manner as to render service, and it 
may well be claimed that the whole world has benefited 
by the completion of the Paris Grand Opera. It is only 
necessary to go to one of the performances to see that 

^ This is the actual text of the decree : 

" Le Conseil d'Etat entendu ; 
" Decrete 
"Article 1". — Est et deraeure approuvce radjudication passee, le 
28 Avril 187-i, par le Ministre des Travaux Publics pour Texecution de 
la loi duj 24 Mars 1874, relative a I'achevement du nouvel Opera. 

"En consequence est acce])tee definitivenient roffre faite par le sieur 
Blanc Francois d'avances a I'Etat la soninie de 4,900,000 francs au taux 
de 6 per cent, et aux conditions enoncees tant dans la dite loi que dans 
I'arrete sus-vise. 

"Article 2. — Le Ministre des Travaux Publics est eharg^ de Texecution 
du present decret. 

" Fait i Paris, le 10 Mai 1874. 

" Marechal de Mac-Mahon, 
" Due DE Majenta. 
" Par le President de la Republique, 
" Le Ministre des Travaux Publics, 

" R. DE Larcy." 


there are almost as many foreign as French spectators. 
Whatever may be said of the performances, there can be 
no doubt that the building is one of the most magnificent 
and original edifices ever constructed for theatrical pur- 
poses. The architect was given a free hand, and of this 
permission he made the fullest use. Though going yearly 
to Italy to seek inspiration amid the masterpieces of 
ancient architecture and of the Renaissance, M. Charles 
Gamier conceived a style of his own. He has a theory 
and a reason for every detail, and it has taken him twenty- 
five years of unremitting labour to create this school. It 
is a mixture of display, extravagant display, and of 
realism. Thus the Grand Opera viewed from the outside 
shows in a realistic manner what is contained within. The 
monumental staircase, which reaches only the first floor, 
and the crush-room situated on that floor, are both in the 
front, and this is the lowest part of the building. But 
the dome over the auditorium, and the loftier roof over 
the stage enable those who are outside and at a sufficient 
distance to distinguish which are the different parts of the 
house. The decorations inside, however, were more 
generally criticised. To-day people are better accustomed 
to the style, and time has toned down its glaring effects. 
The unlimited gilding on the somewhat wild and extra- 
vagant designs no longer shines so brightly. Still, whatever 
fault may be found with the style of decoration, it faith- 
fully represented the genius of the time. It was brilliant 
and garish, as were the latter days of the Second Empire. 
All was pomp and ostentation. There was nothing severe 
or classical about it, and it needed no special cultivation 
of the eye or the mind to appreciate its magnificence. 
Still it is only fair to say that Napoleon III. insisted that 
the new Hotel-Dieu should be finished before the new 
opera. When inaugurating this immense hospital, the 
emperor made some allusion to the fact, saying that we 
must first provide an asylum for the relief of pain before 
we build a palace of pleasure. 

If ever an architect wrote history, then by building in 


Paris itself the new opera, Charles Garnier related in letters 
of stone the history not only of the apotlieosis of the 
Second Empire, but also of its decline and fall. The Paris 
Grand Opera remains a monument of great historical 
interest. The style, especially with regard to decoration, 
is not, it may be hoped, appropriate to the French nation 
and its great political and intellectual capital, but it 
accurately records the short period of shallow frivolity 
into which the people lapsed after more than a century 
of heroic endeavour. 

If the style of decoration introduced at the new opera 
fails to suggest the generous initiati\e of the I'aris of the 
Great Revolution ; if it does not recall the commercial 
Marais and the industrious faubourgs with their teeming 
population of tradesmen and highly skilled artisans ; nor 
yet the Paris of the Latin Quarter, with its world-famed 
university, its men of science and of genius, its writers, 
statesmen and philosophers, still, it reflects accurately 
enough the love of extravagant show that can be ap- 
preciated easily, without intellectual effort, by the cosmo- 
politan crowd of pleasure-seekers who have peopled a 
town of their own witliin the Paris of the true Parisian. 
Now it so happened that while M. Fran9ois Blanc lent 
the money required to finish the Paris opera house, 
cosmopolitan I'aris — which, be it always borne in mind, 
Parisians energetically repudiate — was beginning to 
acquire the habit, during the winter, of occasionally 
seeking pleasure and sunshine at ISIonte Carlo. What 
could be more natural than that the architect of the Paris 
Grand Opera should be consulted with regard to the 
proposed (irand Theatre at Monte Carlo i IVI. Charles 
Garnier had publicly expressed his gratitude to M. Francois 
Blanc for having rendered the completion of the Paris 
opera possible. If M. Garnier's style was, perhaps, as 
indicated above, not sufficiently severe, classic and serious 
for a great and historic capital such as Paris, it was, on 
tlie contrary, admirably suited to Monte Carlo. Monaco, 
with its austere battlements, with its ancient history. 


might with reason have objected to Charles Garnier and 
all his works ; but Monte Carlo, with no history whatso- 
ever, built on an uninhabited promontory, and only seeking 
to attract wealthy idlers from every part of the world, 
was the very place of all others where his style and genius 
would be most appreciated. 

M. Charles Garnier readily consented. At the end of 
April 1878 he was able to submit his designs to Madame 
Blanc ; they were accepted, and then a wonderful work 
was accomplished. By the end of October the building 
was completed and handed over to the decorators, sculptors 
and painters. This was no ordinary task, and it was 
necessary to work day and night without a moment's 
respite. A plan also had to be devised to secure equal 
comfort and an equally good view for all the seats in the 
theatre. In short, there were to be only orchestra stalls, a 
special box for the prince, and six other boxes. No idea was 
entertained of charging for admittance, and it was thought 
that as all the seats were gratuitous they should all be 
equally good. The theatre must be easily accessible 
from within the casino and from without. For concerts 
in the afternoon there must be daylight, for evening 
performances there must be gas, as electricity was not 
yet available. Builders of theatres usually do not contem- 
plate the possibility of daylight representations. In 
London and elsewhere what feeble light may be admitted 
by the windows is excluded, and artificial light employed 
during even matinee performances. At Monte Carlo, on 
the contrary, the windows are so large and lofty that 
a daylight concert can easily be given. Indeed, there is 
often too much light, and yellow blinds as large as the 
sail of a ship have to be lowered to soften the glare of the 
southern sun. 

An enormous army of workers, artisans and artists, had 
to be brought down. Some portions of the old building 
were promptly demolished. Holes were blown in the rock 
with dynamite as the quickest way of digging for deeper 
foundations. Lofty scaffolding rose from the ground, 


engines snorted and puffed, lifting the stones, that had 
for the most part come all the way from Aries. As it was 
warm weather, the concerts were given in the open air, 
and served to cheer the workmen as well as to entertain 
the visitors. It was a strange scene, the illuminations for 
the concert mingled with the flaring torches of the 
building works ; the notes of the musical instruments 
combined with the sounds of the engines and the hammers. 
The idlers and the workers were side by side, each with 
artificial light striving to convert night into day. It is to 
be hoped that the gamblers were well satisfied when they 
saw how the money they had lost was giving useful 
employment to a great concourse of workmen. In six 
months the bold outline of the theatre, with its two 
graceful towers which have become the principal land- 
mark of Monte Carlo, could be seen through a maze of 

In designing a building, and particularly its frontage, 
the effect will be either gay or sombre according to the 
number of windows, doors, arcades, columns — that is to 
say, of breaks in the dull severity of the walls. The greater 
the facilities of entry, the more hospitable the building 
appears. Its inhabitants evidently do not wish to wall 
themselves off from the world, and it is easy to imagine 
that there must be plenty of light and gaiety within. This 
is precisely the effect realised by the frontage of the 
Monte Carlo theatre. Three lofty windows that are more 
like arcades, for they consist of columns upholding arches, 
fill the centre of the facade. They convey the idea that 
their purpose must be to illuminate some vast and splendid 
hall. Immediately above, like a jewelled belt around the 
building, runs a broad frieze in mosaic. It is the work of 
M. Facchina, of ^^enice. This mosaic, and the use of the 
Monaco art })ottery-ware, constitute a polychrome decora- 
tion rarely seen outside buildings in northern latitudes, 
but very popular in Italy, and well suited to the climate 
of Monte Carlo. The design of the mosaic (head repre- 
senting " Comedy " and " Tragedy ") is not original, but its 


effect is very bright and pleasing. The httle cubes of gold 
seem to catch fire in the sunlight, and how deep and 
luminous are the sapphire blues, purples and violets ; 
how delicate and translucent the lilac, the turquoise and 
the emerald-green. Aided by distance, and by the brilliant 
sunshine, these little coloured cubes seem veritable precious 

The boldest innovation, in which Gamier outstepped 
anything he had done before, was the construction of the 
two lofty towers. What could be the use of these square 
turrets ? As steeples of a church or minarets of a mosque 
they might serve a purpose. If comedy and music are 
worthy to be heard in a temple, there was no connection 
intended between the theatre of the Monte Carlo casino 
and a church of any denomination whatsoever. Why then 
have steeples ? The answer is simple. Every tall, narrow 
building is not a steeple. A lighthouse is not a steeple. 
The towers of the theatre have a small dome, large 
windows, a lantern above the dome, but no place for 
hanging bells. There is, however, a balcony, from whence 
a magnificent view can be obtained. Here is the object, 
here is the purpose — that of seeing, and above all of being 
seen at a distance. Far out at sea. from the ships as they 
pass, sailors and passengers cannot fail to recognise the 
frontage of the Monte Carlo casino, with its broad 
terraces ; and rising high above them the bold facade and 
lofty towers of Charles Garnier's chef-iVceuvre. Two or 
three strokes of pencil or pen from an artist's hand will 
render the outline of these two towers and the great 
domed roof of the theatre between them. This is sufficient. 
Monte Carlo is at once recognised. Just as the West- 
minster clock tower suggests London ; the tower of St 
Angelo, Rome ; the towers of Notre-Dame, Paris ; so, 
in an equally unmistakable manner, do the towers of 
Charles Garnier's theatre proclaim Monte Carlo. To build 
towers to a theatre was doubtless a very unorthodox 
eccentricity, but it has served a very useful purpose. Then, 
after all, no one can say they are not graceful ; all must 


I'.AST \lliW 1)1- nil. (lAKNIKU Tl I KATK li : lA'.IM. SVKAIl I'.KK M I AK HT S 

Staiuk ok Som; 


acknowledge that they harmonise admirably with tlie rest 
of the building and greatly enhance its general monu- 
mental effect. 

The three bull's-eye apertures above the frieze are 
more susceptible of criticism. They are somewhat heavy, 
and there are too many shields, lyres, masks, employed 
as decorative motives ; but this is the inherent fault of 
the Gamier style ; it is overdone. It is in the general 
design of a building, rather than in the detail of its 
ornamentation, that Garnier excels. Nowhere is this more 
evident than within the theatre itself The effect on those 
who enter the auditorium for the first time must be most 
startling. There is gold, gold, and yet more gold. Friezes 
and garlands, frescoes, shields, embossed work, such a 
crush and a crowd of gilded ornamentation, that the mind 
fails to grasp what it all means. However, in time, the 
eye discerns in the vaulted roof Boulanger's " Music," 
Lix's " Comedy," Feyen-Perrin's " Song," and Clairin's 
"Dance." The first of these pictures is classical, the 
second mythological, the third inspires reverence, but 
Clairin's " Dance " reflects the real spirit of a casino, and 
suggests a moment of reckless enjoyment. Between these 
pictures, as if supporting the vaulted roof on their backs, 
are four giant figures of " Renown " in bronze and gold, by 
the sculptor, J. Thomas. They are powerful young women, 
physically capable of upholding the celestial vault spread 
above them, and they seem to perform this function quite 
seriously. Immediately below them are two young lads 
with no clothes, not even a little gilding, uncomfortably 
seated on a narrow ledge, looking as if they had come out 
of a swimming-bath. There is nothing ideal about them ; 
their hands and feet especially are absolutely realistic. No 
one has been able to explain why these boys are perched 
up there ; but presumably they know the secret, since 
they look quite happy. They do not seem to be in the 
least troubled about the public, towards whom they tiu-n 
the soles of their feet. Their want of clothes may be 
excused on the gi'ound that they are high enough up to 


be among the gods, but why such a regrettable lack of 
manners ? 

Above the naked boys, between the draped and 
golden figures of " Renown," are rows of elaborately decor- 
ated bull's-eye windows, the design culminating at the 
summit in a head. These heads, moulded by M. Chabaud, 
symbolise various orders of music^ — pastoral, martial, 
hunting, dance music, etc., etc. 

The theatre is longer than it is broad. Opposite the 
stage is situated a galler}^ containing the prince's box. 
This is the west end, and here there is a magnificent 
door opening at the angle made by the road and the 
terraces. The door is seldom, if ever, used by the public, 
being reserved as a private entrance to the prince's box. 
No one can pass it without admiring the two superb 
Nubian slaves which are sheltered under the doorway, 
and serve as candelabras, each holding crystal crescents 
above their heads. They are among the finest specimens 
of M. Chabaud's work as a sculptor. Above the entrance 
is a small balcony which can be reached from the prince's 
box and where fresh air may be enjoyed between the acts. 
It contains an original and graphic statue of " Industry," 
by M. Cordier. A hardy woman of the people, with 
herculean muscles, rests her vigorous arms on her hammer 
with an air of proud confidence. She feels that all the 
world depends on her efforts. Her clothing is simple — 
merely a skin apron. The companion statue is an idealistic 
and dreamy conception of sculpture, by M. Godebski. 
Close by, the angles of the masonry are ornamented with 
two statues of " Music " and '* Dance," by JNI. Cordier. 
The usual entrance to the theatre is from the atrium ; 
the central door is flanked by two caryatides in Floren- 
tine bronze. One of tliese — " Music " — is the work of 
M. Bayard de la Vingeterie ; the other — " Literature " — is 
by M. Aizelin. Some of Jean Goujon's decoration of the 
Hotel Carnavalet in Paris has been imitated in the design 
of the group which protects the arms of Monaco above 
this door. M. Mathieu was the sculptor. 

WlCsr \'1KW OF TilK (lAKMKK TllKAlKE: l'ACIN(; Gll.STAVIC DoUli's SXAl UE 

OI-- Danck 


The peculiar feature of the construction of the Rlonte 
Carlo theatre is that though the whole scheme and design 
are the outcome of M. Charles Garnier's genius, he called 
in a great number of collaborators and, entrusting to each 
some detail, gave him full freedom to deal with it ac- 
cording to his fancy. But even more remarkable than this 
was the strange idea of setting artists to work at an art 
other than their own. Thus he insisted that the great 
tragedian, Sarah Bernhardt, should be responsible for a 
statue representing " Song " ; and that the celebrated 
painter, Gustave lioro, should contribute as a pendant 
another statue representing " The Dance." There was 
almost as much talk about this as about the towers. Why 
put spires or minarets to a theatre ? Why give an actress 
and a painter sculpture to do, when there were so many 
properly qualified sculptors only too eager to undertake 
such a task ? In all the studios, in artistic circles, among 
all the art critics, endless discussions ensued. On the 
higher terrace, in niches under the two towers that have 
caused such widespread debate, are to be found the 
statues that were also so much discussed. Nor were these 
amateur sculptors content with one statue. Gustave Dore 
has placed at the foot of " Tiie Dance " a cupid, with 
dimpled and well-rounded limbs, duly armed with his 
fatal bow and arrow. Sarah Bernhardt's winged songstress 
did not satisfy her ; she added a young girl sitting at the 
feet of the singer. Those not versed in the technique of 
the art see nothing to criticise in either of the statues, 
but much has been said against the left leg of Sarah 
Bernhardt's young girl. Much exception, too, has been 
taken to the arrangement of the drapery, which is fastened 
up on the shoulders with something of a butterfly effect, 
a 1(1 ,7apo/i(i/.se. 

But criticism is easy, and, admitting that better 
statues could have been obtained, they would never be 
half so interesting. The fact that these statues were 
contributed by great artistic celebrities, but celebrities 
who were not sculptors, cannot fail to excite universal 


curiosity. Thus it comes to pass that everyone who goes 
to Monte Carlo makes a point of discovering the where- 
abouts of the statues by Sarah Bernhardt and Gustave 
Dore. Unfortunately, they have been ill-treated by time 
and weather. Finished hui-riedly, to be ready for the 
opening of the new theatre, they could only be moulded 
in clay and cast in plaster. There are no ironworks at 
Monaco to cast statues in bronze, nor was it possible to 
carve them in marble. The statues, therefore, are in plaster. 
To preserve them, they have been painted over ; but the 
sun has cracked and blistered the paint, and some of it is 
peeling off. " Song "and " Dance " seem both to be suffer- 
ing from a severe attack of eczema. 

The building, we have seen, was begun in April 1878, 
and handed over to the decorators and upholsterers in 
October. By the commencement of the following year it 
was completed, and the solemn inauguration took place 
on the 25th of January 1879. Needless to say, this was 
a brilliant ceremony. Even the artistic design of the pro- 
gramme was quite in the Charles Garnier style, includ- 
ing the two towers, the subject of so much controversy, 
and the two naked boys who persist in showing the soles 
of their feet. But this time they were usefully employed 
blowing long trumpets, and if uncomfortably seated, they 
were provided with wings so that they could fly away. 
It was at two o'clock in the afternoon of the 24th of 
January that M. Romeo Accursi and his orchestra first 
entered the new theatre. The place was still encumbered 
by ladders, ropes, pieces of sculpture and ornamentation. 
Charles Garnier and his family, all the directors of the 
casino, young architects, artists, newspaper reporters, 
great theatrical or operatic celebrities were there to 
rehearse for the morrow's opening performance. The cele- 
brated tenor, Capoul, was the first to clamber on the stage, 
where he strutted about with evident satisfaction, Madame 
INIiolan-Carvalho sang to an accompaniment of hammers 
driving in nails. Other women now came forward ; they 
had not melodious voices, but they had strong arms, and 


big pails and mops and brushes. It was their business to 
see that the theatre should be thoroughly clean for the 
opening day, and the musicians who wanted to rehearse 
felt, in spite of their European reputations, that at such a 
moment they \vere merely secondary personages. 

By the evening of the 25th everytliing was ready. 
Prince Charles III. entered the regal box for the first 
time. The six hundred orchestra stalls were occupied by 
celebrities of literature, art, the press and society. The 
Marseillais poet, J. Aicard, had written a prologue, which 
was recited by Sarah Bernhardt. The poem told of a 
sleeping beauty who reposed in one of the caves under the 
hill of Monte Carlo. ^VU the noise of the exploding mines 
and of the seven months of labour in building the theatre 
had failed to rouse her. But now comes M. Romeo 
Accursi with his admirable orchestra ; the melodious 
sound awakens the beautiful nymph after a sleep of 
centuries. She had seen the paintings of Polygnotus and 
Apelles, the statues of Phidias and Praxiteles, the great 
temples of antiquity, and now she opens her eyes to 
witness a resuscitation of the arts and to bring green 
palms "to the builder of the marvellous palace." 
*■ Artists," she exclaims, " I have gathered pahns to 
crown your heads. Blessed be you all ! you who have 
awakened the gods ! ' 

At these words the whole audience rose and turned 
towards Charles Garnier, who with his family occupied a 
box at the far end of the theatre. A great ovation ensued. 
Garnier was summoned to the prince's box, and the Cross 
of Conunander of the Order of Saint Charles was sus- 
pended by its ribbon round the neck of the illustrious 
architect. This was done, on behalf of Prince Charles III., 
by her Iloyal Highness the Duchess Florestine d'Urach- 
Wiirtemberg. The same evening Mesdames Miolan 
Carvalho and Judic, and Messiems Diaz de Soriae and 
Capoul sang. It will be .seen that from the very first 
there appeared on tlie stage of Monte Carlo some of the 
most celebrated singers, actors and artists of Europe. 



IT may be said that the building of the Garnier Theatre 
was the chmax which decided the fortunes of the 
casino. No money was spared, and many ingenious 
devices were adopted to ensure that the utmost pubUcity 
should be given to the affair. This accomplished, success 
was assured, and has now assumed such proportions as to 
threaten embarrassment by its very completeness. At first 
it was said that the theatre was too large for the casino : 
now it was found that the casino was too small for the 
theatre and for the public it attracted. While Garnier was 
startling the world by the original structure of his theatre, 
tlie architect Dutrou, who six years before had added the 
Salle INIauresque to the old casino, knocked the central 
part of this elementary structure to pieces, and built the 
atrium in its stead. He also added a small vestibule in 
front of the old entrance. Before two years had expired, 
it was already evident that the Salle Renaissance and the 
Salle Mauresque — now called the Salle Schmit — with their 
seven roulette and trente-et-quaruntc tables, no longer 
sufficed. Once more Charles Garnier was asked to lend the 
casino the lustre of his name and the aid of his genius. 
He consented ; and in 1880 built the Salle Garnier. The 
chief original feature in this room is the subject of the 
paintings which decorate the walls. They consist of female 
figures representing the sports then popular. One of the 
finest of the pictures, illustrating croquet — a game that 
seems to-day to be almost forgotten — is by Clairin. 

Now ensued a period of comparative inaction, which 
continued for nearly a decade. In 1889 the celebration of 



the centenary of the French Revolution was to take place. 
The Universal Exhibition in Paris would attract visitors 
from all parts of the world. The ridiculous attempt to 
boycott the hundredth anniversary of the downfall of the 
Bastille, with the regime of Icttres de cachet, privilege and 
autocracy, was sure to fail. The fact that some monarchical 
governments refused to take part in the exhibition made 
the great mass of the people all the more eager to be 
present, and Monte Carlo was sure to feel the effect of 
this rush to Paris. In 1888 the number of tickets issued 
to travellers for the principality was 394,433 : the year of 
the celebration of the centenary of the French Revolution 
it was 503,397. The year following, 1890, when there was 
no celebration, the number fell to 403,082. 

By the year 1889 the entrance vestibule of the casino 
had been much enlarged, giving more space for the cloak- 
room and offices, and yet anotlier and a very beautiful 
gaming-room had been added. It is called the Salle Touzet, 
after its architect. The decorations are nearly as ex- 
travagant as if designed by Garnier ; the paintings 
represent Folly, Fortune, Night and Morning. It is difficult 
to see whether any subtle moral is involved in the choice 
of such subjects ; but in any case players are not often 
disposed to look at pictures. When once a person is 
absorbed in roulette or trente-et-fjuarante, the fine arts 
are lost upon him. But they are not lost on those who do 
not play, or who play rarely and only for small sums. 
Such persons do exist ; they can be met even in the rooms 
devoted exclusively to play. Perhaps it is thought that 
some will frequent the rooms because of their beauty, not 
intending to play. If they do, it happens more often than 
not that they end by yielding to the temptation, and risk 
at least a small stake. For their sakes it is to be hoped 
that they will lose, for then they will be less tempted 
to renew the experiment. 

When, after the building of the Salle Touzet, the 
demand for more room and still more room continued, 
it was determined that this time, instead of further 


elongating the casino an attempt should be made to extend 
it laterally. In 1903 a large hall and two smaller ones 
were added on the south side, facing the sea. They are 
named after their architect, Schmit. It is in the large hall 
that the celebrated painting of the three Florentine Graces 
will be found. The ceilings of the two smaller rooms are 
also beautifully decorated. The subject of one of these 
paintings, by Galleli, is " Dreams." It is here reproduced. 

In 1906 a gallery was built on the northern side, so as 
to give a little moi-e room, and finally an extensive addition 
was made in 1910. 

By that time great alteration in the social conditions 
of life at Monte Carlo had taken place, and the evolution 
in the building of the casino corresponded with the modern 
developments. We have seen that the number of 
passengers who booked for the principality amounted 
in 1889 to half-a-million ; by 1902 they just exceeded a 
million, and in 1909 the number was 1,483,570. This of 
course meant a complete change in the social position and 
character of the majority of visitors. The democracy had 
permeated even Monte Carlo. Aristocrats and very 
distinguished personages still frequented the casino, but 
they were lost in the crowd. In the earlier days every- 
thing was free. To put a price on the seats at the concerts 
or other entertainments was contrary to all traditions. 
That some of the visitors played was sufficient for every- 
one to be welcomed and given free admittance. The 
magnificent theatre, with its wonderful display of decora- 
tion, was open once or twice a day to anyone who chose 
to enter. Here one of the best orchestras of Europe could 
be heard from .540 orchestra stalls, each as good and as 
comfortable as the other. There were no privileged seats 
and no privileged persons ; no sifting of those who could 
afford to pay from those who could not. The casino made 
enough money to pay for all. But to-day it makes so 
very much more money that it is far less generous ; such 
is the destructive effect of too much success. 

On the other hand, it must be admitted that with the 


present crowd, if performances were gratuitous it is not a 
beautiful theatre, holding barely six hundred spectators, that 
would be required, but something more like a hippodrome. 
To-day, even though twenty francs a seat is charged for 
operatic performances and five francs for the classical 
concerts, other performances have to be organised else- 
where. The beautiful hothouses belonging to INIadame 
Blanc, where horticultural rarities were cultivated with 
such success, have been pulled down to make room for 
the Palais des Beaux Arts. This edifice, close to the 
Hotel de Paris, consists of a central hall 130 by 58 feet, 
with a vaulted glass roof which gives a good light for the 
exhibitions of painting and sculpture and the horticultural 
shows that are held here. At the end of the hall is a large 
platform, which is useful for meetings and various 
ceremonies. From the right side of this hall opens a 
smaller room, where some of the best pictures are usually 
hung at the annual " Salon " ; and on the left a small 
theatre has been built for light plays and operettas and 
for lectures. The first Exhibition of Fine Arts took place 
in 1892, under the presidency of Jerome and Carol us 
Duran. Among some of the celebrated artists who have 
assisted at these annual exhibitions may be mentioned 
Alma-Tadema, Burne-.Jones, Detaille, Bonnat, Bartholdi, 
Munkiicsy, J. P. Laurens, Stevens, J. L. Stewart and 

While thus building annexes outside its original 
premises, the casino still continued to expand on its first 
site. But the time had come for a radical change of policy. 
The happy e(iuality of the early days could not be 
maintained with the huge crowds that now frequented 
the casino. A first attempt to discriminate was made by 
establishing, in a small room upstairs, what was called the 
Cvrclc Privc. The infatuation of players may be judged 
by the talk that arose when this select gaming-table was 
abolished. People said that it did not pay because it was 
frequented almost exclusively by experienced players, 
who risked only small sums and ceased playing as soon as 


they had won something worth having. Obviously, if there 
are such wise players they can play in this manner in the 
public rooms as well as in a private room. Whether the 
bank wins less at one table or more at another does not in 
the least matter, so long as the average shows a good 
profit. The fact is that the Cercle Prive was abolished 
because the casino sought to divert the crowd by creating 
the Sporting Club. Here none is admitted unless he 
belongs to a good club in his own countiy and can show 
a receipt proving that he has paid his subscription. As a 
further attraction the game of baccarat is allowed at the 
Sporting Club, and there is also good music provided by a 
string band. This does serve to draw away some from the 
casino, and yet the crowd is still too great. 

In further increasing the size of the casino, a new 
scheme was adopted. The casino had already extended 
eastward as far as it could go on level soil. It had 
reached the edge of the hill ; another extension would 
necessitate building on the slope. This fact suggested that 
to keep the new hall level with its predecessors a base- 
ment must be constructed. Thus the size of the casino 
might be increased downward as well as laterally. Here 
a new casino, with new rules, would come into existence. 
The Salle Touzet would be withdrawn from the public 
and connected with the new saloon about to be built, and 
in the basement on the slope of the hill a small and select 
concert hall could be constructed. This would constitute 
the private part of the casino. In 1911 the charge for 
admission was £2 for the season ; this was increased in 
1912 to £4. The new wing of the casino was built by 
JSI. Medecin, and was completed in 1910. 

The private portion of the casino is so large as to be 
sufficient by itself to form what would in most countries 
be considered a spacious casino. Apparently there will 
never be room enough or enough tables. The more the 
casino provides the more people come. Neither the 
imposition of a charge for admission nor the doubling 
of this charge has checked the increase of visitors. There 




are two reasons that make it worth while to pay for 
entrance to this private and privileged part of the casino : 
a scientific method of ventilation has been applied, and 
every day exquisite music is rendered by the string 
orchestra under the leadership of M. Louis Ganne. These 
concerts, sometimes given both in the afternoon and the 
evening, are perfect in their way, and enjoy the highest 
favour among those who are sufficiently educated in 
music to appreciate them. The concert-room is rather 
low, but carefully ventilated. The air inlets, disguised as 
sculptured bosses, may be seen in two corners of the 
oblong ceiling ; an air-shaft runs round the room convey- 
ing a current of air to all parts, but too high up to cause 
any draughts. On the floor against the wall may be noted 
the thermo-automatic machines. A similar contrivance 
will be found in the gaming-rooms upstairs. Here, as the 
mercury of a thermometer rises or falls, it automatically 
opens or closes a valve. When the temperature has 
reached the desired point the valve is closed by the rising 
mercury, and this prevents the steam from entering the 
heat radiators. The satin and velvet seats, the curtains 
and carpets, are all crimson of a rich, bright tone, contrast- 
ing with the sober oak panelling and the orchestra plat- 
form. Roimd the edge of the blue-grey ceiling a few red 
and yellow flowers strike a note of gaiety without too 
much colour. The electric lights are masked with crystals 
that add to the general sense of glitter and brightness, 
in brilliant contrast to the sombre colouring of the hall. 
The effect is that of restfulness amid deep and vivid 
colour ; but not so much rest as to become somnolence, 
so much richness as to become gaudiness, or so much 
brightness as to disturb the sense of repose necessary to 
the full enjoyment of refined music. 

The Salle Touzet upstairs was built before the system 
of ventilation was introduced, therefore it does not act so 
well as in the last and more recent room, where architect 
and ventilating engineer worked together. Ever since the 
casino has existed, bitter complaints have been made con- 


cerning the foulness of the atmosphere. It is true that the 
pubhc is in this matter at once ignorant and unreasonable, 
ftlany persons imagine that heat is a proof of the absence 
of ventilation, others mistake draughts for ventilation. 
But few realise that true ventilation consists in changing 
the air imperceptibly and yet sufficiently to provide one 
cubic foot of air per person per second. On the other 
hand, if the air travels more than three feet per second, it 
will cause inconvenience, leading probably to the closing of 
the air inlets and the total destruction of the ventilating 
system. Therefore inlets have to be very large so that 
they may deliver the volume of air needed slowly and 
not occasion a draught, or else they must be far enough 
away for the air to be well diffused before it reaches those 
present. If the accompanying illustrations are examined 
it will be noticed that all round the glass roof of the Salle 
Touzet, and at the angle of the ceiling and the wall of the 
Salle Nouvelle, runs a band which may be taken to be 
part of the ornamentation. In reality it is perforated 
throughout and serves to admit air. Near the floor against 
the wall, brass gratings will be seen : these are the outlets 
leading to a shaft that goes up to the roof of the casino. 
The intake for air is on the terrace and faces the sea. The 
air does not merely pass over steam pipes that raise its 
temperature. It is drawn along by a Blackman revolving 
fan to the mixing room. Here the air is filtered, washed 
and moistened by passing first through a cloth and then 
through a fine spray of water. The fan can project forward 
60,000 cubic metres of air per hour, and this is much 
moi'e than is needed. Finally, there is a small room 
containing four ozonisers, where 10,000 volts at high 
tension can be produced. Each ozoniser can give half- 
a-milligramme of ozone per square metre (about 35 cubic 
feet) to 10,000 cubic metres per hour. After this the air 
goes to a heating-room. Unfortunately a great mistake 
has been made. The ventilating engineer does not seem 
to have realised the difference between the JMonte Carlo 
climate and that of more northern latitudes. He declared 






that when it was freezing outside the temperature would 
be more than 50° Fahr. inside ; but it does not freeze 
outside, and the result is that the temperature runs up 
to from G4° to 74° inside. Visitors are too warm, and 
complain that there is no ventilation. There is, on the 
contrary, ample ventilation. The passage, diffusion and 
ozonisation of the air is perfectly accomplished, but there 
is overheating. The heat radiators should be convertible 
into refrigerators. This will increase the cost considerably, 
but it will have to be done sooner or later ; and the other 
parts of the casino will also have to be ventilated. 

The new and last built hall or gaming-room is 
decorated in Empire style ; indeed it is sometimes called 
la Salle Empire. Consequently the colours used are mainly 
green and gold. There is something severe, majestic and im- 
pressively handsome in these decorations. Designs in brass 
on a green wall have a very artistic effect, rich and durable. 
The ceiling is lofty, white predominating, except where 
paintings represent the four principal divisions of the day. 
There are fine lustres and ground-glass openings in the 
ceiling that give a soft light in the daytime. With its 
scientific ventilation, its lofty dimensions and artistic 
decorations, this, the last addition to the casino, is one of 
the most beautiful rooms ever built. 

Three reproductions from photographs will give some 
idea of the new and private part of the casino, to which 
only subscribers are admitted. The outside view shows 
how this addition has been built on sloping ground, so 
that there is a basement containing the new small 
concert - room. The two other photographs show the 
interiors of the Salle Touzet and the Nouvelle Salle or 
Salle Empire. The chronological map indicates that a 
slight widening was effected in 1906 by the building of 
a gallery on the northern side, where a cafe and a lounge 
afford the players means of obtaining light refreshments 
without having to go outside. 

In the additions of late years a new method of pro- 
cedure has been adopted. The Benazet and Francois Blanc 


traditions reached their apogee with the Garnier Theatre. 
Then nothing was spared. Money was no object. The 
maximum of talent and of pubhcity alone was desired ; 
these secured, the money Avould come of its own accord. 
A little more or a little less perhaps — what did it matter ? 
There would always be more than enough. It will be 
easily understood with what eagerness artists especially 
sought to serve such masters. The curse of all art is the 
oft-repeated injunction that the M^ork must be done 
cheaply ; Garnier, however, was alloAved to employ the 
finest artists, the most skilful workmen, and to do 
everything in the best style. For Garnier everything was 
made in Paris. When, however, M. Schmit began to 
build, the iron rafters, for instance, were brought to 
Monaco in their crude state to be prepared and finished 
on the spot. M. Touzet took more than six months to 
build his part of the casino, because he had neither the 
resources nor the money given to Garniei". All was done 
much more cheaply. Efficient artists were employed, but 
no celebrities ; there was no Garnier to commission 
Clairin for the paintings. The best known of the new 
school of artists recently engaged is M. Galleli. Though 
more lofty, the Garnier Theatre occupies much less 
ground than the structures built since that time — that is, 
since 1878. But the recent buildings have caused no 
sensation. They are beautiful, they answer their purpose ; 
but they have not opened the floodgates of controversy, 
they have not advertised the casino, they had not the 
genius of a Francois Blanc behind them. 

There is a phase of recent expansion that redeems 
the casino administration to some extent from the ridicule 
the title of their company did not fail to evoke. With 
amusing persistence they would insist on calling them- 
selves the society for sea-baths — Socicte anonyme des 
Bains de Mcr et du Cercle des Etrcuigas. It sounded so 
very innocent, though sea-baths might have been 
obtained without the tremendous business of forming a 
limited financial company, which is implied by the French 



words Societe anonyme. But the extraordinary part of 
this big business is that in spite of the huge capital readily 
subscribed the joint-stock company never after all managed 
to organise any sea-baths. There is a long, low building 
that skirts the extreme south-west corner of the port, and 
here there used to be some baths called les Thermes 
Valentia, for which the casino was responsible. But instead 
of bathing in the sea, the very few people who went there 
had to bathe in the port. Fourteen years ago, before the 
Shone ejectors were installed in this very corner, the 
sewage of the Condamine flowed into the port. The iron 
pipes which prolonged the sewers into the water could be 
seen close to the spot roped off for bathers to swim in. 
Now that the sewage, raised by the Shone ejectors, no 
longer contaminates the water, the port improvement 
works have brought a number of workmen on the spot, 
and there is an increase in the shipping. Therefore if 
to-day we have no sewage we have more ships ; and at 
any rate to bathe in a port is not what is generally under- 
stood by sea-bathing. Many persons who persisted hired 
a boat and rowed out to sea to enjoy a swim. Some 
preferred the less heroic dip from the small beach at the 
Bas-Mcndin. In either case they took their sea-bath quite 
independently of the great company which was floated 
nominally for the purpose of providing the means of 
bathing in the sea. With all the millions of money this 
company has possessed it has never in the whole course of 
its triumphant career, now covering half-a-century, been 
known to give a genuine sea-bath to any person whatso- 
ever. That it has been instrumental in providing sea- water 
to put in a batliing-tub must be admitted, but what is 
understood by Bains dc Mer is bathing in the open sea 
from a beach. 

Though this is just possible in the Bay of Larvotto, 
the space is restricted. For various reasons sea-bathing is 
not popular in the principality. Besides, Monaco is, in the 
main, a winter resort and, even on the Mediterranean, 
there are not many people who care for bathing in the 


open air during the winter. But now the casino has 
redeemed the promise the company's title imphes by 
fav^ouring at least some sort of bathing. It has built a 
thermal or hydropathic establishment of the highest class. 
As if to emphasise the fact that this is its work, the baths 
are on the casino premises, at the extreme end of the 
celebrated terraces. Their position is shown in the 
illustration here given, and it will be noted in what a 
handsome white stone building they have been housed. It 
would be a mistake, however, to suppose that the building 
has but one storey. It has two or three storeys, only instead 
of rising up they descend the side of the cliff to the sea 
below. This, however, causes a grave defect. Constructed 
as they are against the rock, the rooms afford no 
possibility of being thoroughly ventilated, for in the 
absence of mechanical processes no through draught can 
be obtained. This is all the more serious for carbonic acid 
gas and sulphuretted hydrogen escape into the atmosphere 
as the result of the hydropathic treatment of some of the 
patients. In all other respects the baths are well appointed 
and luxurious. Outside there is a fashionable bar, where 
strollers on the casino terraces may go to drink any of 
the most celebrated mineral waters ; these are all stocked 
here to gratify the cosmopolitan tastes of the numerous 
visitors. The chief feature of the entrance hall, and, from 
the point of view of art, of the whole building, is the 
large picture facing the door. This represents water, or 
rather the spirits of water, the undines, gambolling among 
the rocks and gliding down the rapids. It is painted by 
that artist of the new school to whom allusion has just 
been made, M. Galleli of Rome. 

Inside, under the direction of Doctor Albert Konried, 
Imperial Councillor, almost every form of treatment can 
be obtained. Of course there are ordinary fresh-water and 
sea-water baths. There are all sorts of Turkish and vapour 
baths ; massage under water, partial or complete massage ; 
carbonic acid, electric light, hydro-electric baths ; treat- 
ment with electricity and X-rays. The Zander or medico- 



mechanical methods are fully provided here. Skilled 
attendants are at the disposal of the patients, and a 
complete cure can be carried out with every com- 
fort and luxury. Though this is not the promised sea- 
bathing, which after all is not particularly wanted, it 
is a great inducement to those who wish to combine 
hydropathic with climatic treatment. 



WE have seen how rapid was the expansion and 
how great the success of the casino. It now 
becomes necessary to explain how this vast 
enterprise has been conducted since its first success was 
assured by the skilful management of ISI. Francois Blanc 
and the extension of the railway to the principality. 
M. Fran9ois Blanc died on the 27th July 1877, at Loueche, 
in the Valais, Switzerland, where he went for a little rest. 
He had then attained his seventy-first year, but his widow 
was much younger. Madame Blanc now became the 
principal shareholder, and, having actively assisted her 
husband in the management, remained at the head of 
affairs. We have seen that it was under her auspices that 
the Garnier casino was built and the best traditions of 
casino management faithfully maintained. Madame Blanc 
did not, however, long survive M. Francois Blanc, but 
died at Moutiers, in Savoy, on the 25th July 1881. By 
the 14th of December 1882 the Casino Company was 
reconstituted. The number of shares was doubled, raising 
the capital from £600,000 to £1,200,000, divided into 
60,000 shares of £20. Of these the Blanc family held no 
fewer than 52,000. At the same time M. Camille Blanc, 
the eldest son of M. Francois Blanc, was appointed Chief 
Director of the company. As the success already 
achieved went on increasing with giant strides, it was 
felt that something must be done to prolong the con- 
cession. According to M. Charles Limousin, who seems 
to have been especially well informed in all that 
concerns the principality, a meeting of shareholders 








was held on the 11th of January 1898, and agreed 
to terms which were signed on tlie 16th of January 
by his Excellency, INI. llitt, Governor-General of the 
principality, and by M. Camille Blanc, representing the 
casino shareholders. According to this agreement the 
concession was confirmed for another term of fifty years, 
dating this time from the 1st of April 1898 to the 1st of 
April 1948. But the casino was to contribute on a much 
larger scale to public purposes. P^irst a sum of £400,000 
was to be paid, and at the expiration of the old treaty — that 
is, in 1913— £600,000. Further, a contribution of £200,000 
was to be given towards the construction of the harbour 
so that there should be every convenience for commercial 
navigation and for pleasure yachts. Already the quay to 
tlie west of the port is completed, with a fine break- 
water and lighthouse at the end. Near the beginning of 
the quay a tunnel has been pierced through the rock of 
Monaco so that trains can be run close up to the ship- 
ping. The new breakwater or jetty, which affords a pleas- 
ant and breezy walk, is 510 feet long. That on the other 
side, the casino side, will be of the same length ; it is not 
yet finished, nor are the quays. The latter are intended 
for yachts. The space between the two jetties for the 
ships to enter is 330 feet, and the water at the entrance is 
260 feet deep. The commercial quay is 1290 feet long and 
100 feet broad. The quay on the other side will be of the 
same width, but shorter, and in the middle of it there will 
be a mole about 360 feet long and 100 feet wide. The 
average width of the port is 1350 feet, and the wall of the 
quay on the commercial side descends 22 to 23 feet below 
the surface of the water. It is therefore anticipated that 
large ships will be able to come alongside. 

The casino has not only to contribute to the port ; it 
must also give £24,000 a year towards the engagement 
of the best singers for the twenty-four annual operatic 
performances. This is a subsidy of £1000 for each perform- 
ance. There are further charges for the construction of 
new roads, the upkeep of existing thoroughfares and other 


matters with wliich the comfort of the pubUc is intimately 
concerned. All these charges do not prevent the steady 
increase in the value of the casino shares, now worth 
about ten times their original price. 

While M. Camille Blanc is the Chief Director of the 
financial company that holds the purse-strings, the casino 
itself is governed by a director-general and three directors. 
M. L. JNIaubert is director of what is called " the Interior 
Service." This comprises the games, the commissariat of 
surveillance or police, and the employees. These functions 
are so various, delicate and numerous that this director 
has to remain at his post from the early morning till late 
at night. What can be the advantage in becoming the 
director of so prosperous a business and yet enjoying so 
little leisure is beyond my understanding. In building up 
a business, when success is not yet certain, hard work, and 
even overwork, may be necessary. But success should 
mean leisure — that is, the joy of having time to devote 
to all manner of things that are not associated with 
any sort of sordid, personal interest. In this department 
there are several sub-directors and general inspectors who 
are the intermediaries between the directors and the 
strangers who frequent the casino. These inspectors and 
sub-directors report every day whatever happens in the 

M. A. Martiny is director of what is called the 
Exterior. He is a civil engineer, and his duty is to watch 
over all the works undertaken or assisted by the casino in 
various parts of the principality. He will have, for instance, 
to discuss wdth the Board of Works Department of the 
Government the nature of the new system of drainage 
that must be applied to the principality, and what share 
of this undertaking shall be borne by the casino. IM. J. 
Sereron is at the head of the Financial Department, and 
it is hardly necessary to explain his functions. Finally, last 
but certainly not least, M. Frederic Wicht is the Director- 
General. He attends to every department ; decides what 
should be done when any perplexing question arises, or 














convokes the three other directors to consult with him. 
The four directors together constitute the administrative 
committee. They are more Hkely to meet when a question 
raised in one service may possibly affect the other services ; 
but, apart from such formal gathering, they are in daily 
communication with each other. Their respective offices 
are all in the casino building. 

From one point of view the most important position 
at the casino is held by M. le Direvteur des Jeiuv ; for 
he rules supreme over the gaming-rooms and the gaming- 
tables. His office is just behind the police or commis- 
sioners' department, where all have to apply for admission 
tickets, by the side of the gaming saloons and above 
the doctor's room or surgery. A small, almost invisible, 
door separates him from the nearest roulette-table. At 
his desk any exceptional noise arising in the gaming- 
rooms could be heard, and it would be only a matter 
of a few seconds before the Chief Director appeared to 
decide what had best be done. Nevertheless any sound 
other than the clink of silver and gold, accompanied by 
conversations in moderate tones and the usual announce- 
ments concerning the game, is rarely heard. The order and 
discipline maintained is so perfect that it is very seldom 
anyone ventures to make a disturbance. Sometimes, how- 
ever, a person may be seized with a violent attack of 
hysterical screaming or laughter. In such circumstances 
it is convenient to have the surgery, to which the patient 
is swiftly conveyed, close at hand. The director can be 
promptly summoned if other than medical advice is 
needed. But it is from the opposite side of his office that 
the more numerous calls are made. Here file past all day 
long the applicants for admission, and here is the most 
elaborate system of book-keeping so that " undesirables " 
may be easily detected and summarily expelled. On such 
occasions protests, at times rather vociferous, are apt to be 
made, and then again the chief is there ; out of sight and out 
of hearing, but within a few feet. As all the disputes that 
arise are personal matters, they are delicate and difficult 


to deal with. Much patience, tact and unruffled courtesy 
are needed to settle them in such a manner as to maintain 
the high reputation of the establishment. 

The exclusion of visitors from the casino or the 
refusal to grant admission is a matter that has always 
given rise to much controversy. There is no regular police 
inside the casino, but functionaries called commissaires or 
commissioners. They are under a legal oath, and have the 
right to arrest people, conduct them to the door and hand 
them over to the i-egular police outside. No one, however, 
is thrown out of the casino unless he misbehaves him- 
self. If it is found that some person has gained admission 
who has no business there, it generally suffices to watch 
him carefully till he leaves and then refuse to renew his 
entrance ticket when he presents himself again. The ideal 
principle governing admittances is that no one should 
enter who cannot well afford to lose all the money in his 
pockets. Short of an inquisition into the private affairs 
of every player it is quite impossible to apply such a rule. 
But in any case no one in the neighbourhood is allowed 
to ruin himself All persons established in the principality, 
even if they belong to the liberal professions, such as 
medical practitioners, are vigorously excluded from the 
gaming-rooms. Nor are any inhabitants of the surround- 
ing French Department of the Alpes-Maritimes admitted 
unless they belong to a high-class club. It is not, how- 
ever, with such as these that difficulties arise. Again all 
holders of funds are excluded, however high their position 
may be. For instance, the Public Treasurer for the Alpes- 
]\Iaritimes is not allowed to enter the gaming-rooms. Nor 
are priests or officers in uniform admitted ; and officers 
who do not wear their uniform, but come from neighbour- 
ing French and Italian garrisons, are also excluded. Yet 
all this has been quietly accepted. 

The exclusions from the casino being in a measure 
based on the agreement with the Government, they are 
regularly reported to the authorities. At the commissariat 
of the Government for the surveillance of joint-stock 




companies all such details have to be reported, together 

with the full receipts of these companies. Thus what 

the casino receives and the details concerning the 

people it excludes are as well known to the Government 

as to the directors at the casino. This guarantees the 

public against all limited companies and such enterprises. 

With regard to expulsions, each report made covers a 

period of fifteen days, and in the season some twenty-five 

' to thirty-five expulsions are made in a fortnight. As there 

are so few visitors, comparatively speaking, in the summer 

months, it is less easy for undesirables to escape detection. 

Consequently, proportionately speaking, a larger number 

are excluded. Thus in fifteen days of June 1911 no fewer 

than fourteen persons were excluded, or nearly half the 

number usually expelled during the most crowded winter 

months. One among tliem was a man of very good 

appearance, who could speak several languages. He 

generally staked two louis at a time, and with imaccount- 

able foolishness always played at the same table. Therefore 

when an exceptional mnnber of bad louis was found at 

this table and not at the other tables it was easy to watch 

the players. The individual in question kept counterfeit 

louis in his ticket pocket and good ones in his waistcoat 

pocket. He staked two at a time so as to hide the bad 

under the good. \Vhen questioned, he of course displayed 

the good money, but the coDuiiissairc who arrested him 

insisted on looking into the other pocket. Though the 

player liad given a false name, his real name and history 

were ascertained through the anthropometric bureau. 

Looking over lists of persons excluded we find that 
the most frequent cause assigned for such procedure is " ini 
pn.s (le /iioi/cits," or '' cpuration." A considerable number of 
persons loiter about in tlie rooms, and it is difficult to say 
for what purpose. They do not play ; they must have 
satisfied their curiosity as mere visitors. It becomes 
evident that they have not the means to play, and in the 
crowded condition of the rooms it is necessary to make a 
clearance. Persons have been excluded for threatening to 


commit suicide or for getting too excited and making a 
noise. Others are sent away because they have given a 
false name. Others again are reported by the poHce as 
suspicious characters or because they have been expelled 
from a club. The Paris police especially send a full de- 
scription of rogues of various kinds. Then if a person 
claims a stake which is not his he will be watched, and if 
this happens often he is refused further admission to the 
casino. One man was excluded for picking up from the 
floor and keeping a louis which obviously did not belong 
to him ; another because he frequented the company of 
a band of German swindlers ; yet another because he 
had been formerly convicted for theft. One individual was 
accused of possessing a cardboard louis, which seems 
innocent enough, for surely it would be impossible to play 
with a piece of cardboard, whatever its shape and colour. 
Another had seventeen coins bearing the head of Ferdinand 
II. ; they were all perfectly good and sound, but such 
coins are no longer current. Suspicion was excited in his 
case because he persisted in speaking English but with a 
German accent. 

" Rrpresentant de Commerce " — that is to say, " com- 
mercial traveller " or agent — is frequently inscribed in the 
reports as the reason for refusing to renew an admission 
card. The administration fears thatpersons who have money 
which does not belong to them may attempt to win back 
their own losses with it. This anxiety about those who may 
play with their employers' money adds a shade of proba- 
bility to the incredible but amusing anecdote told con- 
cerning the captain of a German ironclad anchored at 
V-^illefranche. This officer, so the story goes, lost not only 
his money but also the money with which he was to pay 
his crew. He thereupon simply but firmly demanded of 
the directors that they should give it back. If not, he would 
bring his ship round and bombard the casino. As an 
officer and a gentleman, he could not survive the exposure 
which was sure to follow if the money were not returned ; 
but to save others from the same fate he might just as 


well blow up the casino first. There would be time enough 
afterwards for him to blow out his own brains. 

In the face of the Ciipenick imposture, which is no 
legend but a true story, there can be no doubt that such a 
command, howev^er preposterous, would be strictly obeyed. 
It will not be forgotten that at Ciipenick an individual 
dressed himself as a captain and ordered some soldiers to 
arrest the mayor and the members of the municipality of 
that little town. They were to hand over to him tlie muni- 
cipal cash-box, which, together with the accounts, he would 
examine while they took their prisoners to Berlin. \A'^ith 
true military discipline, all these orders were faithfully 
carried out, and it was not until the soldiers reached Berlin 
with their prisoners that the trick was discovered. But 
the most refreshing part of the adventure was the intense 
delight witli which it M'as received by the entire German 
people, and the popularity the " Captain of Ciipenick " at 
once acquired. It will be remembered that among many 
other marks of sympathy showered upon him, several 
ladies wrote letters offering to marry the popular impostor 
as soon as he was liberated from prison. The German 
people converted this notorious case into a national 
manifestation against the absurdity of the unreasoning 
discipline imposed by militarism. But with such unreason- 
ing discipline on board the many ironclads that anchor 
at V^illefranche, the directors of the casino might well 
feel inclined to hesitate before admitting officers to the 

Originally, in the time of Charles III., the idea was 
to maintain what might be termed a sort of buffer state 
between the Government and the casino. There were 
no direct personal dealings between the prince and the 
casino directors. Now this intermediary office has 
developed into something that is undefined but much 
more useful. It is a sort of Board of Trade defending 
public interests against the encroachments of private 
companies. Thus, to affirm the principle of government 
control, its representative has an office at the casino. 


He does not intei'fere with internal affairs or with 
the management, but he overlooks all the official docu- 
ments and sees that efficient measures are taken against 
fire, and that all the laws, rules and ordinances of the 
principality are carried out. For such a post a person of 
unimpeachable honour and high position is necessary. In 
his hands are centred the accounts of all the companies ; 
he can check any illicit proceeding, and he has to know 
down to the last centime all the receipts made by the 

To return, however, to the question of expulsions 
from the casino : as a proof of the admirable manner in 
which the books are kept and of the wonderful memory 
of some of the officials, an interesting incident may be 
mentioned which occurred in the presence of this high 
functionary. One of the reasons frequently given for 
refusing to issue or to renew a card of admission is that 
the applicant is recognised as having on some occasion, 
perhaps many years ago, applied for what is popularly 
called the viatiquc or viaticum — that is, a loan of money 
for travelling expenses on leaving Monte Carlo. Those 
who play with large stakes are watched so that they may 
be known, and this assistance is readily given, should they 
ask for it. Before the war of 1870 a young English 
medical student went to INIonte Carlo, and lost nearly all 
his fortune, about £1000. He was obliged to apply for the 
viatiquc to enable him to reach home. Subsequently he 
went to Australia, and made a large fortune. Four or five 
years ago he returned to Europe and went to JNIonte 
Carlo. He had quite forgotten the little loan he had never 
refunded. Not so M. Clement, one of the sub-directors of 
the games. Though nearly forty years had elapsed he 
recognised the erstwhile medical student. The Govern- 
ment representative, present at the time, assures me that 
the receipt signed in 1870 was found in less than ten 
minutes. Of course the wealthy Australian did not demur 
for a moment to repaying the money he owed, but, on the 
contrary, was delighted at being found out so quickly, and 


overwhelmed with admiration for the wonderful organisa- 
tion of the casino police. One or two of the employees 
have been forty-five years in the service, and several 
thirty-five years, ^'^ery little escapes notice, and those who 
go to the principality are better known and better watched 
than if they were in any other part of the world. 

Of course the Government control is very useful in 
collecting the necessary materials for the drawing up 
of official statistics. But for such a control, the figures 
given concerning the various enterprises carried out in the 
principality and the nationality of the shareholders would 
be difficult to obtain. Naturally the greatest interest is felt 
in the prosperity of the casino, and the figures generally 
tell of increased success. Thus last year the gross receipts 
exceeded 39,000,000 francs but did not quite reach the 
round figure of 40,000,000, or £l,GOO,000. But this 
year — that is, the administrative year ending the 31st of 
March 1912 — the receipts amount to 44,000,000 francs 
(£1,760,000). Of this sum, 40,500,000 francs (£1,620,000) 
comes from the gaming-tables, and the rest from the 
theatre, the gas, the Condamine laundry, which still 
belong to the casino, with £24,000 paid for the privilege 
of frequenting the reserved or private part of the casino. 
Though these are enormous receipts it must not be 
imagined that the bank, as it is called when talking of 
roulette or trente-et-quarante, wins eveiy day. We have 
seen that in a year it has won £1,620,000 more than it 
has lost, but it loses sometimes. To lose £4000 in a day 
is quite a common experience. The highest loss the bank — 
that is, the casino — has ever experienced in one day is, in 
round figures, £16,000. But it is on record that in the course 
of two or three especially unlucky days the casino lost 
£32,000. On the other hand, the zero helping, the bank 
usually wins, and when especially fortunate its winnings 
are larger than those of the public. While the highest 
record credits the public with having won in a single day 
£16,000, there exists in the history of the casino the record 
of a day when it is credited in the Government accounts 


with having won £36,000. That is the largest profit 
reaUsed in one day since the casino has been in existence. 
Thus does the Government control the casino, taking 
very great care to know all that goes on, so that these 
huge receipts shall not be made without giving the public 
some share in them. 



TO superintend and manage all the tables, and con- 
trol the crowds that gather round them, is a gigantic 
undertaking. Few persons realise the amount of ad- 
ministrative and organising skill that is necessary. It is true 
that the enormous staff required was gradually recruited. 
The casino has grown rapidly, but step by step, so that 
more and more experience was acquired as the establish- 
ment increased in size. To-day, however, to manage the 
tables and to watch, many hundred persons are employed. 
The exact figure in the height of the season of 1910-1911 
was 530, and during 1911-1912 there were a few less — 
namely, 525. Some of these employees are only engaged 
for four months, others for seven months, and the rest all 
the year round. There are many more applicants for these 
posts than there are vacancies. The position has the 
advantage of regular employment with the prospect of 
a pension. As far as possible, the preference is given to 
those who are already employed by the casino in some 
other capacity. This affords some sort of guarantee ; they 
are not strangers. Indeed the self-restraint and inherent 
lionesty required is such, that perhaps one of the most 
marvellous things in connection with the casino is the 
very small number of robberies committed. Here we 
have several hundred men doing work which requires 
constant, concentrated attention, though it is not difficult. 
Any pei'son of ordinary intelligence could learn what has 
to be done in a day, if not in a few hours ; yet it must 
require a good many weeks to get into the habit of doing 
this promptly, and without error. Consequently a school 



is occasionally held. Formerly it met in one of the spare 
rooms giv^ing on to the gallery that surrounds the atrium, 
but these are now all required for the ever-increasing staff 
of the administration. In 1909 and 1910 there was no 
school, and previously it was held at the Palais des Beaux 

On one occasion, I was allowed to attend. The chef de 
pa?-tie, anxious to do the honours of the table, presented 
me with a cap full of money. There were real five-franc 
pieces, large and small rouleaux representing 500 francs 
and 1000 francs in gold rolled up in paper, though in 
reality it was only little round pieces of wood that were 
thus carefully packed. Finally there was a bountiful 
provision of bank-notes made of blue paper cut to the 
size of 100-franc, .500-franc, and 1000-franc notes. Being 
thus furnished with ample funds I was invited to play. 
The pupils raked up the money 1 lost, paid me what I 
won; and as, in the circumstances, there was no virtue 
in restraint or moderation, I played most wildly. Unfor- 
tunately, it never occurred to me to count how much 
money I had on starting. Though my cap seemed as full 
when I had finished as when I began, still the question 
of space is not of much importance where bank-notes are 
concerned, so that to this day I have not the slightest 
idea whether, on the whole, I won or lost. One detail 
I vividly remember. At a given moment 1 tried what had 
been described as the Labouchere system, inquiring 
whether the croupiers and their pupils present had ever 
heard of it. They were not only unacquainted with the 
system, but knew nothing about Mr Labouchere. Having 
first expatiated on the renown and the talents of Mr 
I^abouchere, I proceeded to play his system; but my 
eloquence was wasted, for when it was seen that I was 
losing all the time, I fear those present had but a poor 
opinion of Mr Labouchere and all his works. The hearty 
laugh of the chef de partie haunts me still, and makes 
me feel that I made but a sorry show and had better have 
said nothing about the talents of the late editor of Truth. 


Of course there were many persons having a sham 
game of roulette beside myself, otherwise it would not 
have been a sufficient test for the pupils. To constitute an 
effective school it is necessary to have a real table and a 
large crowd of players. One or two chefs dc partie act as 
professors, and in a short time the candidate has acquired 
sufficient skill and knowledge. The slight special technical 
instruction and training necessary must be given by the 
casino authorities themselves. The candidate, as he 
appears before them, is in the position of an unskilled 
worker. On the other hand he must be thoroughly trust- 
worthy, well behaved, obliging and courteous, tidy, clean 
in his habits, simply but well dressed. Such qualifications 
are those of the poor clerk, and these worthy persons are 
"a drug on the market." Therefore the applicants for 
employment in the casino gaming-rooms are not in a 
position to stand out for a higher salary. The fact also 
that they are an international body, recruited from all 
parts of Europe, makes it impossible for them to check 
or control the supply of their particular form of labour. 
On the contrary, their employment is greatly sought 
after, and to be in the service of the casino is con- 
sidered a very enviable privilege. 

So far as the gaming-rooms are concerned, the position 
of the employee is in one respect no longer so advan- 
tageous. Of late the hours of labour have been increased. 
Formerly the hours of attendance at the casino were 
from noon to eleven at night, and the croupiers were on 
duty one day five hours, the next six hours and so on 
alternately. Now the tables are worked from ten in the 
morning till midnight, and the employees have to attend 
seven hours every day, divided into two shifts, one of 
three and the other of four hours. At a private club, the 
croupiers receive tips from the members who win, and 
this constitutes quite a large income. Formerly at Monte 
Carlo the authorities closed their eyes when gratuities were 
given to the croupiers, but subsequently this was forbidden. 
No croupier was allowed to accept anything whatsoever 


from the players ; but to-day gifts are permitted, though 
under certain rather severe conditions. First and foremost, 
players must not give anything to individuals. The 
assistant or sub-chief of the table is alone allowed to take 
a donation, and this he does in a collective sense — that is, 
for all those who are employed at the table. Any employee 
who by word, sign or insinuation seems to ask for a gift 
would be breaking the rules and exposing himself to a 
reprimand, perhaps a penalty. The casino administration 
has always been anxious to prevent social intercourse 
between croupiers and the players. Invitations to meals 
or any sort of hospitality offered to a croupier has always 
been discouraged, and is sanctioned no more to-day than 
in the past. Persons might try and make friends with 
croupiers in order to induce them to co-operate in some 
conspiracy to rob the bank. Perfectly honest, honourable 
kindness might also have a disastrous effect. The croupiers 
cannot aspire to very high salaries. Their occupation gives 
promise of but a modest and unambitious existence. If, 
however, they were occasionally invited by rich visitors to 
luxurious hotels or villas they might become unsettled 
and dissatisfied with their lot in life, and thus tempted to 
some dishonest act. It is considered necessary to keep a 
sharp watch not alone at the tables but generally. In the 
rooms, those who watch, watch everybody and everything, 
not only the croupiers. The administration does not 
suspect them, and does not believe they are at all likely to 
steal anything. It is the outsiders who try to steal. People 
come from all parts of the world in the hope of finding 
an opportunity of stealing. In spite of the elaborate 
precautions taken, some of these rogues sometimes manage 
to gain admission. But if a croupier did steal, the chances 
are that he would not be caught in the act. He is more 
likely to betray himself afterwards by his manner of living 
or by indulging in unwonted pleasures. 

IJndoubtedly there are not many pleasures in store for 
the croupier, and his life at the wheel and at the tables, 
watching the players and ladling out the money, must 


become terribly monotonous. If he is forbidden to make 
friends with any of the players, and compelled to content 
himself with the society of fellow-employees, his lot is not 
likely to be a happy one. In this respect it does appear to 
me that the two administrations of the principality, the 
Government at JNIonaco and the casino at JNIonte Carlo, 
have been very neglectful. They do not seem to have 
considered that those whom they employ require some 
pleasure and some joy in life. This is barely to be obtained 
with the scant wages they earn, unless by some form of 
organit,ation and collective action. To play a game of 
cards or dominoes at a modest cafe is not a very festive 
diversion, and costs a good deal. In England we should 
probably have a club, a workmen's club, at a subscription 
of threepence a week, which would be cheaper than cafes, 
though not conducive to good manners or sobriety. There 
would also be better clubs for those who could afford to 
pay more. Then the various sports provide distraction, but 
at Monaco the sports are organised for the strangers, for 
the visitors, rarely for the inhabitants. 

The one diversion is the band, and it is a good band, 
which plays two or three times a week. But the Place 
d'Armes is small, one of the few damp spots in the 
principality, situated in a sort of a canyon formed by tall 
houses on one side and the rock of INIonaco on the other. 
It is so placed as to afford a passage for the coldest wind 
that ever blows in these favoured resorts. The climate, 
however, is so good that even in this badly selected spot 
it is generally very enjoyable to walk round the band- 
stand, listening to the music. Those who say that Monaco 
is a sink of iniquity where every vice flourishes should go 
and see the people listening to the music. It has been a 
great pleasiu'e to me to attend these performances, and I 
have always been grieved to find that no strangers were 
present. I'he excellent behaviour of the people, the 
absence of any horseplay, the classical beauty of some of 
the women, enhanced by their modest behaviour and very 
simple dress, would set a wholesome example to the 


Monte Carlo crowd. Perhaps that is why so few of the 
strangers at Monte Carlo ever take the ti'ouble to see how 
the people of the principality live. But too much has been 
done for these strangers, and not nearly enough for the 
Monegasques, or those who have become de facto Mone- 
gasques by electing to earn their living in the principality. 
Among these the employees of the casino represent the 
majority. As the population is close upon 20,000, count- 
ing women and children, and the casino employs at least 
3000, who are nearly all adult males, it will be seen that 
not many breadwinners remain to work for other enter- 
prises. Therefore the provision of means of enjoyment, 
which, I plead, should be largely increased, would in the 
main benefit the employees of the casino and their 

First, there is no such thing as a theatre for the princi- 
pality. The people cannot go to the casino theatre ; 
though there is no reason why a popular representation 
should not occasionally be given at the casino. On the 
14th of July, the National Fete Day — the " Independence 
Day " of France, for it is the anniversary of the downfall 
of the Bastille — the Grand Opera and all the theatres are 
thrown open to the public free. Formerly, on the prince's 
birthday, the gaming saloons were open to everyone, 
which was far from being the same thing. But it was not 
merely the people of the principality who profited by this 
free admission. Great crowds arrived from Nice, Menton 
and other places where the inhabitants are strictly for- 
bidden to enter the gaming-rooms. The chance, a unique 
chance in the course of the whole year, of a nibble at 
forbidden fruit brought ever-increasing numbers of curious 
folks, so that the crowd became unmanageable. Therefore 
the casino was closed earlier on the prince's birthday, and 
then earlier still, till at last it was closed altogether. This 
is better, for now there is at least one day of complete 
rest in the year. What was possible twenty years ago is 
out of the question to-day. Naturally, the crowds of 
people were very different from the ordinary players, and 


some of them were rather rough and vulgar. On the other 
hand, very few of them played ; their chief motive in 
coming was mere curiosity. To " see the beasts feed " 
was the main idea. With what sort of amusement did 
these rich foreigners feed themselves ? Perhaps it is as 
well that the wealth-producers should no longer be 
allowed to see, be it only on the prince's birthday, how 
the wealth-consumers scatter the fruits of industry. 

There is a project for enlarging the quay that faces the 
port at the Condamine. The small beach and the shallow 
water might be built over so as to form a broad open 
promenade, much better sheltered than the Place d'Armes, 
with a splendid view of Monaco on one side, jMonte Carlo 
on the other, the port and the sea in front. This situation 
is within easy access of the industrial population of the 
principality, and here they could gather at moments of 
leisure. Room might also be found here for a theatre, and 
there certainly would be plenty of space for marionettes 
or Punch and Judy shows on holidays for the children. 
But ijF the casino has been built at Monte Carlo without 
adding much to the joys and pleasures of the population, 
what can be said of tlie other Imge structui'C, the Ocean- 
ographic Museum at Monaco ? In Paris some 5000 persons 
have asked to hear the popular lectures given at the 
Oceanographic Institute. These are not lectures for 
students, but for workmen, tradesmen, for the people at 
large. What has been done at Monaco for tlie same class 
of people — -the employees of the casino and the trades 
and industries of the principality ? \Vhat would happen, 
for instance, to a grocer's assistant who had some inkling 
that many of the things he sold came from over the seas ; 
or, perhaps, to a labourer employed in the casino gardens 
who vaguely knew that the sea had also its gardens and 
its vegetation ? I^et us suppose that after seeing the high 
and mighty and the ambassadors of great nations take 
part in the inauguration of the Oceanographic Museum, 
one of these humble individuals determined to go and 
inaugurate the museum on his own account. What would 


happen ? His first experience would be that of having 
to pay a franc for entrance. This sum deducted from his 
slender wages would be a consideration. Once inside, 
what help would he find, when help is most needed, just at 
the dawn of intellectual life, when the hesitating spirit does 
not know whether it is worth while to make an effort, or 
whether it is not better to be content with mere stagnant 
existence ? Obviously, popular lectures are needed in 
Monaco as in Paris, and on Sundays the museum must be 
thrown open free to the people. Some competent and, 
above all, some tactful cicerone, to explain and help 
forward those who are willing to learn, should be present 
at such tiines. 

Here is a population of 20,000 people without whose 
labour and industry Monaco and Monte Carlo would have 
been impossibilities. What share have they in the results ? 
They have been paid wages and salaries, very poor salaries, 
especially in the Giovernment employ, but this much they 
must have received even if the casino and the museum 
had been dead failures. What have they received for 
contributing to one of the most stupendous successes ever 
achieved ? In towns that are quite poor better provision 
has been made for the amusement of the people. This 
great and discreditable omission will, I am satisfied, be 
rectified in the near future ; but it is no honour to the 
principality to have delayed so long. 

Unless there are some joys, diversions and pleasures 
within easy access the position for men who are earning, if 
it be a sufficient, nevertheless a very modest income, is 
fraught with tremendous temptations. Doubtless as things 
are under the harsh law of supply and demand the croupiers 
receive perhaps even a little more than their actual 
market value ; but what an atmosphere to live in ! " It 
seems," one of them remarked to me, " as if money had 
lost its value at the casino. We see what to us represents 
a year's salary lost and won with the levity we might 
ourselves display over penny stakes should we have a 
game of cards at home." These men, living in needy 


circumstances, are handling thousands and thousands of 
pounds in gold and notes, but not as the paying clerks at 
a bank handle equally large sums. At a bank there are 
cheques and other written evidence to act as vouchers 
for every transaction. There is nothing of the sort on the 
gambling-tables. The money is raked in and lies in heaps. 
Those who watch may keep some inental count of the 
1000-franc notes, for, after all, they are not so very 
plentiful, and 6000 francs is the roulette maximum of 
what can be staked at a time. The five-franc pieces are too 
big ; and, in any case, are not worth the trouble of 
stealing ; but the small gold piece counts for four times 
as much, and is far easier to deal with by sleight of hand. 
When several hinidred gold pieces have been raked in 
and lie in a heap under the employee's hand it is abso- 
lutely impossible for anyone watching to know exactly 
how much money is there. The gold flows in and out 
so constantly and rapidly that the disajipearance of a few 
pieces must of necessity remain unnoticed. 

Formerly the highest salary that a croupier could hope 
to earn was £12 a month. Now this has been raised to £l7. 
All the services connected with the casino have been 
gradually improved. The change has not taken place 
suddenly, on any one particular day, but during the last 
twenty years there has been a general increase in wages or 
salaries varying from 25 to 33 per cent. From these wages 
nothing is deducted for pensions or sick funds. Formerly 
the administration never abandoned widows or orphans 
of its employees. But there was no rule ; it was merely a 
matter of good feeling. To-day the administration puts 
aside a sum of money yearly to build up a pension fund, 
something on which the employees can rely, apart from 
all good feeling, and which would continue to exist even 
if the casino were closed. As for what is collected at the 
tables, that is an irregular asset. At one table some 
fortunate player may be very generous, at another most 
of the players may lose ; and it is only those who win that 
make presents. It has been proposed to pool all the 


receipts so as to obtain something more like a regular and 
reliable average, but this would need the installation of an 
office, a book-keeper — in fact, a small administration. By 
leaving each table to deal with its own collection-box, the 
division of the money is easily managed, and without any 

Another matter in which the employees are greatly 
concerned, though it does not much affect the croupiers, 
is the terrible overcrowding of the services in the base- 
ment of the casino. There is absolute lack of room. 
Gaming saloons have been added to one another without 
thought of the employees, who also needed rooms. Indeed, 
the growth of the casino has been very like that of the 
prickly pear cactus. A big fat leaf sprouts out of the side 
of another similar leaf. Then there come a second and 
a third, without plan or general design, actuated solely by 
the desire to exist. Apart from the fact that more gaming- 
tables need more croupiers to attend to them, more 
concerts, more theatrical representations, ballets and 
entertainments of all sorts have also to be provided for the 
ever-increasing crowd of visitors. An extra concert-room 
was built in the newest part of the casino, and a small 
band detached to play at the Sporting Club, together with 
another small orchestra to play occasionally in the atrium. 
While all this was done, and done somewhat eagerly, no 
one seemed to consider that the increased contingent of 
singers and actors, musicians and dancers needed some 
place to dress and to wait in till it was their turn to 
perform. Then there are the rehearsals, ever increasing in 
number and in frequency. These again were to a large 
extent forgotten, so that to-day the congestion of the 
services has become intolerable. Everyone concerned 
admits that something must be done, and done at once. 

Of course all this should have been carefully thought 
out as the new wings were one by one added to the 
casino. To make up for the deficiency, it is now proposed 
to utilise the space between the far end of the casino and 
the side and back of the Cafe de Paris. The slope of the 


hill might be bridged over, and underneath offices built 
that would be on the same level as the basement of the 
casino, thus providing the room needed for the various 
services. This would also give more space for the venti- 
lating air-shafts, mixing-chambers, etc. For the moment, 
the crowding below the casino is appalling, and the 
heat at times beyond endin-ance. The people employed 
are thus exposed to the risk of catching cold and of being 
unable to perform the work for which they are engaged. 
This is another example of the evil of too much success. 
Things get out of hand and out of joint. All concerned 
are overwhelmed with work. There is no opportunity for 
relaxation. Yet in spite of all the hurry, stress, strain and 
effort blunders are made and very important matters 
forgotten. Managers, organisers, directors, might one and 
all have had happier lives if less successful, but they could 
not check the rising tide of popularity. 



NEEDLESS to say, by reason of his long personal 
experience, the director who governs the gaming- 
rooms is probably the greatest living technical 
authority on the games played at Monte Carlo. He is, 
for example, one of those very rare persons who pro- 
fess themselves to have solved the problem as to what 
is really the advantage that the bank obtains from the 
refait in trcnte-et-quarante. The peculiar feature of this 
problem is that no one seems to know how it can be 
worked out, and doubtless those who have considered 
the matter will be somewhat incredulous regarding the 
methods employed by the director. But the advantage 
of consulting a person in such a position, is that although 
his methods of calculation may be theoretically incor- 
rect, we can nevertheless place the most implicit re- 
liance on his statement as to the result. Such absolute 
confidence is justifiable because it is not based merely 
upon a mathematical theory, but is the outcome of years 
of personal experience : experience of tables and of actual 
play that is unequalled in the world's history. Such an 
opinion, based upon this conclusive practical test, coin- 
cides with the opinion of the great majority of players. 
It agrees that the refait at trente-et-quaranie is not 
quite so advantageous to the bank as the zero at roulette. 
By this time the casino authorities must be well aware 
which of the two games brings them the greater profit. 
Therefore if the player can afford to play in gold, and is 
content with the simple chance, he will find that the 
brokerage charged for playing is a little less at trente-et- 



quarantc than at roulette. The greatest advantage, 
however, appears to be for those who stake 1000 -franc or 
500-franc notes, insuring them against the refait. The rate 
of insurance is only 10 francs for 1000 francs, or 1 per 
cent. ; but it should be two or three francs more per 
1000 francs. Very few players, however, pause to make 
these calculations. If gamblers carefully calculated, neither 
the refuit nor the zero would suffice to produce the 
enormous fortune the casino represents. Another proof 
of how little heed is paid to such considerations is the 
fact that trente-et -guar ante does not attract so many 
people. In the height of the season of 1912, there were 
seventeen I'oulette and only six trente-et-quarante tables 
in the casino. There were also three more tables at the 
Sporting Club, and these latter are kept going till four 
in the morning. In answer to my protests, I was told 
some persons conceive that enjoyment is impossible in 
the daytime and that it is commonplace, almost vulgar, 
to get up before lunch. The casino seems to think it is 
bound to cater for all these aberrations. This was not so 
always. Once upon a time Monaco professed to be a health 
resort. When people said it was very imhealthy to go 
into the overheated and unventilated gaming-rooms, the 
answer was that the casino closed early and then there 
was absolutely nothing to do but to go to bed, which was 
a very good thing for everybody, but especially for the 
delicate. To-day a few foolish persons have decreed 
otherwise, and the casino doubtless thinks wisely that 
those who are weak enough to yield to such silly fashions 
will be weak enough to lose their money. The pity of it 
is that the poor croupiers and the club servants have to 
sit up in this unwholesome manner to wait on the folly of 
such people. 

One of the most trying and humiliating conditions of 
this employment is that employees may sometimes im- 
agine they are suspected more or less of theft. There has 
been, of course, especially in the past, a good deal of pilfer- 
ing, and the process of sifting the honest from the dishonest 


required time. But many of the stories of this thievery 
are obvious exaggerations. For instance, it has been 
seriously stated, and in print, that special waistcoats and 
boots were manufactured for the employees with crafty 
contrivances for the concealment and storing of stolen 
•20-franc pieces. However, without any such thieves' 
pockets, better fitted to betray the wearer than to assist 
his peculations, it is impossible entirely to remove oppor- 
tunities for dishonesty. One cannot, for example, forbid 
an employee to rub or scratch the back of his neck. Yet 
this simple and ordinary action may enable him safely 
to slip a gold piece under his collar and down his back. 
The detection of such small thefts is so difficult that the 
best precaution, as already stated, is to watch the employees 
after they have left the casino. This is one reason why 
such a large nuinber of persons is employed outside the 
principality. Their mission is to shadow not only the 
doubtful characters who frequent the casino while living 
at Nice, Menton and elsewhere, but also the employees 
who visit these places M^hen off duty. If they were found 
to spend more money than their visible means appeared 
to justify there would be reason to suspect that they had 
discovered some method of robbing the bank. Dropping 
20-franc pieces down the back was at one time a trick of 
constant occurrence. 

In discussing these and similar practices with M. 
Maubert. whom 1 had the good fortune to meet, the 
director became quite enthusiastic concerning the wonder- 
ful honesty of the croupiers. Recently three of them had 
been detected and dismissed for stealing. But what was 
that ? There were 530 such employees, it was only a half 
per cent. Where, in the midst of similar and constant 
temptation, would only a half per cent, of black sheep 
be found ? Without actually stealing, some of the em- 
ployees might pretend that they were able to influence 
the wheel. If they found a dupe who was ignorant enough 
to believe them, and fortunate enough to win, they might 
expect and receive a gratuity. But it is obvious that 


this could not be done often, as most persons know it is 
quite impossible to influence the wheel. It is a fraud to 
make any such pretence, and if an employee were found 
out in an attempt so to impose on a player he would be 
instantly dismissed. 

As M. Maubert talked upon this topic I could not 
help recalling the oft-told story of the pinch of snuff. In 
that case the employee was quite innocent : he did not 
know that his pinch of snufF was being used by clever 
swindlers to make money. They induced greenhorns to 
stake on red by asserting that the employee was their 
confederate, and that his taking a pinch of snufF was the 
signal agreed upon to indicate that the wheel would be 
so twisted as to cause the marble to fall in red. If red 
did win, the impostors claimed a large share in the profits, 
which was rarely refused : if the marble preferred black 
they proinptly disappeared. 

There also came to my mind another story which has 
been related in nearly all the books and most of the articles 
published upon this subject. Here, an employee who dealt 
out the cards at tre nte-et-quarante had a prepared pack 
skilfully passed to him under a bank-note. His colleagues 
thereupon played the maximum, and won every time. If 
they had been more prudent and less avaricious they would 
have contrived to lose now and then in order not to 
awaken suspicion. As it was, their extraordinary and 
inexplicable luck so impressed the chef cle partie that he 
stopped the game and counted the cards. The trick was 
at once discovered, and the employee who had received 
the prepared pack promptly arrested. But his accomplices 
had ainple time to escape with their winnings. It 
is said that a grocer at Nice supplied 70,000 francs for 
the carrying out of this plot. Three others, one of them 
the owner of a cafe at Nice, divided the grocer's money, 
and it was arranged that they should stake the maximum 
of 12,000 francs as soon as the signal was given. Though the 
trick was discovered before all the prepared cards had been 
utilised, the conspirators are believed to have netted close 


upon half-a-millioii francs. M. Maubert was somewhat 
reticent when I referred to this well-known story. He did 
not deny that something of the sort had occurred, but 
he could not remember what fate had befallen the un- 
faithful employee. The point was that prepared cards could 
only be used when, as in this case, the croupier who dealt 
them out was himself one of the conspirators ; but then 
he could not escape detection, and no one would take part 
in a robbery if he were absolutely certain of being arrested. 
As a matter of fact, however (according to one version 
of the tale), the conspirators attempted to take away by 
leger de mains as many cards as they had brought with 
them, but they had not got back the full number when 
the game was suddenly stopped. Had this been done, 
counting the cards would not have proved anything. In 
any case such is the version given in an anonymous and 
scurrilous book written by a person who professes to have 
been a police detective in the employ of the casino. 

As many discreditable stories given by this ex- 
policeman are constantly reappearing in slightly modified 
garb, and sometimes in respectable publications, I 
inquired why some answer was not made. M. JNIaubert 
said there was a police detective who had been dismissed 
a good many years ago. But as a rule attacks and 
scurrilous stories were allowed to pass unnoticed. It was 
not necessary, he added, with a smile, to point out that 
the casino had ample means of replying. But the casino 
was like Caesar's wife, and, being above suspicion or 
reproach, it might be a degradation to attempt any 
defence. Besides, these attacks generally defeated their 
own ends. There had been insulting hoardings put up at 
Nice. The casino could have got rid of these by other 
than the childish device of throwing sulphuric acid over 
them as the ex-policeman in question professed to have 
done. He also pretended there had been negotiations with 
the anarchists to prevent them from blowing up the 
casino. This, too, was pure romance, on a par with the 
legend of bombs that were supposed to explode under 


the i-oulette- table when anyone won too much ! The 
only thing, M. Maubert went on to say, that had really 
taken place, happened some years ago. A man had 
placed liis hat on a mantelpiece. There was a petard hid 
inside, and when it burst it made a very alarming noise, 
but no one was injured. 

To-day the attacks made against the casino had 
generally a double meaning. There had recently appeared 
a pamphlet entitled " On vole a Monte Carlo." The exact 
equivalent of on does not exist in the English language. 
It means anyone or everyone, and is so delightfully vague 
that it is a very safe term to use. Thus this title might be 
translated, "They rob at Monte Carlo." Most persons 
would imagine that the author of the pamphlet was 
accusing the Monte Carlo casino of stealing. If, however, 
the casino made a complaint it could easily be proved that 
there were pickpockets and other thieves at Monte 
Carlo, and that nothing had been said against the honour 
of the casino or its management. Blackmailing and thiev- 
ing was all on the other side. From all parts of the world 
people came in the hope of plundering the bank at Monte 
Carlo ; but M. Maubert agreed with me when I pointed 
out that the cases when an unfair or fraudulent advantage 
was obtained over the bank must be very few, otherwise 
it would not be necessary to dish up over and over again 
the same stories in the different books and newspaper 
articles that appeared. 

Putting aside, however, the question of plots and 
conspiracies, or deliberate attempts at robbery which all 
experience proves are as rare as they are impracticable, 
the most serious point, that which does exercise the minds 
of some quite reasonable persons, is whether the wheel at 
roulette may be so turned or the marble so thrown as 
at least jiartially to influence the result. For instance, is 
it possible to make the marble fall more often in one half 
than in the otlier half of the wheel ? Indeed, the popularity 
of playing on Ics vuiiins indicates that the public; does 
imagine that the marble is likely to fall again in the same 


part of the wheel, for the croupier may use exactly the 
same amount of force the next time he throws the marble. 
M. Maubert, however, was very positive as to the absolute 
reliability and mechanical precision of the instrument. All 
the stories about pinching the partitions and playing to 
the defect so caused were mere nonsense, and he invited 
me to examine the roulette myself and see if there was 
anything that could be squeezed or so altered as to enable 
a player to win. One man, he argued, may make the 
wheel go round more often than another, but the result is 
equally uncertain in either case. Still, I urged that by dint 
of repeating the same movement it might be rendered so 
liabitual that each man would develop individual char- 
acteristics producing results in accordance with his special 
idiosyncrasies. In a general sense the action of walking is 
the same for all ; yet the wear of our boot-soles shows 
emphatically that there are considerable differences in our 
manner of walking. Some of the casino employees turn 
the roulette-wheel almost as often as they take steps in 
walking. Just as they tread over their heels or wear their 
soles in a particular way, may they not hit one side of the 
wheel more frequently than the other ? 

This, apparently, was a new argument, for INlaubert 
did not answer at once, but proceeded to examine the 
heels of his own boots, and then was delighted to find 
that my heels were damaged in the same way as his 
own. After that he stood up and pressed his feet on the 
floor, and, having sat down again, concluded that, in spite 
of the delicate anatomy of the human foot, my com- 
parison with the wear of our boot-soles was far too rough 
to apply to so well-balanced and precise an instrument as 
the roulette. Of course the arm might be as strong as the 
leg, so that the muscular force expended in the first 
impulse might be as great, and might likewise differ 
widely with each individual. But that would only govern 
the number of times the wheel and the marble went 
round and not the termination — that is, when, where and 
how the marble and the wheel stop. Practical tests, 


however, are more convincing than words, and if I would 
come on the morrow half-an-hour before the doors were 
open to the pubhc I could not only examine the tables 
for mj^self but see how carefully they were tested each 
day before the play began. For this purpose no fewer 
than four different functionaries are appointed. There 
must be present a representative of the engineering 
department, a representative of the ai-chitectural depart- 
ment, a controller from the cleaning department, and a 
sub-director of the games. 

On the morrow, when all these functionaries had 
gathered, and M. Maubert and myself were ready, to- 
gether with several attendants, one of them carrying a 
lantern, we penetrated the silent, vast, empty gaming- 
rooms. It was a strange experience, and reminded me of 
the search made at Westminster under the Houses of 
Parliament before the opening of a new session, for fear 
there might be concealed somewhere a second edition of 
Guy Fawkes. The most important part of the inspection 
is to make certain that the wheels are on a perfect level, 
though it is difficult to see how the level can be disturbed 
short of an earthquake. Thei'e is an arched brass frame 
that fits precisely across the wheel while bridging over 
its handle. In the centre of this instrument there is a 
spirit level, and thus every wheel is tested every day. 
Obviously, if the level were not absolute and the wheel 
tilted to one side this might influence the result. Still 
further to secure the stability and true level of the wheel 
it is not put on the roulette-table at all. Certainly it 
seems to be part and parcel of the table ; as a matter of 
fact there is nothing in the middle of the table but a big 
round hole. In this hole is fitted an entirely separate case 
or table, which is made of bronze or gun-metal : this 
latter is firmly fixed to the floor independently of the 
large wooden table by which it is surrounded. This 
wooden table is also very strong and solid, and firmly 
riveted to the floor, for the players in their excitement 
are apt to push or lean against it somewhat violently. No 


shaking, however, of the table can affect the wheel, 
because it is on a different and an immensely heavy stand. 
The inner metal table that holds the wheel is beyond the 
reach of the public. It is hedged round by the cagnottes 
or cases that hold the money, and protected on each side 
by three croupiers. Thus it is absolutely out of the reach 
of the players sitting or standing round the tables ; 
though it is difficult to see what they could do even if 
the wheel were nearer at hand. 

After the question of securing a perfect level comes 
that of the pivot. In the centre and under the wheel there 
is a metallic tube about four inches long and one inch in 
diameter. This is the pivot or axle fitting into the rising 
centre of the wheel. The latter is flat underneath and 
arched above. Thus there is much more space in the 
centre than at the edges. It is of course in the middle 
of this, the thickest part, that the pivot is introduced. 
To receive this pivot there is the metallic tubing and 
the top inside is convex. On the other hand, the pivot 
at its summit is concave. Thus where the two meet there 
is a sort of cup-and-saucer effect, and that is the most 
delicate and fragile part of the whole apparatus. The 
fit of the pivot into the centre of the wheel must be 
perfect, and it must be kept well oiled and thoroughly 
clean. The little point that enters the concave part of 
the pivot has also to be watched, and replaced if it shows 
any sign of wear. It was not without a certain emotion 
that I saw these wheels lifted out of the gun-metal tables 
on which they rest. The millions of money that had 
changed hands at the bidding of this simple mechanism 
confers a strange interest on these veritable wheels of 
fortune. How many persons have thought and puzzled 
and wondered how to induce them to turn to their own 
advantage ; and here was the whole thing before me, 
inside and outside, all made plain and visible. There 
was nothing concealed and nothing to conceal. I was 
welcome to touch, feel, move, lift, examine outside, 
inside or below, anything I chose and verify for myself 





if it were possible in any way to tamper with the 

Nor was this all. Even the drawings made for the 
constructors of the roulettes were placed at my dis- 
posal. They used to be made at Strasbourg, but now 
they are manufactured in France. The drawing here 
reproduced gives a section of the wheel just lifted out and 
held above the well. Arrows marked A show the little 
point and the convex indenture which it enters and where 
it turns. The shading indicates the material used for the 
different parts. The point is of chromated steel. Other 
similar points are kept ready at hand to replace those in 
use as soon as they show any sign of wear. Also it is just 
conceivable that, if a very violent shock was given to the 
wheel, the point might break. On one occasion a point, 
probably because there was a flaw in tlie metal, did break, 
and made a slight noise in the cylinder. The game was 
at once stopped. The wheel was lifted off, a new point 
adjusted and everything put in order before the play Avas 
renewed. The most likely or frequent damage is done 
to the table, not to the cylinder or wheel. The sectional 
drawing as well as the observations made above explain 
that the table is a separate structure. The green cloth with 
which it is covered and on which the players stake their 
money wears out and is occasionally torn, but it is very 
rare anything happens to the wheel. The level, so carefully 
tested every day, hardly ever changes, especially now that 
the table which holds the roulette is made of gun-metal. 
But even if the level were uneven it would only influence 
the side where the marble fell into the wheel and not the 
part of the wheel into which it fell. The chances would 
remain the same. As a matter of fact the tables are 
inspected mainly for cleaning piu'poses and to see that 
they have not been tampered with during the night. The 
daily ceremony also inspires confidence among the playei's, 
and this is perhaps necessary, considering the reckless, 
thoughtless talk that is too often heard. For instance, it 
has been said that the result might be controlled by 


electricity ; but the bronze with which the table is made 
is a non-conductor, and of greater importance is the fact 
that the marble, that must be loose, that cannot be 
connected with anything, is of ivory, on which electricity 
has no action whatsoever. Everything is foreseen and so 
watched that accidents are most improbable. Even the 
lozenge-shaped obstacles are touched every day to make 
sure that they remain firmly affixed. 

A story has been told of a man who succeeded in 
hiding himself under one of the divans of the casino 
until everyone had left. According to another version of 
the same story, he did not hide, but got in at night 
through a window that was not properly closed. These 
stories are all so old that in the course of ages their 
details begin to vary. But the important point is that, 
being alone in the gaming-rooms, he went to a roulette- 
table and pinched some of the partitions so that it would 
be more difficult for the marble to enter between those 
thus rendered smaller. Having created this defect in the 
wheel, and having also succeeded in getting out of the 
gaming-rooms without being detected, he returned next 
day and made a large amount by staking on the numbers 
facing the partitions he had not squeezed and rendered 
narrower. This story may seem fairly plausible to those 
who have had no opportunity of examining the wheel 
closely. The first thing I did was to take two of these 
very partitions and squeeze them as hard as I could 
between my thumb and forefinger. In this practical 
manner I was able to convince myself that they were 
far too strong to be moved unless by the use of tools. 
But more important than this difficulty is the fact, not 
realised at a distance, that these partitions are very wide, 
and much wider than the marble. They seemed to me 
more than an inch wide, and care is taken that the 
diameter of the marble shall not exceed two-thirds of 
the space that separates the partitions between which 
it settles. Therefore if it were possible to move some 
of these partitions sufficiently seriously to impede the 


marble when about to fall between them, such alteration 
would be extensive enough to attract attention. Of course 
with a small toy roulette this could be done, because a 
very slight pinch would be enough to make a difference, 
and yet it could not easily be detected. In reality, as 
M. Maubert observed, if such tricks were possible, the 
casino would not exist. 

M. Maubert then proceeded to demonstrate what 
I had not realised before nor heard discussed, yet it 
seems to be far and away the most important factor : 
between the axle or pivot and the partitions whei'e the 
marble ultimately settles the wheel rises up to its centre. 
It is dome-shaped : not a very pointed or cone-shaped 
dome ; on the contrary, a comparatively flat dome, though 
steep enough for the marble to run down very rapidly. 
It consequently requires a pretty strong impulse for the 
marble to run up the sides of this dome-like centre of 
the wheel. The dome in question is made of very smooth, 
highly polished brass, and beautifully and evenly rounded. 
These facts must be taken into consideration, together 
with another important detail. The wheel is placed at the 
bottom of what has often been described as a well. This 
term is an exaggeration. In any case, it is a very shallow 
well, but it is deep enough to give the marble a sufficient 
impetus to run up the brass dome ; the outer edge of this 
so-called well consists of a smooth polished mahogany 
course, round which the marble is sent spinning. After 
a while the force of the impetus fails, the speed of the 
marble slackens, and finally it falls into the wheel. In this, 
however, the marble acquires a new impulse, an impetus 
that is not due to any human hand, but results solely 
from the difference of level between the course it has 
pursued round the upper part of the well and the wheel 
that is at tlie bottom. This running downhill to the 
wheel gives the marble sufficient impetus to clear the 
partition that divides the numbers from each other, and 
run up the smooth surface of tiie dome. What M. Maubert 
desired to demonstrate was that when once the marble 


got on to this smooth brass dome there was an end to 
any possible or conceivable control. 

Dividing the wheel into the four parts of the compass, 
we might imagine that an employee, after years of 
practice, was able to throw the marble in such a manner 
that it would stop and fall into the wheel, we will say 
just opposite the north. This is difficult enough in itself, 
but it would be quite useless unless he had equal control 
over the wheel. That part of the wheel containing the 
number or numbers on which the stakes of confederates 
had been placed would also have to stop just opposite 
the north so as to receive the marble. No one has ever 
been found to do this. " But," said M. Maubert, "do it 
yourself: stop the wheel with your own hand. Hold the 
marble in your own fingers, and let it drop just where 
the number you want is situated, and see what will 
happen." The result was that the marble, acquiring an 
impetus by running down the side of the well, jumped 
over the aperture of the number at which I was aiming 
and ascended the brass dome opposite. When the impetus 
was exhausted it came down again, but at an angle from 
the line of its ascent. On repeating the experiment, I 
found it was impossible to foresee what kind of angle 
this would be. Sometimes it was a right angle, sometimes 
a left angle, sometimes an acute, sometimes an obtuse 
angle. It was never the same. Thus, with the wheel 
perfectly still, holding the marble in my fingers in any 
position in relation to any number I chose, I could never 
make it fall in the particular partition I had selected. The 
moment the marble goes up the brass dome it is absolutely 
impossible to tell how it will come down again. The brass 
impediments round the side of the well, which often 
throw the marble about in an erratic manner, do not 
defeat calculation or skill so completely as this smooth 
shining brass covering. Even if the wheel is controlled, 
even if the marble is controlled and made to fall into a 
selected part of the wheel, the moment the marble begins 
to ascend the central dome all the calculations and skill 


that may have been made and exerted become useless. 
There is no knowing towards which partition on the edge 
of the wheel the marble will descend. 

The examination of the tables takes place between 
nine-thirty and ten o'clock every morning. The lantern, 
of course, is used for looking under the tables, to see 
if all is clean and in order. Here there is a sort of casing 
which serves a double purpose. It holds the empty cash- 
boxes which were employed to bring the money from the 
bank, and will serve to take it back again plus the profits. 
It is also very useful in preventing the pieces of money 
that are constantly dropped from rolling out of reach. 
While the examination proceeds the employees or croupiers 
begin to assemble. The coverings are removed from the 
tables, and finally the heavy cash-boxes, borne along by 
two men holding a handle on each side, are brought in. 
Every roulette-table receives 80,000 francs, or £3200, and 
the trcntc-ct-qnarante tables 150,000 francs, or £6000. 

This money, of course, is taken out of the portable 
cash-boxes, counted out and placed in due order in the 
cagnottes or tills by the side of the wheel in roulette, 
and of the dealer of the cards at trente-et-qnarante. The 
empty cash- box is then sent rattling into the big receptacle 
under the table to await the result of the day's play. How 
often is it taken upstairs back to the bank lighter than 
it came down ? Sometimes this occurs, but not often, or 
there would be no casino. Besides, with the modern 
arrangements it is no longer possible to break the bank 
in the theatrical manner which was the life and joy of the 
former generation when playing at Baden-Baden or 
Wiesbaden. The great Benazet had the dramatic sense. 
He would allow the till to run dry, and permit the players 
to see that this receptacle, which they had so often filled 
with their money, was now empty and its contents in 
their pockets. This, of course, was the signal for every- 
body to go mad, and for neurotic women to indulge in 
the hysteria of excessive joy. The game stopped ; the 
principal winner was carried shoulder high round the 



rooms, and sometimes out into the gardens. It was a 
triumphal procession. The newspapers teemed with details. 
The man who broke the bank rose from obscurity to 
world-wide renown, and the next post brought him 
hundreds of begging letters from distressed people anxious 
to share his winnings. Naturally it all served as an 
excellent advertisement, and any number of people were 
forthwith fired with the ambition to break the bank 

The bank, of course, was never really broken. All that 
happened was the exhaustion of the amount of ready cash 
placed in the till of some one particular table. This occurs 
constantly at JNIonte Carlo, and there are reserves held 
ready, conveniently divided up into silver, gold and bank- 
notes, according to what experience has proved will most 
probably be needed. When at any one of the seventeen 
roulette-tables, or the six trcnte-et-quarante tables the 
supply of money is running short, the chef de partie does 
not wait for the bank to break, but sends for reinforce- 
ments. If it is a roulette bank that shows signals of 
distress it will receive £2000, or .50,000 francs in a few 
minutes. For the trentc-et-quarantc tables, exactly double 
that amount is sent. There is no possibility of breaking 
the banks that can thus be constantly replenished. Even 
at Baden-Baden all that breaking the bank meant was 
that the amount of money taken to start the game had 
proved insufficient. This, M. Maubert said, was constantly 
occurring at Monte Carlo, and hardly a day passed but 
one or other of the tables had to send for more money. 
It would not therefore be practicable to make a great 
demonstration over what happened so frequently. At 
Baden-Baden there were fewer tables and fewer players. 



STRANGE as it may seem, it is nevertheless a fact 
that the number of persons who enter the gaming 
saloons has never been counted in a reliable manner 
till within the last year or two. Nothing is more difficult 
than to get accurate demographical statistics about the 
principality ; yet in their absence it is impossible to 
establish anything approaching a scientific comparison 
with other centres of population. Of course there is a 
natural love for big figures ; they look well on paper. 
The largest of all these figures is that of the number 
of travellers who have booked for the principality. The 
increase from year to year is duly published, and it is 
shown that, for instance, only 314,787 travellers came to 
Monaco in 1879, whereas there were no fewer than 
1,587,130 in 1911. Many of these bookings represent the 
same person coming in every day and going out every 
evening. They only indicate in a very rough manner that 
there was a large increase. The question then arises. How 
has this affected the casino ? But the casino statistics 
were defective exactly in the same way as the railway 
statistics. They simply recorded how many tickets had 
been issued giving access to the gaming saloons. As many 
persons have a fresh ticket every day, others every month, 
this issue of tickets does not show how many different 
individuals enter in the course of the year. These figures, 
like those of the railway tickets, indicate a general 
increase, and that is all. According to this old and de- 
fective system, while in 1904 the number of passengers 
who booked for Monaco was 1,279,232, the number of 


admission cards issued for the gaming saloon was 295,000. 
Thus it might be said that for every four railway tickets 
issued there is one admission given to the casino. But 
both for the railway and the casino it is often the same 
person who comes round and round again, like the troops 
of a stage army. 

The casino authorities have determined to draw up 
absolutely reliable statistics, and this has a double dis- 
advantage ; it is a great deal more trouble, and produces 
much smaller figures, which of course do not look so well. 
They are now counting, not by the number of admission 
cards issued, but by the number of different names 
entered in their books. Thus every card given is checked 
to see if the same person had been admitted already at 
some other period of the year. In this manner duplication 
is prevented. The result is that in the year 1910 there 
were 155,950 different names entered. This seems like 
a considerable falling off from the 295,000 admission 
cards issued in 1904. In reality, it is an increase of 
close upon 50,000 since 1904. The number of cards issued 
in 1910 is 373,000, but it will be seen that more than 
half of them were duplicates. 

The following year — that is, the twelve months from 
the Istof Aprill910tothe31stofMarch 1911— there were 
184,000, and in the year ending the 31st of March 1912 
no less than 197,000 different persons who obtained admis- 
sion cards to the part of the casino reserved for players. It 
is true a few of these only had a look round and came 
away without playing ; but their number is so small that 
it may be omitted. Also it is absolutely impossible to 
know how many really resist the temptation of throwing 
be it but one solitary five-franc piece on the table. Now 
having at last ascertained at least approximatively the num- 
ber of players, we can easily reckon the average loss they 
make. Thus, during the last administrative year, the gross 
receipts from the tables being 40,500,000 francs, we there- 
fore only need divide this by the 197,000 entries to realise 
that the average loss was 205 francs or £8, 4s. per head. 


Therefore each of the players contributed voluntarily for 
the maintenance of the casino, for the dividends of its 
shareholders, for the cost of the Monegasque government, 
for the promotion of art and science — fortunately the 
shareholders do not get all the profits — rather more than 
the average annual taxation levied per head on the in- 
habitants of Great Britain and Ireland to provide for 
all national and local expenditure. Since only foreigners 
are allowed to play, this is indeed taxing the foreigner. 
But why should Englishmen only contribute to the relief 
of the poor and the reduction of taxation when they play 
in France or at Monte Carlo ? Could not the far larger 
amount of gambling in which Englishmen indulge when 
at home be also utilised for such good purposes. 

The casino authorities, as shown by these figures, are 
face to face with a very serious problem. They are too 
successful. This is not a usual complaint, and it may be 
regarded as a fault on the right side ; but it is none the 
less perplexing. Of course, if these visitors could only 
be spread more evenly over the year it would be easy to 
manage, but the enormous majority will persist in coming 
in January and February. In these circumstances the 
management of the gambling saloons becomes a matter 
of great difficulty. During one part of the year they are 
overcrowded and overheated, while at another season the 
visitor is impressed mainly by a sense of emptiness. 
Perhaps there are few things more depressing than to see 
the employees sitting at an empty table, liolding their 
rakes up in the air like signals of distress because they 
have no work to do. Instead of the rush and scramble for 
chairs, one or two persons may be seen looking askance 
at the table. They stand at a distance hesitating, as if too 
timid to go by themselves and be the first to take a seat. 
When scenes of this description become more and more 
frequent, table after table is covered over and definitely 
abandoned until next season. 

To know how to cope with such fluctuations, further 
statistics are needed, and of late a new system has been 


introduced. On four days during the year no one is 
admitted into the gaming saloons without having his 
admission card punched. The cards are only punched 
once, so that the same person returning a second or third 
time is not recorded again. In this manner it was ascer- 
tained that on the 4th of April 1910 the number of 
visitors who entered the gaming saloons amounted to 
5767. During the summer there was no counting, and the 
next statistics were drawn up on the 20th of September 
1910, just at the commencement of the new season. The 
entries for that day numbered 1207. On the 2nd of 
December following, M^hen the season was well launched, 
the cards were again punched, and on that day there were 
2390 entrances. The greatest crowd is at carnival time, 
and the authorities are convinced that during the carnival 
week of 1911 there must have been at least 8000 entries 
in a single day. Perhaps it was because they were so 
numerous and everyone was overworked that no attempt 
was made to secure the positive figures. This was not 
done before the 31st of March 1911, when people were 
beginning to leave and the season was already on the 
wane. Even in these circumstances the highest record was 
obtained, the entries amounting to 6558. This is an 
increase of 791 on the number counted at the correspond- 
ing period of the previous year. On the 4th of April 1911 
the number had further increased to 6500. The autumn 
count was a month earlier in 1911, and on the 29th of 
August that year only 930 different persons entered the 
gaming saloons. In winter there was no count, but on the 
6th of March 1912 there were 9800 different tickets 
punched. This was an increase of half as many more when 
compared with the 6558 of the 31st of March 1911. 

The worst aspect of the situation is that to-day 
quantity rather than quality predominates. This has 
given cause for much reflection, no small alarm and 
anxiety and a great deal of useless regret. After all, the 
development of economic forces is like the tide of the 
sea, it takes but little account of would-be Canutes, even 


if they are casino directors. It is the old battle between 
the first and the third class, between the saloon and the 
steerage, between the orchestra stalls and the pit or the 
gallery. Though the situation is very different, the result 
will be the same. The mass will win ; indeed, it has won 
already. It is true M. Maubert, the directeur des jeux, was 
very careful to impress upon me that there had been no 
falling off" in the number of the high-class frequenters of 
the casino. They came now as in the bright days of yore, 
when, he was fain to confess, their presence was much 
more obvious. But, he promptly continued, they are there 
now, only they are lost in the crowd ; they are not less 
numerous, but they are crowded in the mass of pleasure 
excursionists, of Cooks tourists, of travellers booked 
through by innumerable agencies and syndicates. Again, 
there is the question of the automobile. Formerly, 
people found that it was a long journey, and when they 
reached Monte Carlo they were glad to stop for a month 
at least, and often for a considerably longer period. Now 
they come in their own motor cars and by easy stages, 
and after they have been at Monte Carlo for a week or so, 
they feel as if they must travel farther as they have their 
own automobiles, and it is so easy to go on another stage. 
Thus it is that the casino crowd has quite a different 
aspect. It is not what it was twenty or even ten years 
ago. For one thing, there was no German predominance 
in those days. Here and there a German might be met, 
for Monte Carlo was always a cosmopolitan place, but 
Germans were not more numerous than visitors of other 
nationalitities. To-day, however, imited Europe can 
scarcely cope with them. 

Mr Filson Young, in his remarkable essay on Monte 
Carlo, still considers that all the wealth of the civilised 
world is represented on this spot dining a few months in 
the year. Here it is that " the civilisation of pleasure has 
come to its zenith." The following word painting from 
*' Memory Harbour," one of Mr Filson Young's mmierous 
publications, gives a striking and living picture of the 
casino crowd : — 


" Evening, the grateful cool evening of the South, has 
stolen down from the mountains and hangs fragrantlj^ in 
the darkening sky. The odorous shrubs in the garden send 
out their perfume more persistently ; the dust of the day 
has subsided ; lamps grow amid the flowers ; men and 
women, some of the most lovely of women and the most 
beautifully attired, walk on the spotless pavements as 
though they walked on a lighted stage. The murmur 
of music, melodies of passion and romance, steal from 
violins, out of the cafes and among the trees. There is a 
rustle of feet, a whisper of dresses, a hum of voices. This 
is under the evening sky ; but as you pass under the great 
portals of the Casino and enter the rooms the odour of 
the evening and the perfume of the flowering shrubs fade 
and vanish suddenly like an overture that is ended. The 
lights blaze from the chandeliers on the decorated walls 
and marble floor of the Atrium ; the atmosphere thickens, 
becomes less fragrant, less sparkling, grows heavy and 
overpowering like a drug. Room after room opens before 
you, filled with a throng that flows in and out and moves 
in eddying orbits round the tables. There is something in 
the atmosphere that is strange and compelling ; you realise 
that you are approaching the heart of something, that you 
are coming near the centre of a system of tides and 
currents and influences that has drawn men and women 
from North and South and East and West, from San 
Francisco and from St Petersburg, from the Northern and 
the Southern Seas. You come nearer, pulled as though 
by a magnet, to where the throng is gathered round 
the light and green baize of a table. Its edge is fenced by 
a seated row of men and women, with piles of money 
before them little and big ; with books and diagrams and 
columns of figures ; with faces very intent and a little 
hard. In the middle of the table and at its ends and sides 
sit the stolid croupiers with their rakes and cases of 
money ; and all the time except when the ball is spinning 
and the cards are being dealt, money is being pushed 
about by those rakes, money enough to replenish a 


starving town, to build a bridge or a ship, found a family, 
to reclaim an estate, to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, 
procure from Rome forgiveness of sins, and to buy the 
Kingdom of Heaven.' 

Then again INIr Filson Young alludes to the people 
here as a family of pleasure, that may be the last corrupt 
flower of our civilisation but which has a curious charm 
of its own, adding, " Pleasure is a thing of the surface, 
pain is a thing of the deeps and upon this shimmering 
surface only pleasure flourishes." 

For INlonte Carlo, this may indeed be the whole truth, 
for the principality it is certainly but a half truth. It is 
utterly foreign to the history, the struggle and endeavours 
that will make Monaco long survive in the memory of 
man the glitter and frivolities of Monte Carlo. It is to be 
hoped that one of these days this gifted writer will go to 
Monaco and find that he possesses the temperament to 
enter its charmed world, to breathe its atmosphere and 
live its life as he did that of Monte Carlo. Extremes meet, 
therefore this is perhaps not impossible. 

Sometimes it even happens that offshoots from 
Monaco are found at Monte Carlo and within the pre- 
cincts of the casino itself. This certainly never occurs in 
the gaming-rooms, but in the atrium groups are formed, 
conversations held by persons whose ability and achiexe- 
ments must command respect. It may seem incredible 
to some, but in these groups any conversation about 
roulette or trente-et-quarante is severely ostracised. 
Indeed there are circles in the principality where talk con- 
cerning these games is considered bad form, just as if in 
a London drawing-room someone were to extol the charm 
of getting drunk and propose to discuss the pleasantest 
forms of intoxication. When speaking with people of this 
stamp, useful information and ideas may be obtained. 
Thus, during a discussion of this description in which 
an able barrister who is a leading member of the French 
colony took part, the question of the political bearing of 


the casino crowd was raised. As the visitors increased in 
number, and changed in character, what was hkely to be 
the pohtical upshot ? Without reproducing the observa- 
tions made, I will endeavour to embody the drift of what 
was said on that occasion. While the subject is interesting, 
it will illustrate the style of conversation which, despite 
the gambling and the frivolous character of the majority 
present, may nevertheless be heard even within the pre- 
cincts of the casino. 

It was not until after the Franco-German War of 1870 
that ISIonte Carlo began to acquire its great popularity. 
Looking upon the principality as almost a part of France, 
the Germans did not venture to come till the bitter 
feelings caused by the war had been softened by the lapse 
of time. At first the French, being so near at hand, 
constituted the predominant element among the visitors. 
Then the Italians, as close neighbours, also came. It is 
true they belonged to the Triple Alliance, but this fact 
has never weighed heavily on the French mind. The 
family instinct is stronger than diplomatic combinations ; 
and, whatever governments may say and do, the Latin 
races are natural allies. Thus the Italian was always wel- 
comed at Monte Carlo by the French crowd that 
frequented the casino. Nevertheless the Italians were 
rather timid at first, and only a few ventured. When, 
however, it was found that no accidents occurred, that 
they were not individually held responsible for the Triple 
Alliance, the number of Italian visitors increased. The 
Italian is usually courteous. Some of the Italian women 
were beautiful, and stylishly dressed, so that their coming 
added to the attractions of the casino. Then followed 
another current of immigration which was not so welcome. 
In speaking of the difficulty of getting gardeners, I have 
described the unwillingness of the native to do any heavy 
woi'k. Along the whole of the Riviera, indeed throughout 
the south of France, when any hard work, sucli as navvy's 
work, is required, foreign labour must be imported. Now 
Italy, though a southern country, has extensive mountain- 


ous districts where a very poor but strong race live 
exposed to a rude climate and many hardships. They are 
well capable of doing navvies' and similar hard work, and 
as the principality began to prosper they came in flocks 
to help in cutting roads on the rocky sides of the hills, and 
were useful generally where powei-ful muscles were needed. 
But there soon followed another class of Italians who are 
not so welcome. These are small tradesmen. They opened 
shops, became permanent residents, and in too many 
cases sought to be naturalised as Monegasques. 

The inrush of Italians was so marked that suspicion 
arose. If war did break out again Italy belonged to the 
Triple Alliance, and it might pi'ove very useful to have 
a friendly population in that part of French territory 
where a hostile raid might be attempted. The larger the 
Italian population the greater the temptation to disregard 
the neutrality of Monaco. It would not be the first time 
in history that Italian troops had landed in the historic 
port of Hercules. This feeling of distrust was especially 
emphatic in the eighties. It was even believed that the 
emigration of Italians to the principality had been encour- 
aged for political motives, especially when several medical 
men also arrived as if to give tone and prestige to the 
Italian colony. In the meanwhile the Germans founded 
colonies near at hand, notably at San Remo in Italy, very 
close to the French border. From this vantage ground 
they came over one by one. The fact that the ruling prince 
of Monaco was on intimate terms with the German 
Kaiser made the German tourist think he would surely be 
well received in Monaco. In this assumption he was not 
mistaken. Indeed, even in France there has never been 
any tendency to show resentment toward the individual 
German. But a current of immigration created for a 
military and political purpose is quite another matter. 
Thus it did come about when the German invasion of the 
principality assumed such formidable proportions that it 
was thought diplomatic representations should be made 
reminding the authorities that Monaco was iii France. It 


was even stated that places where Germans congregate to 
drink their favouinte beer remained comparatively empty 
on the days when there were French military manoeuvres 
in the neighbourhood. And it does not tend to inspire 
confidence to discover that such important fortresses as 
those on the summit of Mont Agel were not only built 
to a large extent by Italian labourers, but that some 
Italian officers disguised themselves as labourers so as to 
penetrate inside the fort. 

In the past the fact that Monaco occupied an important 
strategical position was on the whole an advantage. While 
all the neighbouring states desired to possess this port 
they were equally determined to prevent its falUng into 
the hands of a rival state. Tiie princes of Monaco, playing 
off these mutual jealousies one against the other, contrived 
to keep themselves in existence. To-day the position has 
entirely changed. It is only necessary to keep on good 
terms with the French people and their Government. The 
most dangerous thing that could happen would be the 
raising of the cry of " Prussian spy " against the princi- 
pality. It will be understood, therefore, what fears the 
German invasion has engendered. In these circumstances 
it is not surprising to find that many old residents regret 
the days when most of the visitors were either French or 
British. Some of the authorities to whom I spoke on the 
subject sought to minimise the matter by insisting that 
though a great many persons spoke German they were not 
all Germans. There were many Austrians and Swiss from 
the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland, and a few 
from the Balkan principalities who know German better 
than French, so that the German language predominated 
more than the German people. 

Putting aside all political or military considerations, 
there remains the fact that the Germans are not par- 
ticularly distinguished for their elegance of person, dress 
or inanners. Consequently a large crowd of Germans in 
the casino, or parading on the terraces, does not add to 
the beauty and charm of the place. It is true that the 


Germans are always clean, and their clothes, even among 
the poorest classes, in perfect order and repair. They do 
not wear picturesque rags, like some of their Italian allies. 
But the Italian labourer, as he saunters by in his shirt 
sleeves, has affixed a bunch of bright red geraniums to the 
side of his large, torn and battered brigand hat, which 
just makes him a perfect picture. Englishmen, it must be 
admitted, do dress well, though when they get abroad 
they sometimes wear eccentric costumes that are very 
profitable to the Continental caricaturists. Englishwomen 
are sometimes grotesque, often dowdy, occasionally quite 
elegant. The British people, formed out of many races, 
are an uncertain quantity, but they used to be considered 
a genuine acquisition to the casino. Their arrogance was 
overlooked because they paid well. The tradesmen, 
anxious to do business, ingeniously discovered that the 
English were eccentric, and that therefore their impertin- 
encies were to be overlooked. But when the English in a 
railway carriage spread their rugs over seats that do not 
belong to them, frown at anyone who attempts to enter, 
and haughtily refuse to exchange a civil word with a 
fellow-traveller, they are not thought eccentric. The term 
used is less indulgent, and the Englishman himself who 
is an experienced traveller knowing foreign languages 
will take good care to avoid his fellow-countrymen. 
Nevertheless the English were very popular at Monte 
Carlo, but will this popularity survive the advent of the 
cheap trippers, of the Cooks and Cookesses according to 
Pierre Loti's denomination ? If, as Pierre Loti would 
have us believe, they can ruin Egypt and the Temples of 
the Gods even up to the Second Cataract, what could 
they not do at Monte Carlo ? 



THE lover of polemics might raise some very close 
arguments over the question as to what constitutes 
a notable player. Is it some celebrity who plays or 
is it some unknown, insignificant person w^ho contrives 
to play in a remarkable manner ? Undoubtedly the first 
impulse is to watch a grand duke, a member of a royal 
family or a millionaire who may happen to be hovering 
round tlie table ; but his JSIajesty Money is king, and the 
man who wins the most soon eclipses all other attractions. 
The future heir to a throne may be playing at table No. 10, 
but if some totally unknown individual is really about 
to break the bank at table No 17, the majority of 
spectators will prefer to witness such a triumph. So long, 
however, as nothing particular is happening with regard 
to the vicissitudes of the game, the players have a better 
prospect of being considered according to their social 
position than according to their good fortune in playing. 
Nevertlieless it would be difficult to find a spot in Europe 
where less attention is paid to celebrities than in the 
gaming-rooms. The employees and attendants endeavour 
to remember the appearance of distinguished visitors, 
so as to avoid being reproached for want of deference, 
but the general public thinks of little else than the game. 
Yet when once outside the rooms, as the gossip to be 
heard on the terraces or in the atrium clearly indicates, 
considerable interest is manifested concerning the manner 
of playing adopted by well-known persons. 

How many people, for instance, have puzzled over de 
Rothschild's mysterious No. 17. The late INIonsieur Arthur 
de Rothschild was an assiduous roulette-player. Formerly 



he came to Monte Carlo every year in his yacht. 
When he could no longer travel in this manner he came 
in a motor car. M. de Rothschild was among the first 
to travel in a motor car. He had a villa at Monte Carlo, 
and a special garage was constructed for his car. Though 
he stayed several months at Monte Carlo he rarely 
passed a day without trying his luck at roulette. But the 
extraordinary part about it was that he never varied his 
play. He always put his stake on No. 17. If he were fairly 
successful he would play for an hour. If not, he would 
get someone to keep his place and go out to smoke a 
cigar. After a while he returned and resumed the same 
play. The only change he ever allowed himself was 
occasionally to stake on zero, but never on any other 
number. If his ill-luck continued he was apt to lose his 
temper, and finally would jump up in an evident passion. 
On such occasions he would return yet again in the 
evening. Here, then, is a real problem. M. de Rothschild 
cannot be considered a thoughtless gambler. He belonged 
to one of tiie greatest financial families of Europe, and 
had control of millions. What can have induced such a 
man to play at all, and to play in so peculiar a manner ? 
What mysterious connection can there be between the 
house of Rothschild or that one individual member of 
this celebrated family and No. 17. 

There was a Polish gentleman, possessing a beautiful 
villa at Monte Carlo, wlio played in a similar manner ; but 
his favourite number was 32. He would not only place the 
maximum on 32, but still further to increase his stake he 
also put money a chcval and on tlie airrc, which included 
No. 32. It is said that 32 was really a good number for 
him, as he is reputed to have won at least 1,000,000 francs, 
and, what is much more wonderful, he is further credited 
with having kept some (iOO,000 francs. During the season 
of 1911 he hardly played, and seems to have realised that, 
if it is possible to win, it is not possil)le to win always. 
There are many other great financiers who are fond of 
playing at Monte Carlo, but they are not all troubled 


by favourite numbers or special systems. Mr Vanderbilt 
came with all his family, and they all played. There was 
his son, his son-in-law, and their families. None of them 
failed to play, though it did not appear that they had 
studied the chances and prepared any method to cope 
with them. Mr Vanderbilt senior had, however, a peculi- 
arity which somewhat amused the onlookers. He generally 
put a 1000-franc note on a tr-ain^veisale, and then whether 
he won or lost he would run off to another table. In this 
we have the beginning of a system, of a theory. If all 
is pure luck, if there is nothing whatsoever to be done 
to alter the decrees of Fate, why run from table to table ? 
Mr Vanderbilt was no ordinary person, but a man of 
extraordinary acuteness and wide experience in money 
speculations. What could have induced such a brain 
as his to imagine he would be more fortunate if he con- 
stantly changed tables ? There was another American 
gentleman who was very wealthy and used to come to 
Monte Carlo in a yacht. He had an extraordinary faith 
in No. 14 ; but his confidence was misplaced, and he lost 
a great deal. On one occasion he was seen to lose, at 
a single sitting, about £2000, all on No. 14. With regard 
to a favourite though often fatal number there is the old 
and very stale story of Miss Jane Armstrong. 

A book published some ten years ago, obviously for 
blackmailing purposes, relates that this lady was a rich 
orphan from New York who came and played on No. 24, 
and at first won some £800 ; but ultimately she is said 
to have lost £10,000 and thei'eupon to have committed 
suicide. The book in question also published a sensational 
sketch of Miss Armstrong with a big hat, wild eyes, and 
a graceful figure, pointing a revolver at her heart. The 
strange thing is that though this suicide, due to losses on 
No. 24, is said to have taken place in 1881, the melancholy 
story is related anew on every possible occasion, in spite 
of its being more than thirty years old. It appeared once 
in The Looking Glass of the 18th of March 1911, when 
the fancy sketch just mentioned was reproduced, and 


details were given in the following issue of that paper. 
JVie Looking Glass of the 25th of March expresses its 
astonishment that Miss Armstrong could have been 
portrayed in the act of shooting herself when cinemato- 
graph operators were as yet unknown, and adds that she 

" took a fancy to No. St at roulette, possibly because when she first went 
into the rooms it was the number of her restiaire ticket, and she had 
the good fortune to see it come up three times in succession. She won 
20,000 francs in no time, and that was the cause of her ruin. For days 
and days she stuck to No. 24, but wherever she played it would not 
'come up.' She'd walk up to another table just in time to hear the 
croupier call out : — ' Fingt-qualre, noir, pair et passe.' But when she began 
to stake, it would never repeat itself. And after half-an-hour's play, just 
as she was leaving that particular table, up came No 24 ! It was 
maddening — heart-breaking. The more she lost, the more entetee she 
became. After a fortnight's gamble she had lost the greater part of her 
fortune, and became so down-hearted that she shot herself one night 
on returning home." 

The most wonderful part of this story is that such 
minute details should have been remembered and repeated 
from mouth to mouth, from newspaper article to news- 
paper article, and from book to book, for now more than 
thirty years. Such stories must be very scarce for this one 
to be so carefully .stored and so constantly reproduced. 
In any case, Miss Armstrong, by her persistent devotion 
to the number 24, and her dramatic end, is certainly 
entitled to be mentioned among the notable players. 

It must be confessed, however, that some of these 
players are chiefly notable for their extreme foolishness. 
Perhaps one of the best descriptions given of this type 
of person is contributed by " Flic " to Black and White, 
21st March 1911. This writer on "Merry Monte" 
describes the first visit of a lady who 

" is quite the pink of propriety at home, and would no more think of 
backing a horse than of doing a cake-walk down the Strand. The air of 
Monte, however, got into her head, and the gambling fever seized her. 
She simply must have a flutter at the tables. She appealed to an ac(|uaint- 
ance, an old hand at the game, as to how she should go about it. 
' Nothing more sim|)le,'was the reply. 'Take your seat at the table, back 
the number that will turn up, and you will soon win quite a large 



amount ! ' ' Thank you very much indeed,' was the beaming response. 
' How deUghtfuUy easy ; I wish now I had heard of it sooner.' " 

To return to players who are notable apart from any 
peculiarity in their manner of playing, the Grand Duke 
Nicholas of Russia may be mentioned as an assiduous 
frequenter of the tables. He has a peculiarly fanciful way 
of staking his money. Generally he risks from £20 to £40 
at a time, and likes to cover one number in every possible 
way. First he stakes on the number itself, then a c/ieval, 
then on the can-e, the t?'ansversa/e, and so on. On one 
occasion he managed to dispose of forty-seven louis in back- 
ing directly and indirectly one single number. Thus, though 
he may not win often, he has the satisfaction of receiving 
several different payments, and of raking in a very large 
sum when he does win. The Grand Duke Nicholas, how- 
ever, has no favourite number, nor any favourite table. 
When he has placed his money over a number in this 
elaborate manner, he walks off, for he strongly objects 
to seeing the wheel go round and his money being swept 
away. Therefore he goes to the next table or stands at 
a distance, trusting to the cJicfde partie, who will make 
him a sign if he has won. This is easy to do, for the Grand 
Duke Nicholas is so tall that he can be readily distin- 
guished above the crowd. If the Grand Duke loses, he 
may return and stake again at the same table ; but, when 
he wins, he picks his money up and goes off at once, if 
not out of the casino altogether, at least to some other 
table. The Grand Duke Nicholas comes to Monte Carlo 
twice, sometimes three times, in the course of the year. 
He is very courteous, and manages to salute the croupiers 
before the latter have time to recognise and salute him. 
His brother, the Grand Duke Michael, seats himself at the 
end of a table, for he has a prejudice against the middle 
of the table. To please him, the croupiers have to 
remember that he does not like the cylinder to turn 
quickly. It is customary to keep the wheel in motion 
while the players are laying their stakes ; but the Grand 
Duke likes the wheel to turn slowly so that he may more 


easily see in which partition the marble has fallen, and 
which are the neighbouring numbers.' He seems somewhat 
more authoritative in his manner ; but when he perceives 
that attention has been paid to his wishes, and that the 
wheel does not go round too quickly, he does not fail 
to make a sign with his head as an acknowledgment. In 
1910 his father died at Cannes, and since then the Grand 
Duchess, his mother, does not come so often. It is curious 
to note that, in opposition to her son, the Grand Duchess 
prefers to sit near the middle of the table, and she always 
gives her money to one of the croupiers to stake for her. 
The late Grand Duke Serge and the Gi'and Dukes Paul, 
Peter and Alexis, were, every one of them, assiduous 
frequenters of Monte Carlo, and greatly enjoyed playing. 
A long list might be drawn up of royal families who 
have patronised the gaming-tables at Monte Carlo. Indeed, 
if expedition and brevity were the object, the best thing 
to do would be to compile a list of those who have not 
been to Monte Carlo. This would be a very short list. 
It is true that her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, though 
she often drove through the principality, did not visit the 
casino. On the other hand, his late Majesty, King Edward 
VII., when Prince of Wales, was a constant visitor. His 
Majesty was usually accompanied by his private secretary. 
In manner and bearing, the late king passed as a simple, 
unpretending, courteous gentleman. He went into all 
and any of the rooms just as the first-comer might, and 
generally asked one of the attendants to place his stakes 
for him on the table. It is not, however, only future 
kings but reigning sovereigns who come for an occasional 
gamble. The King of the Belgians was so frequent a 
visitor that he bought himself a fine villa and property 
near at hand by the beautiful harbour of Villefranche. 
The late King Oscar of Sweden and his son were 
assiduous patrons of the roulette-tables. The Archdukes 
Ferdinand and Francis of Austria likewise came to Monte 
Carlo, and, among the German visitors. Prince Hohenlohe 
and several members of his family may be noted. Then 


there are pretenders, such as Don James de Bourbon, who 
is never so happy as* when someone in anticipation calls 
him your Highness. He has no special system, but he often 
plays, and is very lucky. Another pretender who, when an 
exile, used to come frequently to IMonte Carlo, did not 
possess the best of teinpers. On one occasion he showed 
his ill-humour by boxing the ears of a croupier. Of course 
there was a great commotion. The prince had to apologise, 
and he also offered 1000 francs as compensation. With 
great dignity the simple croupier accepted the prince's 
apology but refused his money. 

In more recent times INlr Darnborough won widespread 
renown by his extraordinary good luck. Generally he 
played on the eight numbers that were nearest to zero, 
and won in all 2,000,000 francs, or £80,000. Further, he 
is one of those very rare men who, having won a great 
deal, has not returned to play and lost it all. On the 
contrary, he has invested £48,000 in the purchase of an 
annuity, so that the casino authorities, who take care 
to be well informed on such matters, have lost all hope 
of getting the money back. There was, on the other 
hand, a Pole from Warsaw who also won just about 
2,000,000 francs, but he punctually lost them all again. 
Now it seems as if there are some people who cannot 
possibly be saved from their own folly, for this Pole had 
the extraordinary luck to win about 2,000,000 francs 
a second time. It might be thought that having already 
once lost all he had won, he would know, on the second 
occasion, when to stop, but it was not so. He continued 
playing till once again he lost all the 2,000,000 francs of 
his second fortune. 

It is not, however, the notable, especially the wealthy 
players, who are most profitable to the casino. The rich 
man who, out of his large income, risks a few thousand 
pounds every year is of comparatively little benefit to the 
casino. It is true, that one year he may lose all this 
money, but the player is none the worse. Out of next 
year's income he risks a similar sum, and this time his 

THE PLAYERS ^^^^0 win 389 

luck returns and he wins back about as much as he had 
lost. Thus the game continues, and the most the bank can 
hope to win is the percentage, the brokerage, the zero 
represents. As this amounts to only 1| per cent, on 
the simple chance at roulette and a little less at 
trente-et-quarante, a player who only risks his super- 
fluous cash may continue playing for many years. The 
position stands thus : is it worth while losing, on 
an av^erage, £51, 6s. 8d. for the pleasure of winning 
£48, 13s. 4.d. ? 

Speaking to one of the assistant- or sub-directors 
who has been in the employ of the casino since the 
Homburg days, he expressed his conviction that the 
players with only a little inoney brought the most profit 
to the bank. They could make no fight of it ; and as they 
were never content with a small profit, something pro- 
portionate to the small capital they brought, they were 
bound to go under. Then they could not afford to come 
again the next year and win it all back, as the rich people 
did. With regard to the poor people, who toiled very 
hard, working out some system by which they made, with 
some approach to certainty, perhaps twenty francs a day, 
they might, and indeed did, live on the bank for many 
years. Yet the day comes when they give it all back. 
Nevertheless he agreed with me that the bank depended 
on the folly of the player far more than on the zero. If 
every person who won stopped playing after losing 50 
per cent, of his winnings, the casino could not exist. But 
those who keep what they gain are almost unknown. 
After all these years of experience it was evident that, 
on the whole, the public must lose. Some system might 
succeed for a while, but there was no certain method, 
otherwise it would have been discovered and applied long 
ago. By far the most notable player was the player 
who carried away his winnings and did not return to lose 
them all. 

Well worthy of being mentioned among notable 
players are those pathetic women, wives or sweethearts, 


who seek to redeem the lost fortunes of their husbands 
or lovers. The inost wonderful and cheering thing about 
it is that they are sometimes successful. The American 
paper. The Sun, of 23rd October 1910, is responsible for 
the following story : — 

" Yet if the poisoned atmosphere makes sirens, it also brings out 
traits of womanly devotion. What of the touching and romantic story of 
Suzanne Bernnatzki, who became infatuated with the young Count X, 
a confirmed gambler? l3 -i 

" Count X had gambled away his family fortune, though no one but 
Suzanne knew how near he must be to the crash. Only certain funds 
which amounted to a trust were at his call. One afternoon Suzanne 
discovered that he had sent for the money — and was on his way to play 
it. She hastened to the Casino, found him at roulette No. 3, and watched 
him at a distance. 

'•' He was losing, already embarked on the stubborn man's system of 
' betting against the bank's game,' and forcing his luck. Suzanne knew 
better. She dived into her purse satchel and fetched out three 100- 
franc notes. Without any particular plan she begged a gentleman in 
front to place them on the red and they won for her, just as her lover 
at the other end of the table had lost 300 francs on black. 

" Someone made room for her. She took a seat just as the young 
Count bet 600 francs between the first and second columns. ' They'll 
both lose,' an intuition told her, so she quickly slapped 300 francs on 
the remaining one. Click ! She raked in 600 francs — the 600 that he was 
losing ! And the luminous idea pursued her. So long as her stakes held 
out she would bet against her lover. Should she lose it would not matter 
— he would be winning. But should he lose then she must win for 

" She won and won ; her pile of bank-notes grew imposing ; she let 
herself go into speculative byplays ; she was winning more than X was 
losing. Then the end came quickly. He rose from the table. Sweeping 
all her new wealth into her purse satchel, Suzanne followed. 

" He walked the beautiful terrace in the darkening twilight. Suicide 
was in his heart. She approached him. They sat in the marble hemicycle. 

"'I am ruined and dishonoured,' he said. '1 have just 20,000 
francs that are not mine.' 

"'That is funny,' answered Suzanne. 'I have just won 26,000 — a 
wonderful run of luck at table No. 3.' 

"'That's where I lost my money. Black and even the double 

" ' And I won on red, odd and single columns,' laughed Suzanne 
bravely. ' My friend, I have evidently won your money.' Then opening 
her satchel to show the mass of wealth, she added : ' you must take it 
back, I cannot keep it.' " 


Should this, Hke so many other casino stories, prove 
to be apocryphal, there is absolutely nothing improbable 
about it. Indeed something of the sort must have occurred 
several times. When a person plays on the dozens or the 
simple chances nothing is easier than to neutralise the 
result by playing on the opposite chances. The only 
risk of loss then remaining is the zero. But even if the 
zero came out with more than usual frequency it would 
only mean an occasional loss ; the winning side would 
still win nearly if not quite as much as the other side had 
lost. To the anxious wife who sees her husband ruining 
the family this method may be strongly recommended. 
Indeed, it is difficult to suggest what else can be done to 
save the situation. It is far safer than going and playing 
afterwards. In the one case the winning back of all the 
losses excepting what zero takes is a mathematical certainty. 
In the other case, it is merely a question of luck, though 
it does, and not infrequently, happen that, of a couple, 
the one is as lucky as the other is unlucky. 

A story of this character was told me by a servant 
concerning her former master. The gentleman was of 
noble family, had a large estate in Savoy, where he was 
much respected. To escape the severity of the winter he 
took a villa on the Promenade des Anglais, at Nice. Of 
course he went to Monte Carlo, which is within easy 
reach from Nice, and there finally lost all his fortune. 
Hastening back to his country-seat he broke the news 
to his wife, telling her that the estate and all they had 
must be sold. This was the more humiliating as he 
had always been so highly considered throughout the 
neighbourhood. But his wife was not disposed to submit 
thus tamely to their ill-fortune. Looking around her, she 
collected what ready cash it was still in her power to 
raise, and took the first train to Monte Carlo. This lady 
was not a gambler, that was her husband's vice ; but on 
this occasion she played, and played boldly. In a short 
time she had won, perhaps not as much as her husband 
had lost, but, in any case, quite enough to redeem their 


fortunes and render the sale of the estate unnecessary. 
Overwhelmed with joy, her newly acquired wealth about 
her, this excellent wife hastened home. It was too late. 
Her husband's life was wrecked though his fortune had 
been saved. He could not shake himself free from the 
impression that he was ruined, and soon fell into a sort 
of dotage. 

Such dramatic and distressful occurrences are the 
inevitable result of all gambling, whether on the Stock 
Exchange, on the racecourse or at roulette. But a de- 
voted wife would not find it as easy to counteract her 
husband's gambling propensities on the Stock Exchange 
or on the racecourse as at the roulette-table. It is 
difficult to imagine a lady rushing oft" to a race to back 
the field against her husband's favourite horse, or at- 
tempting to bear the market when her husband was 
speculating with the bulls. At roulette it is impossible 
for a player to conceal his game ; on the racecourse or 
money market the speculator need not reveal how he 
has invested his money. 



TO describe jNIonte Carlo as a " gambling gehenna " 
that " makes heaven kiss hell," where people fear 
to take morning walks because they know not 
" at what turn they may come across a dead body," is the 
style some writers adopt apparently in good faith. Before 
me is an article cut out of an old number of The Echo and 
preserved as a curiosity, which says : "It is averred by 
those who profess to know that such cases [suicides] are 
never fewer than 300 in any year," and that " a few miles 
fi-om Monaco is a cemetery used only for the burial of 
suicides." In "The Secrets of Monte Carlo," by Mr William 
Le Queux, which has now run to a sixpenny edition, 
this highly imaginative author says : 

" To the readers of these reminiscences it may also 
be a surprise to know that since 1877 up to the present 
time " (there is no indication to show when this was written) 
" the average number of suicides in the principality of 
Monaco, with its four thousand inhabitants, has been 
more than one daily ! " 

The authoress of " The Komance of Monaco " speaks 
of the " sinister roll of suicides, two thousand since 1860," 
apparently on no better authority than that of an author 
whose book was condenmed for libel. Hundreds of other 
equally Avild assertions have been made, till at last the 
idea of suicide has become intimately associated with 
Monte Carlo. 

That a number of people should wish to fling stones 
at Monte Carlo is quite natural. There is a great variety 
and multiplicity of reasons to account for such irritability. 



But it is astounding and alarming to find that persons 
who are sufficiently intelligent to make their way in the 
world as authors are so careless and imprudent as to write 
on an important demographical problem without first 
obtaining at least some elementary knowledge of the 
question. Surely these writers might have devoted a few 
hours to studying some work on vital statistics. They 
might have looked at the Registrar-General's Annual 
Report, just to get some idea as to what are the prob- 
abilities and possibilities. We should not then be told 
that since 1877 there have been more than one suicide 
per day in the principality with its four thousand in- 
habit anis. It is a detail, perhaps, that none of these 
inhabitants, whether four thousand or more, was allowed 
to play. Before thus specifying the number of inhabitants 
it would have been prudent to take up the statistics. 
These show that at the quinquennial census of 1873 there 
were 3443 inhabitants; in 1878 this number had already 
increased to 6049 ; to-day the figure amounts to nearly 
20,000. But this has nothing to do with the suicides, since 
the object is to denounce the casino, which the inhabitants 
are not allowed to enter. Then why mention the four 
thousand ? If among them more than one suicide per day 
occurred, in less than ten years the entire population would 
have committed suicide instead of increasing three and 
four fold. But we will examine the situation as it affects 
the gamblers. 

When the population of the principality was about 
4000 — that is, in 1874 — the number of people who booked 
to Monaco amounted to 186,000. In 1811 it was 1,587,130, 
and there were 197,000 persons admitted to the gaming- 
rooms ; therefore the proportion between booking and 
admissions to the gaming-tables is about one to eight. 
Consequently, in 1874 some 23,250 people went to the 
gaming-tables, and if there were any truth at all in the story 
it would be out of these players, not among the in- 
habitants, that more than one committed suicide per day. 
Let us say the total was 400. This would mean a death- 


rate from suicide alone of 18 per 1000 per annum. Have 
such writers ever seen statistics of the death-rate of any 
town or country ? If they had they could not write such 

There is another extraordinary manifestation of mental 
blindness. The people who talk of one suicide per day 
seem impervious to the fact that this is a gross libel on 
the medical profession. There is a medical society at 
Monaco, and it might increase its funds by bringing 
actions and claiming damages for such a libel. The number 
of suicides said to take place, in proportion to the popu- 
lation and visitors, is so absolutely beyond anything con- 
ceivable that if it were correct such an occurrence would 
convulse Europe. If correct but concealed, then all the 
medical practitioners in the principality assist in such con- 
cealment. This would be not merely " infamous conduct 
in the professional sense " but infamous conduct in the 
ordinary criminal or common law meaning of the words. 
Even writers of romances are supposed to keep to possi- 
bilities and probabilities. What right have they to libel an 
honourable profession ? It may be said the casino pays 
hush money, but this would be a still grosser insult. Surely 
medical men would not compromise their position and 
break their career for the sake of the casino. All the 
medical men practising in the principality hold their 
degree from foreign faculties. Even the one Monegasque 
doctor, Dr Marsan. received his degree from the 
Paris Faculty of Medicine, which would at once disown 
him if he attempted to conceal the cause of death and 
give a false death certificate. What would become of the 
British practitioners ? What would the London Royal 
College of Physicians or of Surgeons or the qualifying 
authority at Edinburgh do if they thought that practitioners 
bearing the degrees they conferred were endeavouring to 
hide the fact that some of their English patients at Monte 
Carlo had committed suicide ? Then, are not the French a 
civilised people? Would they tolerate such a thing in 
their very ? The burial laws in France are very 


strict, and they are equally severe in the principality. It 
is a criminal offence to conceal the cause of death, and 
no administration could conspire to commit crimes of this 
description. No such secret could ever be kept. Those who 
believe such things must have been hypnotised by a 
suggestion planted in the brain in an unguarded moment 
and therefore accepted without investigation or criticism. 
The suggestion grows up, becomes a habit, and these 
people have to be awakened to understand the enormity 
of what they unconsciously adopted as a truth. 

Needless to say, there is absolutely no secrecy ; no 
corpse, whether a suicide or otherwise, can be buried 
without a medical certificate and a legal permission. 
Monaco, apart from its own love of law and justice, is too 
near to Paris, to Rome, to London, to Berlin, for it to be 
possible secretly to inter hundreds of people in the course 
of a season. It is an insult to the civilisation of Europe to 
imagine such a thing. But how then did this scare arise ? 
The older inhabitants have no difficulty in answering the 
question. It was started by the late Bishop of Gibraltar. 
When, in the sev^enties, it became evident that Monte 
Carlo would develop into an important resort and attract 
rich and influential people, the Bishop of Gibraltar, who 
has the care of all Church of England chapels on the 
Continent, approached Prince Charles III. But the late 
prince refused to grant permission to build a Church of 
England chapel in the principality. This refusal, of course, 
was ascribed to his bigotry as a Roman Catholic and a 
bitter feeling was engendered. Thereupon the Bishop of 
Gibraltar discovered that when people lost money at the 
casino they sometimes committed suicide. An agitation 
was organised, and the cry of suicides was raised because 
it was more effective than arguing against gambling to 
populations that back horses and speculate on 'Change. 

The last time I had an opportunity of discussing public 
matters with his Highness, Prince Albert, I inquired 
whether he had heard that the campaign against Monte 
Carlo Avith regard to the suicides was started by the late 


Bishop of Gibraltar because the permission to build an 
English church Avas refused. The prince replied that he 
remembered the incident very well ; but it was a mistake 
to attribute the refusal to any deeply felt intolerance. On 
the contrary, it was due to the desire to obtain greater 
liberty. The difficulty of the principality had always been 
that it had no bishop of its own. P^'or all ecclesiastical 
purposes, Monaco had been a portion of the diocese of 
Vintimille or of Nice. Prince Charles III. was then 
negotiating with the Pope and striving to secure the 
appointment of a bishop for Monaco who would be 
independent of any French or Italian diocese. He was told 
that if he allowed an Anglican church to be built in the 
principality the creation of Monaco as an independent 
diocese must be abandoned ; Rome would never consent. 
So it was the Pope of Rome and not Prince Charles who 
refused the English petition. Nevertheless it was Prince 
Charles and the principality who had to suffer the 
consequences. It is true that the thunders of the Anglican 
Church have not wrought much injury, but Prince 
Charles and the Monegasques generally would have pre- 
ferred not to give offence to any religious community, 
whether Anglican or belonging to some other denomina- 
tion. This is amply proved, for now that they have suc- 
ceeded in getting a bishop of their own all churches are 
authorised in the principality. Thus a short time ago a 
lAitheran church was built in the rue Grimaldi. Indeed, 
the prince assured me that even so far back as the 
eighteenth century all religions, at least in theory, were 
tolerated in the principality, and in this respect it was in 
advance of the rest of Europe. 

The bed-rock of fact, however, is the best exposure of 
all fallacies. But with regard to vital statistics, these are 
of little use unless we can establish a point of comparison. 
This is easily done in towns where there is a stable popu- 
lation, but when the question relates to a popular resort 
with many seasonal visitors, two sets of statistics are pro- 
vided : the crude death-rate and the corrected death-rate. 


In the principality the matter is still more complicated, 
for I am not aware that there is any profound interest felt 
throughout the world in knowing what difference may 
exist in the frequency of suicides among the tradesmen, 
workmen and inhabitants generally of Monaco as com- 
pared with the frequency of suicide in other localities. As 
a matter of fact it so happens that this is a problem, a 
curious and interesting problem, but its existence is 
utterly unknown even to specialists. What interests the 
world at large is the belief, assiduously propagated, that a 
large proportion of the people who gamble at ISlonte Carlo 
end by committing suicide. To show that very few suicides 
occur in the principality is no answer, for anyone ac- 
quainted with the death-rates of most countries knows 
full well that suicide is not a frequent cause of death. 
Thus, in any case, the figures are bound to be small, and 
to talk of one suicide per day is to stand self-convicted of 
absolute ignorance with regard to such questions. For 
instance, in London — according to the County Council 
statistics (vol. xxi.) — in every hundred deaths during the 
five years, 1899-1903, the proportion due to suicide was 06 
per cent., or nearly two hundred deaths before we get one 
suicide. Since then the proportion has increased to 0*7 per 
cent. But then the County Council knows how many 
people die in London, whereas we do not know how 
many people gambled at Monto Carlo. 

Fortunately we have to-day figures that are correct 
enough for all practical purposes. If we cannot say with 
mathematical precision how many persons have actually 
put money on the tables we do know how many individuals 
received the cards that admit to the gaming-rooms. 
There remains but one complication. These latter figures 
relate to what is called the administrative year, dating 
from the beginning of April to the end of March, whereas 
the demographical figures, to conform with those of all 
the rest of Europe, relate to the twelve months from the 
1st of January to the 31st of December. These figures, the 
death-rate of the principality for 1911, are here photo- 

Repartition des d6ces par Cause at par Mois 























1 1 




1 ''^ 


ftAvreiyphoidc (l>-phui abdominal) , 

Typhus ciumhtmaiiquc , . . . . 

Fkvre et cachexie paladecDoes 






















Aulres maladies 4pidimiqu« 





^ I 







/ . 1 

Cancer ct auirci lumeurs maligocs . . 








Himorragicci raniolliswmcDi du ccr- 

vcau ^ 

M^iladics organiqucs du corur 

Broocliitc aiguc 

















Autrcs afTcciion:. dc I'aouatcil rc&oir^- 






loi(c (phlisic exccptcc) 







Dianhtc tt cniiriic (ju-dciMus de 
Jcux ans) 

17 1 Tt.-rni- nhtin.rrinn mi.-olii il.- 














- - 





Ncplirili- aiguc vl maladic dc Bright . 

Tunicun non caocircuw. ii -luitcs af- 
fections d» org. gCn. de la fcnimc 

Scpticilmic pui-rpirale (fiivrc, pOrito- 
iinc phk-biie pucrpcraici) 

Aiilrc% accidents puerjHrraux de la 
RroiScMC el dc I'accouchemcnt 

Dchilitc cong'«ct vices dc cociforniaiioii 


Morts violcnici (suicidi; csccpic) 


Aiittfs nuladitv 



























— \' 




graphically reproduced. It will be seen that they conform 
in every respect to the demogi-aphical rules internationally 
established. Thus statistics may be drawn up inter- 
nationally on the same basis ; and if Monaco could not 
produce and hold at the disposal of all countries the 
details of its death-rate, it would deserve exclusion from 
the pale of all civilised nations. How could the incidence, 
distribution, seasonal aspects of diseases be studied and 
known but for such statistics ? Suicide, if not exactly a 
disease, is in any case epidemical. Even when Buckle 
wrote his " History of Civilisation in Europe," though 
demography was not then the science it has become 
to-day, he was able to deal at length with the statistics 
of suicides, showing the remarkable stability of this cause 
of death. Buckle points out that money troubles do not 
produce as many suicides as we might expect. After 
alluding to political and commercial excitement and 
stress he says : 

" Nevertheless in this vast metropolis about 240 
persons" (to-day it is more than 500) "every year make 
away with themselves ; the annual suicides oscillating, 
from the pressure of temporary causes, between 266 — the 
highest, and 213 — the lowest. In 1846, which was the 
great year of excitement caused by the railway panic, 
the suicides in London were 266 ; in 1847 began a slight 
improvement, and they fell to 256 ; in 1848 they were 
247 ; in 1849 they were 213 and in 1850 they were 229." 

The Monaco death-rate for 1911 shows that there 
were 13 suicides out of a total of 319 deaths. This is 
indeed a very high figure. It does not quite amount to 
one suicide per day ; all the causes of death put together 
did not produce one death per day ; but the number of 
suicides was nevertheless distressingly high. Therefore 
the details must be carefully studied. First of all, how 
many were inliabitants who are not allowed to gamble 
and how many were foreigners who may have gambled ? 


The season when the great crowds come opens in October. 
But during that month and in November and December 
there was not a single suicide. During the other gambling 
months — January, February and March — there were only 
four suicides. Thus in the six most dangerous months, so 
far as gambling is concerned, there were only four suicides. 
If we refer back to the casino statistics given in a 
previous chapter it will be seen that whereas more than 
6000 persons entered the gambling rooms in one day 
during the season, out of the season, on the 29th of 
August 1911, when a count was made, there were only 
930 people in the rooms. It is not likely that there were 
more people in July ; yet in that one month we had four 
suicides. This was really an epidemic of suicides. Thus 
one of the persons who committed suicide was a coachman, 
and his sister-in-law killed herself within a month. 

The difficulty, of course, is to classify the suicides, and it 
must be confessed that this can only be done approximately, 
but that is precise enough for all practical purposes. To 
the public at large, acquainted only with the Monte Carlo 
suicide scare, the interest is limited to the number of 
gamblers who have killed themselves, therefore this category 
of suicides may be taken first. The January suicide in 1911 
was that of a Russian, aged twenty-five years, evidently 
a gambler. Then came the very sad case of the Austrian 
gentleman, aged fifty-seven, and his wife, who both died 
together. This was in February. In March an Austrian 
commercial man, aged thirty-four, killed himself; and all 
these four cases were undoubtedly due to gambling. After 
that the calculation becomes more complicated. What shall 
be said of the domestic servant who committed suicide ? She 
did not gamble. But she lent her hard-earned savings to 
her mistress, who promptly lost them all at roulette. In 
her despair the servant, not her gambling mistress, 
committed suicide. Is this non-gambler to be classified as 
a gambling suicide ? Then there is the gardener. He was 
terribly worried by his wife, who complained that she was 
never well enough dressed. If the casino did not attract 


so many beautifully dressed women to Monte Carlo, this 
gardener's wife might have been less anxious about her 
own appearance and would not have so worried her husband 
that he committed suicide by jumping off the rock at 
Monaco. Is this a suicide caused by the casino ? Then in 
May another coachman killed himself; this surely was 
not due to the casino but probably to the competition 
of motor cars. Perhaps someone will agitate for their 
suppression because so many coachmen commit suicide. 
The August suicide was that of an Italian mason who was 
certainly never admitted to the casino ; but in September 
an Austrian officer killed himself, and this again was 
undoubtedly a gambler's suicide. It seems that out of the 
thirteen suicides there were only five actual gamblers, and 
here a really alarming and serious question arises. The 
remaining eight suicides, occurring in a population of only 
20,000 people, certainly constitute an exceptional figure. If 
anyone is absolutely determined to raise a cry concerning 
suicides there is the opportunity ; only it has no direct 
connection with the casino crowd and the gambling. 

The Penal Statistics issued by the Procurator-General 
give, for the ten years, 1898-1907, the number of suicides 
and attempted suicides at 106. There must have been very 
few of the latter, for suicide is not, as in England, a legal 
offence, so the courts have very rarely to deal with cases 
of attempted suicides. From the Procurator- General I 
obtained the following analysis of recent suicides. The 
dossier of each case was brought out of the archives with 
the following result: — In 1909, out of nine suicides three 
were persons living on their income, three domestic 
servants, one an engineer, one a mechanic and one a 
carpenter. Thus four deaths out of the nine may have been 
due to gambling. Of the nine, four were Italians, four 
French and one German. For 1910, of seven suicides 
whose dossiers were found — for there were nine in all, and 
twelve during the previous year — two were labourers, one 
was a doctor of medicine, one a journalist, one a mer- 
chant, one an accountant and one a coachman. Four out of 



seven may have been victims of gambling. Five of them 
were Italians and two were French. They lived, four at 
Monaco, one at Beausoleil, one in Paris and one at Palermo. 

For 1911 the demographical figures and the legal 
statistics agree, as they both show the maximum record 
of thirteen suicides in that one year. Of these, four were 
persons living on their income, four were labourers, three 
were employed by commercial houses, one was an oflBcer 
and one worked at an hotel. With regard to nationality, 
four were Italian, four French, two Hungarian, two 
Russian and one Austrian. They lived, four in Monaco, 
three in Austria, one each at St Petersburg, Vienna, 
Milan, Paris, Toulon and Cap d'Ail. 

During the first three months of 1912 there were a 
great many suicides. A street sweeper or scavenger took 
his own hfe, as did also a waiter at one of the hotels. There 
were two suicides about whom it was impossible to obtain 
any information, so they are registered as " unknown." 
There was also a man living on his income ; five cases in 
all during three months, and three of these were doubtless 
due to gambling. It is, however, difficult to understand 
the meaning of all these figures unless we bring them to 
a point of comparison. Taking the average of ten years 
ending in 1908, the death-rate from suicide of the London 
population per annum was O'll per 1000. Since then, the 
figure fell for 1909 to 0*09. Trying to harmonise the 
official figures with the casino figures it is not possible to 
go farther back than 1909. Even then we must not count 
the first three months of that year, when there were no 
fewer than seven suicides, because the casino year begins 
on the 1st of April. From that date up to the 31st of 
March 1910 there were only five suicides. But we must 
take this figure so as to compare it to the 155,950 
admittances to the casino during those twelve months. 
It gives us a death-rate from suicide, among the frequenters 
of the casino gaming-rooms, of 0-032 per 1000, admitting 
that all five suicides were due to gambling. This, however, 
is evidently an exceptional year. 


From 1st April to 31st December 1910 we have nine 
suicides, of whom five may be counted as gamblers. Up 
to the 31st of March 1911 there were four more, all 
gamblers : 184,000 persons were admitted to the gaming- 
tables, of whom nine committed suicide, and this is equal 
to a death-rate of 0049 per 1000. But what is really 
serious is that out of the 20,000 inhabitants who do not 
gamble, who are not admitted into the gaming-rooms, 
no fewer than four committed suicide. This means a 
death-rate of 0.2 per 1000 inhabitants, which is twice as 
high as the suicide death-rate of London. With all its 
vice, misery, drunkenness, squalor and overcrowding the 
metropolis has only half as many suicides per 1000 as 
prosperous Monaco. As for the gamblers, the 5lonte Carlo 
suicides, that is a comparatively unimportant matter, for 
they number only one out of every 22,444 persons admitted 
to the gambling saloons ; but one out of every 5000 
inhabitants who were not admitted killed himself. 

For the year 1911-1912, calculated in the same manner, 
there were also thirteen suicides, of whom eight were 
probably gamblers. As 194,000 persons were admitted to 
the gaming saloons, this gives a proportion of 0'036 per 
1000 gamblers and 026 per 1000 non-gamblers. In other 
words, one gambler out of 24,250 committed suicide and 
one out of 4000 non-gamblers. This is a startling dis- 
covery, particularly if the JNIonaco figures are compared 
with the London statistics, ^^^ly should there be 
twice as many suicides among the inhabitants of the 
principality who are not allowed to gamble as among 
the inhabitants of London ? Here we have a much more 
important and serious matter than the question of the few 
gamblers who kill themselves. My first care, therefore, was 
to inquire whether any special cause existed in the 
principality, but most persons I consulted seemed to 
think it was the effect of the climate. In that case, the 
neighbouring Riviera towns must suffer in a similar 
manner. Therefore on reaching Paris I proceeded to 
consult one of the most prominent of French demographers, 


Dr Bertillon, Chief of the Statistical Department for the 
town of Paris. 

Dr Bertillon very kindly set to work to answer the 
question ; and after consulting various documents and 
making numerous calculations we obtained the following 
figures : — 






















La Seyne 











At Monaco, for two years, the figures — putting the 
gamblers aside — were 0"200 and 0'260. This is absolutely 
similar to the above rates. Therefore the problem applies 
not only to Monaco but to Paris and the whole Riviera. 
It is, I repeat, well worth while inquiring why, in this most 
beautiful country, twice as many people kill themselves 
as in London ? 

As for the Monte Carlo crowd, belonging to the 
exceptionally fortunate and wealthy classes, it is obvious 
that they are not likely to commit suicide. But there is a 
certain number of persons who are in a mentally unhealthy 
condition, and there are others come here as a last resort 
before committing suicide. They are driven to suicide by 
what has occurred in their own business and home. As a 
forlorn hope, a last chance, they risk the little they possess 
on the tables. It does not seem to have occurred to anyone 
that sometimes — I fear not often, but sometimes — they 
may win. The man who is ruined and on the verge of 
bankruptcy may win enough to tide over the difficulty. 
Then it is not the casino that has caused a suicide but it 


is the casino that has prevented a suicide. There are no 
statistics to record these cases, but they do exist. 

The above calculations show that the death-rate among 
the Monte Carlo gamblers amounted to 0*049 per 1000 in 
the year 1910-1911 and to 0036 per 1000 in the year 1911- 
1912. The casino is a joint-stock company run to secure 
dividends for its shareholders ; and in doing so the result 
is that, on an average, 0*040 or 0*045 per 1000 of the people 
they attract commit suicide. This is very sad : no one 
defends gambling, it is a vice v^rhich all legislatures and 
reformers have desired to abolish. But if the dividends of 
the casino shareholders are blood-stained, we have not 
forgotten the coffin ships and the Plimsoll agitation, though 
we have allowed the Pliinsoll line to be dangerously raised. 
AVe also know that by spending more money on inspection 
and inspectors the appalling loss of life in coal mines 
could be reduced ; and the holocaust of railway servants 
would be considerably lessened if shareholders could be 
persuaded to sacrifice a small portion of their dividends 
to establish automatic couplings. Taking the Abstract of 
Eabour Statistics issued by the Board of Trade it will be 
found that of 600,000 railway servants in the united 
kingdom, the number killed during the last sixteen years 
fluctuated from 372 to 631 annually. From 1895 to 1909, 
the killed or drowned among sailors has varied from the 
minimum annual casualty death-rate of 4*090 per 1000 to 
the maximum of 8*090. During the previous fifteen years 
the death-rate in the coal mines varied from 1*240 to 
1*490 per 1000. But in 1910 there was a much greater 
number of fatal accidents among miners, no fewer than 
1769 being killed. It has been calculated that on an 
average there is only four and a half days' work done in 
the coal mines per week. Therefore if we divide the 
number of killed by 234 days it will be seen that 
on an average 7 miners were killed on every working 
day. Thus about as many miners are killed in a single day 
as there are gamblers who commit suicide at Monte Carlo 
during an entire year. 


By all means let us save this handful of gamblers if we 
can ; but without mentioning other dangerous occupations, 
it may possibly occur even to shareholders that the 
thousands of sailors, railway servants and miners annually 
sacrificed for the sake of dividends were more useful 
members of society than the gamblers who are feeble 
enough to destroy themselves. Therefore when the owners 
of mining property, the shareholders in railways and ships, 
talk indignantly about the suicides at Monte Carlo, they 
might also devote some of their energy to removing the 
blood-stains from their own dividends. The beam is not 
only in the Englishman's eye, it stands out large and 
threatening in the eye of the American and in that of all 
other commercial and industrial nations. 



ON the receipts the casino makes we have seen that 
a good round sum is paid over to the prince, by 
whom it is used for the benefit, first of the 
principahty, and then for the promotion of the arts and 
sciences to the advantage of the world at large. Thus all 
nations receive some return for the wealth they have 
brought to Monaco. But, apart from this, the casino itself 
also spends large sums in a manner that is of general 
advantage, so that all may, to some extent, participate 
in the extraordinary success achieved. One outlay of this 
description is the gardens, where far more is done than the 
mere necessities of ornamentation would suggest. Here 
are provided exceptional facilities for the study of horti- 
culture and floriculture. 

Of course it is "quite the proper thing" to speak 
highly of the casino gardens. If they are mentioned 
in commonplace conversation, the words " lovely," " very 
nice," " beautiful " will surely be heard. But how few 
persons, even when they employ superlative expi'cssions of 
admiration, fully feel what they say, or in any way realise 
why these gardens deserve enthusiastic eulogium. But 
there are other more appreciative and thoughtful people, 
and they would be interested and more observant if they 
were only a little better informed. Perhaps one of the 
most delightful experiences in the casino gardens is to 
open conversation with a likely person and offer some 
explanation concerning the beauty, the history, the utility 
of one or more of the many surrounding horticultural 



specimens. Such an experiment will generally prove that 
it is neither indolence nor incapacity, but merely ignor- 
ance, which prevents appreciation and a fuller enjoyment 
of the glories of nature that abound in the casino gardens. 
Even those who have no eye for colour nor admiration 
of form would be impressed if they knew what these 
gardens meant in the matter of forethought, preparation 
and organisation. 

In front of the main entrance to the casino is one vast 
expanse of flowers. On either side and throughout the 
gardens there are numerous minor flower-beds. At all 
times, in all seasons, the flowers are fresh and in full 
bloom. It may be January or June — the flowers are not 
the same and their colours vary — but the flower-beds are 
always full, and it always seems to be the height of the 
season for one or the other of the many blossoms that 
grace these marvellous gardens. How do they all get there, 
and how many are required ? They do not grow of their 
own accord, especially in mid-winter, nor do they march 
in and march out of the gardens each in due season. 
Every individual plant must be sown, nursed and carefully 
brought up till it has become a fully developed adult, 
capable of going out on duty. But the gardens are so 
vast, the changes of flowers so frequent, that a great 
organising genius alone could keep up a sufficient and 
constant supply. 

After conscientiously clambering over the acres and 
acres of forcing grounds, then penetrating innumerable 
hothouses, and finally compiling statistical records, the 
problem assumed a character similar to that of the 
organisation of an army. What had Carnot to do when 
he created fourteen armies and " organised victory " ? He 
did not bring into the field half as many soldiers as there 
are flowers required to occupy their allotted positions in 
the casino gardens, and certainly his soldiers were not as 
handsome and healthy as the flowers. Though doubtless 
Carnot joined his troops in singing the " Marseillaise," he 
did not provide for future generations of combatants to 


enter " daii^ la ccwriere qtiand nos aines ny seront 

But the chief in command of the casino gardens has not 
only to occupy every strategic position all the year round, 
he must rear from their earliest infancy other forces ready 
to take the place of the veterans as they fall at their posts 
or grow old and weary. This gigantic undertaking is 
entrusted to Monsieur Jules van den Daele, Knight 
of the Order of Saint Charles, Officer of the Order of 
Agricultural JNlerit and member of several horticultural 
societies. For my part, anxious to render homage to so 
great a power of mobilisation and organisation, I felt 
inclined to confer on the casino's chief gardener the title 
of Field-Marshal ; but if the work done is, in many 
respects, similar to that of a military command, the result, 
being wholly pacific, is infinitely preferable. Therefore it 
would not be correct to speak of Field-Marshal van den 
Daele ; on the other hand, as a master organiser of living 
things he is fully entitled to be described as Flower- 
Marshal van den Daele. The principality offers no scope 
for the genius that would organise an army of warriors, 
but it has produced a very distinguished coinmander of an 
army of flowers, and this is necessary in a country where 
there are so many flower-lovers and such frequent battles 
of flowers. 

Naturally the provision of flowers that can be exposed 
to the open air during the coldest months of winter is the 
greatest difficulty. For this purpose, 100,000 Cyclamens of 
the Persian variety are planted in August so that they 
may be ready for the forthcoming winter. With these, as 
with most of the other flowers, the finest specimens are 
not sent to the front, in what may well be described as the 
fighting line, but are kept at home for seed. Even in the 
fighting line — that is to say, in the casino gardens — some 
succour, some protection is occasionally provided. Just as 
soldiers throw up a trench to resist an eager foe ; so do the 
gardeners, in the dark, when no one can see, come with 

* To follow the career when our elders are no longer there. 


hurdles, and various sorts of sheltering materials, to place 
round the flower-beds and ward off the frosty night air. 
All this is removed again before the return of daylight 
and the warm southern sun. Early, very early in the year, 
long before Primrose Day, an army of some 150,000 Chinese 
Primulas is moved forward, flanked by 40,000 Piimuhi 
obco?iica. These wonderful primroses are of many colours. 
Some are actually a bright blue, others mauve, red, light 
and dark reds to rose and white. There is a yellow speci- 
men from Kew Gardens which grows in storeys ; this con- 
sists of a circle of flowers, then a piece of straight stem 
growing out of the centre, and at a higher level another 
circle of flowers ; thus it may be said that some of these 
primroses are three or four storeys high. As for the 
ordinary field primrose, such as may be picked under the 
hedges in England, it would be of no use whatsoever, for it 
blooms far too late in the year. 

For winter use, there are also a good many Cinerarias, 
and many specimens of these come from England. The 
leaves resemble somewhat those of the marguerite, and 
are of various tints, but there is one of a brick-red colour 
that shows up remarkably on the grass. It is named the 
Matador, perhaps because it recalls the sanguinary results 
of a Spanish bull-fight. Some of these plants have double 
flowers, and in number they equal an army corps — 
namely, 30,000. But these flowers mentioned, together 
with some 40,000 pinks and 10,000 rose-trees, only 
represent the " crack " regiments of the army. They are 
the picked troops, dressed in extravagant uniforms made 
with rich cloth of the brightest colours, ornamented with 
plenty of braiding. They are the regiments of the guard, 
the cavalry, the artillery and the scientiflc corps. The 
troops of the line, which are more modest, but often more 
useful, and always the most numerous, have not yet been 
mentioned. These comprise from 200,000 to 300,000 
Saiitoiiina, a plant which has a silver-grey leaf, rather 
hke that of the everlasting flower, and here it serves to 
outline flower-beds. Elsewhere it is used for medical 


purposes. There is another medical plant, the familiar 
yellow camomile flower, which also helps in making 
designs. The largest contingent is that of the pansy. Of 
these there are many varieties, from quite a common little 
blue flower to large, velvet-Uke death's heads of mysteri- 
ous colouring and weird expression. The line, as repre- 
sented by the pansy, numbers from 400,000 to 500,000 ; 
but there are nearly as many daisies — namely, 300,000 to 
400,000 ; and a further contingent of 200,000 to 300,000 
Pyrethrums, or fever-few, used for designs in flowers. 
Thus the troops of the line may be estimated at 1,500,000, 
while the choice regiments number 390,000 rank and file. 
Flower- JNIarshal van den Daele has to supply the necessary 
sustenance to 1,890,000 small plants and flowers, and to 
constantly mobilise portions of this great army. Such a 
task needs an amount of prevision and oi-ganisation 
worthy of a Von Moltke. 

Of course all the annual flowers can be displayed but 
once. The difference is that in an ordinary garden a flower 
would be made to last two months, here it is only utilised 
for a month, during the zenith of its power. But there are 
others constantly growing to take its place. 

Some flowers can only serve in the gardens for a 
fortnight at a time. This is notably the case when they 
are in full bloom. Others may remain in position for 
a month or two, but all are changed at least five or 
six times in the year. It will be seen, therefore, that 
it is not only a question of bringing into healthy exist- 
ence something like two million living things ; but that 
these have to be constantly moved about. It is a vast 
army, reared on the hillside, where artificial shelter and 
heat is provided. Then constantly army corps are made 
up by selecting the most fit, and these are sent down to 
the fighting line — that is, the casino gardens. Here they 
are exposed to charges by trespassing dogs, to the bom- 
bardment of children's balls and playthings, and, still 
more fatal, to the chilly night air or the fierce mistral wind. 
In this contest many of the flowers are killed outright. 


The amount of work all this implies renders 
it necessary to employ 150 gardeners. 5lany of the 
flowers have to be divided after they have begun to 
grow, and put into forcing ground, then into small 
pots, etc., and are thus transplanted four times before 
they are taken out to the gardens for ornamental pur- 
poses. The preparing of the earth is an expensive and 
complicated process. It is not the dry limestone rocks 
round the principality that can provide a suitable mould. 
This must be imported. A large quantity is collected 
from under the chestnut-trees in Corsica and is brought 
from the island in small sailing boats. The boats take 
seven to eight days to come over, and the trade is hardly 
likely to yield much profit. Other very good soil is 
obtained from heatherland, and is imported by rail or in 
carts. It must then be carried to the hillside where the 
casino nursery gardens rise in terrace after terrace, right 
away into French territory, up the valley of the Moulin 

From the higher end or top of the casino garden, 
going eastwards, runs the main thoroughfare of this part 
of the principality. It is called the Boulevard des Moulins, 
and a little farther on a rivulet, which sometimes swells 
into a torrent, passes under this road. The water, though 
in the dry season but scant in volume, comes down from 
so great a height that it acquires sufficient velocity to 
turn the wheel of a water-mill. Here the olives gathered 
from the wild groves that covered the promontory now 
known as Monte Carlo were crushed and converted into 
oil. The wheel of the mill or moulhi which gives its name 
to the quarter still remains overgrown with weeds ; a 
green and grey meinento of the sylvan simplicity and rural 
life that preceded the advent of the casino. Now, instead 
of sweet olive oil we have an appalling accumulation of 
foul linen ; for on the farther or eastern side of the 
mountain stream a modern steam laundry has been 
erected. On the nearer side is the V^illa des Roses, and 
here are the headquarters and the offices of M. van den 


Daele. At one time M. van den Daele worked for 
M. Gintry of Ghent, the celebrated traveller and horticul- 
turist. Their cultivations were so successful that some of 
the plants they sent to the Paris Universal Exhibition 
of 1878 were sold for as much as £320 each. In 1880, 
M. van den Daele was engaged to assist M. Forckel, at that 
time the chief gardener in the employ of the late Madame 
Blanc. The experience of Homburg had demonstrated 
the utility of possessing close at hand beautiful gardens, 
where fresh air and pleasant scenery could be enjoyed 
without going too far away from the allurements of the 
casino. From the very first, therefore, when the Monte 
Carlo casino was but in its infancy, expensive trees and 
plants were imported and flower-beds laid out. Just above 
the casino gardens, where to-day stand large hotels and 
houses, Madame Blanc had five hothouses built, and 
secured some of the rarest plants from Prince DemidofTs 
Palace of San Donato, near Florence. One of the hot- 
houses was 60 feet high and 164 feet long, so that it 
might contain magnificent trees from tropical countries. 

As a matter of fact, M. Forckel was a horticulturist, 
rather than a cultivator ; and, as the figures given above 
indicate, rapid and extensive cultivation is needed to 
keep the casino gardens bright with flowers in full 
bloom. When, in 1880, M. van den Daele first came to 
Monte Carlo, he found the gardens in a shocking state 
of neglect. The scullerymen, after washing the plates 
and dishes at the Hotel de Paris, were sent out to water 
the flowers. Ferns and other plants of great value withered 
up. It was a pitiful massacre. Some ferns are very costly, 
and grow to the size of trees. I remember seeing in one 
of Madame Blanc's hothouses a Blechvum lirasiUenms 
with leaves that were more than six feet long. Gradually 
M. Forckel and M. van den Daele, working together, 
managed to get things in better order, but they always 
had the greatest difficulty in securing competent and 
willing assistants. 

Before the advent of the casino, the local resources 


were very restricted and the population correspondingly 
poor. Consequently, any opportunity of earning money 
would, it might be thought, be welcome ; but the climate 
is antagonistic to hard work. ^Vork was natural and 
well suited to Northerners such as M. van den Daele. The 
dwellers on the shores of the North Sea need work to 
keep themselves warm ; and if they did not work they 
would starve, or the sea would overflow the dikes and 
drown them. It was all Aery well for men of the Flemish 
race to be eloquent about the virtues of and the necessity 
for work ; but why should those who were born on the 
fruitful shore of the Mediterranean trouble themselves ? 
Why not sit still, breathe the balmy air and enjoy life 
without further effort ? But there are a few necessaries 
that have to be bought ; this is acknowledged, and there- 
fore a little work will be done so as to earn enough 
money to purchase indispensable articles. This, however, 
is not a sufficient reason to justify any strain or exhausting 
effort. How can life be enjoyable if it means fatigue and 
heat ? Why should a poor man, quite content and happy 
in his poverty, bustle and hurry as if he had a chance of 
making a fortune or of receiving high pay ? Let the rich 
and the well-paid harass themselves if they choose ; but 
the poor southern labourer, who can live on a piece of 
bread and a little garlic, prefers to lie in the sun with his 
hat over his eyes and slowly breathe the balsamic air 
perfumed with thyme, myrtle, lavender and rose. Thus, 
while willing to do a little work now and then, the native 
has a natural objection to continuous toil. Therefore it 
has been necessary to import gardeners from without the 
principality, men from distant countries, where in- 
dustrious habits are acquired because the conditions of 
existence are not so easy. 

Some of the work needs very considerable muscular 
effort. This is notably the case in lifting and transporting 
the larger plants, such as ornamental palm-trees. Now 
that the gardens have been under cultivation for more 
than thirty years some very rare and handsome trees 


have attained great height and size. Younger trees, still 
kept in pots, are conveyed to ornament banqueting halls, 
concert-rooms, theatrical representations, etc. Providing 
floral decorations for various functions implies a great 
deal of hard work. For the young trees it is a terrible 
experience, and a large hospital has had to be constructed 
to receive these victims of the JMonte Carlo dissipations. 
In the hospital they are protected from the excessive 
heat of direct rays of sunshine and from the wind. The 
branches which have been wounded are amputated, and 
plants may have to be tenderly nui'sed for a year, some- 
times two years, before they ai'e presentable again. Most 
of the smaller trees are worth only 4s. or 5s. each ; but 
a good-sized palm may cost from £12 to £16. A palm is 
much dearer in a tub than in the earth. A fan-palm, from 
ten to twelve years old, if in good condition, might sell 
for £85 when in a tub. But it would have attained its 
actual dimensions some years sooner if it had been 
allowed to grow in the earth. Plants, like wine, become 
more valuable the longer they are kept. 

In the excitement of the ballroom, or while cheering 
the toasts at a banquet, how few persons think that the 
ornamental plants around them are fighting the greatest 
battle of their lives. Tortured by an unnatural light, 
poisoned by unwholesome heat and a noxious atmosphere, 
bruised by blows, their branches and leaves snapped and 
broken by the pressure of crowds of unsympathetic, 
thoughtless people, how many of these plants survive ? 
The loss of life in the course of a season is put down at 
some 30 per cent., and it really is questionable whether 
the ornamental effect produced is worth the sacrifice. To 
arrange cut flowers on a table seems not unnatural ; they 
make a beautiful decoration, and in any case would not 
have lived much longer. But to place a palm-tree in the 
middle of a table is unnatural. I'alms do not grow on 
dining-room tables, nor are they intended to be squeezed 
up against the wall at the end of a ballroom. However, 
there is a demand for that sort of thing, therefore vast 


hothouses and floral hospitals have to be maintained by 
the casino gardeners to provide for this costly exaction 
of modern fashion, but they do no trade. If the casino 
gives a ball or a banquet, they provide flowers for de- 
corations. If a private person or an hotelkeeper gives 
a banquet, they get flowers from the numerous trading 
horticulturists to be found in the principality. 

At best, a big tree in a little pot is but a poor thing, 
and nowhere can this be better realised than in the 
casino gardens themselves. Of all the luxuries to be 
enjoyed at Monte Carlo none can excel the magnificent 
exotic and costly trees that flourish in these gardens. 
If anyone wants a sure system of winning at every spin of 
the roulette, let him go and revel in the gardens. Counting 
the small flowers and the large trees we have seen that 
some two million plants are displayed for him to enjoy 
during the course of a single year. So long as the visitor 
abstains from playing he will have won all this ; a good 
prize, surely, and a perfectly safe system. In the summer, 
when the casino windows are open, the chink of the silver 
and gold can be heard in the gardens. The botanist, the 
horticulturist, even the simple visitor who possesses no 
technical knowledge, but appreciates colour and form, 
who loves nature, can sit in the pure, perfumed air and 
feast his eyes on the beautiful scene, while the rattle of 
coin sounding from the overheated gaming-rooms reminds 
him that others are paying for his enjoyment. Indeed, it 
is so obvious that the true and absolutely certain system 
of winning at Monte Carlo is not to play at all, that there 
are a good many people who do not care to play, who are 
in no wise gamblers, and who yet throw a few pieces on 
the table just " for the good of the house." These are 
visitors who (like the admirable and public- spirited 
citizens that send conscience-money to the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, fearing they have not been charged 
enough income-tax), feel it is hardly fair to come and 
enjoy everything without contributing towards the 
expenses. Therefore, they try to lose a few pieces on the 


tables. It would be interesting to know what such persons 
feel when they fail to lose. 

The charm of the gardens does not depend only on 
their beauty, but also, and especially, on the fact that 
though we are still in Europe, and quite near to the 
northern parts of Europe, we have here semi-tropical and 
even tropical trees and shrubs. That the date of the palm- 
tree never ripens sufficiently to render it fit for eating 
shows, however, that the tree is not indigenous to the 
soil. On the other hand, there is a passage in Bouche's 
" Histoire de Provence," which might be cited to prove 
that tlie palm and other trees are of native growth. This 
historian relates that King Henry IV., having slept at the 
Chateau d'Hyeres, set forth on the following morning, 
which was Sunday, the 29th of October 1564, to examine 
the palm, orange and pepper trees that grew in the 
neighbourhood. At the beginning of the nineteenth 
century there were, however, no palm-trees on the French 
Riviera. In the early part of last century the first palm- 
trees were planted at Hyeres. Throughout Andalusia 
the Moors had introduced their favourite trees ; doubtless, 
they did the same on the French Riviera, and some of 
their plantations may have survived when Hyeres was 
visited by Henry IV. 

Hyeres is the oldest of the health resorts. It was 
popular as a winter station before Cannes and Nice had 
been discovered, and when Monaco and Menton were 
utterly unknown. Hyeres also was one of the first places 
where a trade was created in early fruits, vegetables and 
the making of horticultural experiments. The palm-trees, 
successfully raised on the Place des Palmiers, helped to 
advertise Hyeres in so profitable a manner that now 
wherever on the coast-line attempts are made to attract 
foreign visitors, the first step taken is to grow palm-trees. 
The eucalyptus or Australian blue gum-tree was also 
found to be an excellent advertising medium. Shortly after 
the Crimean War, one of the most celebrated horticulturists 
of Hyeres, M. Uellor, at that time a partner of the 

2 D 


renowned firm of Huber & Company, attempted to 
cultivate the eucalyptus, but it was not appreciated. Some 
ten years later, in 1864, M. Ramel returned to Hyeres 
from a journey to Australia, where he had made the ac- 
quaintance of Herr von Miiller, director of the JNIelbourne 
Botanical Garden, and he brought a collection of eucalyptus 
seeds and plants. By that time some knowledge had gained 
ground concerning the sanitary properties of the tree ; so 
that M. Ramel succeeded where M. Dellor had failed, 
and he soon became known as "■ Le Pcre de l Eucalyptus." 

The tree grows very rapidly. It contains a large 
quantity of volatile oil which, like the resin of the fir-tree, 
is a source of ozone. While it helps to purify the atmos- 
phere, the roots spreading fast and far dry up damp and 
marshy soil. It has been observed that when planted in 
districts where malaria prevailed, the presence of the 
eucalyptus-trees checked the progress of the disease. The 
oil of the eucalyptus, as a powerful antiseptic and dis- 
infectant, is often preferred to carbolic acid, since it does 
not produce local irritation, and is not poisonous. To have 
so valuable a tree growing in abundance close at hand 
is an advantage for which we should all gratefully recall 
the names of M. Dellor and M. Ramel. But though 
abounding throughout the neighbourhood, the eucalyptus 
is disappearing from the principality. Perhaps the trees 
take up too much room ; besides, their roots will soon 
force their way through the foundations of a wall and 
endanger any neighbouring structure. 

From the very first, great ciForts were made to 
cultivate palm-trees in the casino gardens, and it was 
rightly thought that they were especially suited to 
decorate the celebrated terraces that overlook the sea. 
Unfortunately the salt sea- winds that sweep these terraces 
were not at all suitable for the palms. There they remained 
much as they were when planted, looking picturesque, 
but refusing to grow, and soon showing decided signs 
of decrepitude. Now, poor things, they are coaxed and 
cajoled into prolonging their irksome life. Waistbands 


round their trunks with wires cunningly attached, hold 
the trees up, so that in spite of themselves they are 
obliged to continue the struggle for existence ; but if they 
were left alone they would soon lie down, glad to leave 
this weary world. Yet apart from these, the earliest trees 
planted, which figure in all the first and traditional views 
of the casino terraces, the other trees, and even the palm- 
trees, have prospered exceedingly. Something had been 
learnt by experience, and the gardens are sheltered from 
the sea-wind by the casino buildings themselves. As 
a result, we have not only the date-palm, but very fine 
and lofty cocoanut-trees. There are the cocos datil, the 
cocos Jiexuosa and the cocos romanzojjinicma, which 
attain a height of from 30 to 40 feet. Indeed there 
is a date-palm that is almost 50 feet high, but it is not 
on the terrace overlooking the sea. 'Wvq phoenix ccmciriends 
is distinguished by its plentiful foliage, and is not supposed 
to be very tall ; yet there is one palm of this species that 
is 33 feet high, and a phcetiLv spinosa stands to the height 
of 30 feet. 

Some of the charnoerops have developed to formidable 
proportions ; but for size and robust appearance it would 
be difficult to excel the indiarubber-trees. One of these 
is particularly wortliy of attention. It is not only a mag- 
nificent tree, for it measures some 80 feet in circumference 
and 60 feet in height, but it seems to convey an object 
lesson in the duties of family life. After leaving the 
casino, the visitor will find it on the right-hand side 
about half way up the garden. The blue metallic label 
standing in front will inform the attentive observer that 
the tree is a ficus Roxbtirghii. On examination, it will 
at once be seen that the tree has several stems. In the 
centre there is obviously the parent trunk, and round 
it several younger ones. Then, on looking up, it will 
be noticed that some of the lower branches are letting 
down a strange sort of growth. This is neither twig nor 
branch. It does not stretch forth as leaves and branches 
do, so as to get as much light, air and rain as they can 


catch ; but on the contrary it points straight downward, 
as if determined to reach the earth. This, indeed, is its 
object. When the larger branches of the tree, which may 
well be considered as the elder children of the family, 
begin to feel that their parent trunk is weakening with 
age, they come to the rescue. Instead of using all their 
youthful vitality to grow more twigs and more leaves, 
and thus secure the largest share possible of life's enjoy- 
ment, they devote at least some of their strength to 
producing woody fibre which, growing downward, will 
ultimately reach the ground. Taking root there, this 
growth from the branch will develop into an auxiliary 
stem to stand by, strengthen and support the parent 
trunk, and thus prolong the life of the entire family, 
while giving at the same time a magnificent example 
of filial duty and gratitude. 

Higher up on the same side of the garden, near a 
kiosk where nurses and children generally find shelter, 
there is another scene in which the plants offer an ex- 
ample less worthy of imitation. It is a dramatic illustra- 
tion of the struggle for life, a real fight between two 
formidable plants. On one side there stands, proudly 
erect, a date-palm from Africa, phoenix dactilifera by 
name. At some distance, but near enough, there is a 
cactus from Mexico justly named after the serpent ; it is 
the cereus serpentirms cactees. But it is not one serpent, 
it is a cluster of serpents, suggesting the avenging furies, 
the head of the Medusa. These many serpents, like the 
arms of an octopus, have thrown themselves upon the 
palm-tree. Some encircle the trunk low down near the root ; 
others stretch out and reach as high up as possible ; the 
majority take the medium course of striking the nearest 
point where they can get firm hold. It is quite clear they 
will not spare the tree, and it is difficult to see what 
defence the palm can offer against its numerous persistent 
and thorny aggressors. 

Close to this singular scene on the other side of the 
path there is a very rare banana, the strelitzia Augusta. 

^ < J 

= l" 


But the leaves unfortunately are much spoilt and torn by 
the wind. Facing the kiosk to which allusion has been 
made, and therefore also close at hand, are two splendid and 
gigantic cereus validus cades from South America. These 
were secured from the Villa Walewski by M. van den 
Daele himself. Both were cut from the same parent 
plant, and now they have been growing in the open for 
twenty-eight years. They are undoubtedly the most perfect 
specimens on the whole Riviera. It is marvellous to see 
how this cactus stands upright in spite of its great height, 
and the absence of any kind of support. It has large and 
numerous red fruits growing from the dark green stem. 
But for their oval shape, they might be taken for billiard 
balls, and it appears that the inside is edible ; sweet and 
glutinous, it might make good jam. Quite different from 
this flavour is that of an insignificant shrub behind a bench 
facing the entrance of the Palais des Beaux Arts. It has 
angry but concealed thorns that surprise and attack the 
hands of the investigator. But if, nevertheless, one of the 
little seed pods can be secured, squeezed and tasted, it will 
be discovered that the shrub belongs to the cayenne 
pepper variety. Not only are there many specimens of 
trees from far-off and tropical countries, but these have 
been so skilfully grouped that there are certain points of 
view where European vegetation seems to have entirely 
disappeared. Here tropical scenery is enjoyed without 
the inconveniences of a tropical climate. The arrangement 
is wonderful, and anyone with some powers of imagination 
could sit on this spot and dream dreams of the Orient for 
hours together. 

Perhaps the most remarkable group of trees is that 
which stands between the casino and the side of the Cafd 
de Paris. Here there is a chamcerops Martiana which is of 
the greatest technical interest. To the ordinary observer 
it appears smaller and not so imposing as many other 
chamoei'ops to be seen all along the Riviera, yet there is 
none so big elsewhere and it is a unique specimen in 
Europe. Two other similar trees exist, one at I^yons and 


another at Kew Gardens, but both are in hothouses, not 
in the open air as at Monte Carlo. This special sort of 
cliamoei'ops comes from the Himalaya mountains. Near to 
it there are other rare trees, the cocas Roiuanzqffiana ; 
the Brahea RoezU, with its beautiful blue-tinted leaves ; 
and the enormous leaves of the Sabal umh-acuUera are rarely 
seen to such perfection as in this little cluster of trees, 
placed just where everybody passes, and yet so little 

Twice a year, in February and March, there is a show 
of plants and flowers at the Palais des Beaux Arts. The 
number of people who pay to go to these shows proves 
that there is a considerable public interested in the subject. 
Abroad, at the various exhibitions, the casino sends 
specimens from its gardens and generally carries off a 
prize. This was notably the case at Paris, Brussels, 
Florence, etc. At Monte Carlo, in the gardens, Germans 
take notes, go over and over again the same ground and 
read the labels at the foot of the plants. The Englishman 
passes with the haughty indifference of his self-ascribed 
superiority. He has seen nothing, he has learnt nothing, 
but then he is an Englishman. The posts vacant for 
scientific work in different parts of the world, and a good 
many in England itself, are being filled by Germans. 
Therefore we ought to build more Dreadnoughts and 
carry out an extensive measure of Tariff Reform. The fact 
of the matter is we ought to go to school, and this is the 
lesson I learnt from strolling about in the casino gardens 

■1 ■< 






WHEN the negotiations took place for the renewal 
of the monopoly enjoyed by the casino, Prince 
Albert I. seized the occasion to convert the 
theatre into a public service. So far as the casino and its 
patrons were concerned, any sort of performance was good 
enough. But the prince explained, and laid great emphasis 
on his declarations, that he was determined the theatre 
should not be an attraction organised merely for the 
purpose of bringing gamblers to Monaco. It must be an 
institution that rendered service to the cause of art, apart 
from commercial or casino interests. In carrying out this 
idea the prince thought he had been most fortunate in dis- 
covering and bringing forward Mr Gunsbourg. He was, the 
prince declared, a real genius. In a week or a fortnight he 
would put on the stage an opera which, in Paris, would 
take six months to prepare. Then the prince had gathered 
around him composers, notably JNIassenet, who wrote 
operas expressly for the Monte Carlo theatre ; operas and 
artists were thus brought out for the first time and 
launched into fame. In this manner, a real service was 
being rendered to the cause of art, and those who were 
proficient in their art could hope for recognition and 
reward at Monte Carlo. 

When the theatre was used mainly as an advertisement 
for the casino, no endeavour was made to bring out new 
talent. On the contrary, that which was, if not old, at 
least well established and popular paid best as a means 
of attracting people. The Monte Carlo theatre strove to 
engage the best-known performers. This was, to some 



extent, the crowning of their career, rather than their 
debut. But, even at first, the casino theatre did a great 
deal in creating new operas and increased the possibility 
of success in such creations by employing well-recognised 
talent. Now the production of new singers, of unknown 
but able performers, has been added to the programme. 
To-day the object is to be useful even at the risk of an 
occasional failure. Twenty years have now elapsed since 
Mr Gunsbourg became Director of the Monte Carlo 
Opera, and he has made it the rival of Paris and Berlin, 
of London and New York. As often as not, it is Monte 
Carlo that leads in the creation of new operas and new 
singers. Therefore composers and singers now look to 
Monte Carlo as the road to fame and fortune. Then it 
is not only the new that is brought into life, but the old 
and forgotten that is revived. For instance, in 1903 we 
had the revival, on a most splendid and lavish scale, of 
Massenet's Herodiade. A masterpiece that had lain 
dormant for twenty years was so rendered by Calv^, 
Tamagno and Renaud, surrounded by such majestic, 
beautiful scenery and accompanied by the perfect 
orchestration we always enjoy when Jehin leads, that the 
faded laurels revived and the forgotten opera became 
popular again. 

Among the great singers who owe their reputation 
to their early success at Monte Carlo the renowned 
Caruso stands first. Gunsbourg's greatest discovery, how- 
ever, is Chaliapine. According to Mr H. Villiers Barnett, 
who had followed so closely all these developments and 
describes them, step by step, in The Continental Weekly, 
Chaliapine is the mightiest artist in opera of this age. 
It was nine years ago now that he revealed himself by his 
terrific rendering of Mefistofele in Boito's opera. This 
he followed by proving himself a perfect actor when 
personifying the old madman in Ronssalka. He then 
showed that the part of King Lear would not be beyond 
his understanding of insanity. More recently, and after 
his reputation had been thoroughly established, Don 


Quixote and Ivan the Terrible were his great creations. 
Don Quixote, hke Massenet's other operas, Theresc and 
the Jongleur de Notre Dame, were first produced, not 
in Paris, but at Monte Carlo, though Massenet held the 
first rank among the living French composers of music. 

While these important novelties were pressed forward, 
the Italian opera, whether old or new, was not neglected. 

With splendour and every necessary accompaniment, 
the operas of Donizetti, Rossini or Bellini were heard, 
as also those of Puccini, Leoncavallo and Mascagni. To 
return to France, Gounod's Faust, Bizet's Carmen, and 
Reyer's Salammbo were given, with a revival of Offenbach's 
Contes (T Hoffmann and Berlioz's Dam/iation de Faust. 
Indeed the thi-ee Fansts were heard in one season — namely, 
the operas composed on this theme by Gounod, Boito 
and Berlioz. For man)^ of these operas new scenery, 
a totally new conception of scenery, was invented. The 
wonderful results achieved are attributed to Mr 
Gunsbourg's special genius. 

In fairness, however, it must be recorded that there 
is a good deal of animosity displayed against Mr 
Gunsbourg. Time and opportunity have failed me, and 
I cannot profess to know more than that in some cases 
such hostility seems due to racial and religious prejudices 
rather than to any real reason based on knowledge of art. 
Such opponents urged that, considering the enormous 
amount of money spent, better results could be obtained. 
The successes achieved are due, they argue, not to any 
special ability on the part of the general manager, but 
to the fact that each section is so admirably organised. 
It is only necessary to say what is needed and it is forth- 
coming. Then there is this sovereign reason, that the 
want of money never stands in the way. If in the scenery 
department 300 yards of canvas are required it is supplied 
at once and without a question. At an ordinary theatre 
or opera, the scenery department would be told to so 
exercise their ingenuity as to manage with 200 yards, 
or at the very most 250 yards. At Monte Carlo, where 


the prince pays the stars and the casino the ordinary 
staff, there is no need to strive to do things cheaply, and 
therefore success is easier to attain. Opinions, 1 found, 
were much divided. Some said the result was not com- 
mensurate with the resources and that Mr Gunsbourg 
was only a heaven-born genius in that he knew how to 
avail himself of other people's talents. This, however, is 
surely just the very form of ability the director of an 
opera house must possess. 

To put the case from the other side, Mr H. Villiers 
Barnett, who ought to know, thus describes Mr Guns- 
bourg : 

" His mastery consists in consummate comprehensive 
stage management. Comprehensive. Not management 
of only personal details, but management of the whole 
presentation. He sees it as a whole ; handles it as a 
whole ; inspires and harmonises all its parts with one 
high purpose. There can be no doubt as to what that 
purpose is. It is the impulsion of all the elements of 
the representation towards a complete intense unity of 
splendid and artistic expression. It is the co-ordination of 
all the material factors and the inspiration of all the 
personal factors into one idea. It is Wagner's theory of 
opera in action." 

All this praise notwithstanding, a good general needs 
good soldiers. Therefore it seemed necessary to inquire 
how some of the more important sections are organ- 
ised and, from the very first, the casino was distin- 
guished for its orchestra. The casino had not been 
in existence twenty years when already the orchestra 
numbered eighty picked instrumentalists, and was con- 
sidered at least equal, if not superior, to that of the 
London Covent Garden Opera House. At that time 
there were generally two concerts a day, free to all who 
chose to enter and occupy one of the comfortable stalls in 
the sumptuous theatre Charles Garnier had built. Twenty 
years ago theatrical representations or an opera were 
looked upon as exceptional attractions ; whereas to-day. 


in the season, such performances occur several times in 
the week. It is only in the summer, when the crowds 
have left, that the old state of things is restored, and the 
visitors and general public can enjoy gratuitously the 
daily concerts. 

The recruiting of the orchestra has been steadily 
improved till it has reached the highest degree of perfec- 
tion. Formerly musicians were engaged because they had 
recommendations, and of course because they were con- 
sidered skilled in their art. Now introductions, patronage, 
recommendations are of no use. The best talent available 
is secured by means of competitive examinations. As an 
example, that will be appreciated by musicians, of the 
severity of the tests applied, the following is the precise 
text of an announcement issued ; — 

"Monte Carlo, 20 March 1911. 

" A competitive examination for the post of Second 
Trumpet and Piston in the orchestra of the Casino of 
Monte Carlo will take place on the 20th of April next, at 
9 in the morning. 

" Conditions of the Competition. 

" 1. The candidate shall not be more than thirty years 

of age. 
" 2. Shall have been employed at a concert or theatre 

in a town of importance from the musical point 

of view. 
" 3. Shall, when necessary, be able to play the trumpet 

in fa. 
" 4. Shall show his birth certificate." 

M. Sainte-Marie, who is now the chief organiser and 
archivist of the orchestras and choruses, assured me that 
by means of such competitions they were really collecting 
together a truly marvellous oix'hestra. M. Camille Blanc, 
whom he characterised as a great genius, had insisted 


that it was necessary to have the very best in the world. 
To attain this end the first step was to efface all frontier 
lines. Perfection could only be international. The present 
improved system of recruiting was instituted in 1909, and 
is unique. It gathers the best from every nation, and the 
most careful record is kept, following every performer 
step by step in his career. Nor is this a matter of difficulty. 
The reputation of the Monte Carlo orchestra stands so 
high that any musician fortunate enough to be engaged 
by the casino could always easily obtain employment 
elsewhere. To have played in the casino orchestra is in 
itself a first-class certificate. Thus all are eager to come, 
be it only for a season, but it does not often happen that 
a musician wants to leave, particularly as in so doing he 
would lose his claim to a pension. The rule is that 
after a service of 25 years the employee may retire, 
and will receive a pension equal to 25 per cent, of his 
highest salary. If he works for 30 years his pension will 
be equal to 30 per cent., and so on according to the 
number of years of service given, on condition that it 
does not amount to less than 25 years. Should one of the 
employees wish to leave before the end of the 25 years, if he 
can show good reason why he should do so he may obtain 
an indemnity in recognition of his services, but he has no 
positive claim. If, on the other hand, he is dismissed 
before the expiration of the 25 years through no fault 
of his own, but because the administration ■wishes to 
make some alteration, and no longer needs his services, 
he is given three months' full salary and the same pension 
as if he had served the full 2.5 years. Such are the 
regulations, which not only help to secure an excellent 
staff of musicians, but also prevent frequent changes of 
its members. 

In 1911 the chorus consisted of eighty-five singers. 
There was also a general chief or chorus-master, assisted by 
two leaders or teachers, and a stage or general manager. 
The chorus numbered forty-four women and forty men, 
and it is curious to note the great variety of nationalities 


they represented. There were nineteen French women, 
twelve Italians, four Swiss, three Russians, two Belgians, 
one German, one English, one American, and one Spanish. 
The men, however, did not include so many different 
nationalities. There were twenty Italians, eighteen French- 
men, two Belgians and one native JNIonegasque. Some of 
these singers have been distinguished by orders and 
decorations. Thus INIadame Ida Saury wears the purple 
ribbon as Officer of the Academy. A tenor has received 
the Mcdaille dii Travail, a French decoration founded to 
reward industry and labour ; and three male choristers 
have been honoured by the Russian Government with 
the Order of Nicholas II. 

The orchestra is much more numerous ; and this is 
all the more necessary as of late years it has been split 
up into several minor orchestras. Nevertheless it would 
be wrong to abandon the term Monte Carlo Orchestra. 
It still remains a unity, and a unity of world-wide 
renown. But to-day, as there are no less than 156 per- 
formers, they do not all perform together. Consequently 
there is the grand orchestra that plays in the large 
theatre and consists of 110 musicians. Of these eight are 
detached to form a " septuor " which occasionally plays 
of an afternoon in the atrium. It seems an anomaly to 
have eight musicians to constitute a septuor, but, however 
wrong this may be, it is nevertheless a fact, and those 
who hear the music readily forgive the inaccurate termin- 
ology. The orchestra at the Palais des Beaux Arts, where 
light operettas are often performed, consists of twenty 
performers. The celebrated Concert Louis Ganne, given 
in the new part of the casino, has also twenty instru- 
mentalists. Finally there is a small string band of six 
performers at the Sporting Club. But it is proposed that 
all these scattered orchestras should be occasionally 
gathered together, and a grand concert given which 
would unite the whole 156 instrumentalists. 

Of the members of the orchestra it is perhaps the 
seven pianists who have the most to do ; not that their 


performances in public are more arduous than those of 
any other musician, but their services are constantly 
needed for rehearsals of all sorts, including ballet dancing. 
They also help in the teaching. Then there are two 
musical prompters, one prompts in Italian and the other 
in French. This is a difficult and responsible work, and to 
get efficient service a good salary has to be paid. Of the 
105 principal members of the orchestra, fifty are French, 
twenty-seven Italian, tAventy Belgians, seven Mone- 
gasques, and one Russian. Among these performers no 
fewer than sixty-three are laureates, or have won the first 
prizes at the principal conservatoires of music, of France, 
Italy or Belgium. As over and above these distinctions 
two of them are Officiers de rinstmction Publiqnes, and 
thirteen Officiers de F Academie, it may well be said that 
the Monte Carlo orchestra has fully earned the respect 
and admiration of all musicians. These artists are well 
paid, better paid than elsewhere ; on the other hand, they 
have no other resources. In a large town they would have 
pupils or would be invited to play or sing in private 
houses, and thus obtain occasional fees. At Monte Carlo 
there are no such opportunities, and therefore there is 
nothing to anticipate beyond the salary paid. But the 
engagements are not always for the whole year. In the 
summer-time the orchestra is reduced to seventy per- 
formers, with only one chief and two sub-chiefs. The ballet 
dancers, numbering forty in all, are also only engaged for 
six months in the year. 

It will have been noticed that, in this international 
assembly of musicians, the English play but a poor part. 
In 1911 there was just one Englishwoman in the chorus: 
but there used to be an Englishman in the orchestra and 
he was first violin. This was Mr Gatermoole, and he 
served for twenty years. He was a typical Englishman in 
appearance, but far from British in manners. His ideal 
was not that of glorious isolation. He did not stand 
haughtily aloof from his colleagues, but on the contrary 
he excelled in uniting perfect courtesy with exuberant 


wit, and thus always contrived to put everyone in a good 
humour. He used to live at Cap d' Ail and ride backwards 
and forwards to the casino on a bicycle, often coming to 
grief, and having to mend his bicycle on the roadside. 
As he was always in full evening dress these accidents 
had a grotesque aspect which his fellow-workers hugely 
enjoyed. But the solitary Englishman in the Monte 
Carlo orchestra took everything in such good part, and 
contributed so largely to the merriment and friendly 
feeling prevailing among the staff, that he was dearly 
loved by all, and to this day his memory is recalled in 
regretful and affectionate terms. 

The principal leader of the orchestra, M. Leon Jehin, 
has acquired a world-wide fame. He was born at Spa 
in Belgium, as far back as 1850 ; but still remains 
vigorous, full of life and good humour. His musical 
education he owes to the Brussels Conservatoire, where he 
won the laureateship for harmony and the violin. He first 
conducted a band at Antwerp, and in 1883 was the chief 
conductor of the Brussels opera house, the Theatre de la 
Monnaie. At the same time he was Professor of Hai'mony 
at the Brussels Conservatoire. After leading orchestras 
in many places, including Covent Garden, London, he 
ultimately settled at Monte Carlo, where there is such a 
fertile field for his abilities. Here he not only led the 
orchestra, but composed much music, notably the 
orchestration for Gunsbourg's Le l^ieil Aigle and Ivan le 
Terrible, which recently caused so profound a sensation. 
Massenet said, in regard to this latter opera, that it is fine, 
true and new. To M. Leon Jehin's ne\"er-ceasing vigilance 
is due the success of the Monte Carlo orchestra. It is not 
the individual capacity of players that makes an orchestra, 
it is the power of holding them together ; and at Monte 
Carlo they play all things, from tlie severely classical to 
the galloping clang and clash of the Racoczy March, liut, 
to my mind, the best of it all is that they play the com- 
positions of utterly unknown and young composers. 
Indifferent as to school, nationality or renown, if a 


musician of genuine merit approaches M. Leon Jehin he 
will get a sympathetic hearing and a chance given to 
step into fame. 

Of course there is acting as well as singing and 
dancing on the Monte Carlo stage. The Russian ballet 
owes much of its European popularity to the renown it 
won at Monte Carlo. AH the best French dramas and 
comedies have been rendered at Monte Carlo ; and this, 
with the opera, creates the need for an immense amount 
of stage scenery and property. How this is provided con- 
sequently becomes a matter of great importance, so I 
started on a journey of exploration. 

Close to the Monte Carlo railway station, just be- 
hind the hotel terminus, there is a large and curious 
building. It is certainly not a dwelling, nor is it a 
theatre, or a meeting-place. There are but few win- 
dows, and the doors are not numerous, but large and 
peculiar in shape. This is a quiet part of the principality ; 
very few people have occasion to pass this way, and 
probably not one in a hundred visitors to Monte Carlo 
has noticed the odd big building in question. The only 
indication it bears is a monogram showing that it is part 
of the casino property. Obviously it is a new structure. 
It is equally clear that the public has no business there, 
for there is no inscription showing which is the entrance 
door, or who is within, and what is done there. It is 
certainly very mysterious, and its interior does not belie 
its outward appearance. At what seemed to be the main 
entrance, I could make no impression whatsoever ; but 
down the side, and near to what looked like the back 
of the building, there was another exceptionally large 
door, with a very little door cut into one of the panels. 
The little door I contrived to open, and penetrated at 
once into a vast expanse where there was hardly any 
light, no sound, no movement. In the foreground I per- 
ceived a fireman asleep in a chair. Behind him rose the 
prow of a gallant though antique sailing ship. The mast, 
it is true, was of doubtful strength, and the rigging scarce 









fit to assist in weathering a storm. It was consequently not 
so surprising to find that the stern of the ship had been 
completely wrenched off. Nevertheless this was meant 
to be the identical vessel on which Vasco da Gama sailed 
when he fell in love with UAfficaiiie. The good ship, 
however, was not storm-tossed. It had lost its way in the 
streets of a modern town inhabited by Egyptian gods and 
goddesses who seemed to have kicked over in a heap 
a miscellaneous collection of Gothic and Louis-Quinze 
furniture, and were now contemplating, with placid looks, 
dusty, painted, cardboard imitations of fruit contained 
in golden urns placed on a deserted banqueting-table. 
Luckily the fireman was slow in awakening, so I had 
a little time to take in this unusual scene before being 
called upon to explain my presence. 

M. Visconti, the fireman stated, was at the very top 
of the big building. There I should also find light coming 
from the roof, a good light for work. Downstairs the 
illumination was artificial, it was meant to imitate, in the 
daytime, the conditions prevailing at night in a theatre ; 
therefore windows were not needed, and hence the strange 
appearance of the building when viewed from the outside. 
It was consequently right at the top, under a splendid 
light from the roof, that I found M. V^isconti hard at 
work. Here all was bustle and labour, contrasting sharply 
with the sleepy gloom and vast vacant space of the 
ground floor. But at times the space below was of the 
greatest use. Nowhere else in the world is there so 
perfect a studio for painting stage scenery. The studio 
measures 76J yards in length, 15^ yai'ds in width. It is 
divided into three storeys, the lower or ground floor being 
as lofty as the stage of the casino theatre. At Monte 
Carlo the largest scene is 40 feet long and 33 feet high. 
In all there are 1291 square feet available, and in that 
part of the studio where I saw the ship is a stage exactly 
the same size. But there is not only the stage, there are 
all the lights of both before and behind the curtain. Thus 
the scenery can be put up under exactly the same con- 



ditions of illumination. Here also the wonderful luminous 
effects that M. Eugene Frey has introduced can be 
rehearsed. ^Vith the use of powerful lanterns, M. Frey 
produces illusions which could not otherwise be obtained 
except with great trouble and cost, and then perhaps not 
with sufficient rapidity. 

That everything can be done here and fully tested 
under realistic conditions is of the greatest importance, 
for it is often absolutely impossible to make any trials 
or experiments at the theatre itself. During the season 
there are rehearsals in the morning, and the play or opera 
in the evening, leaving no time to experiment with new 
scenery. The difficulty is that the plays or operas have 
to be changed every evening. Consequently it is necessary 
to have an enormous stock of scenery in readiness and 
accessible. For this a system of sorting, of cataloguing, 
and of marking has to be devised, so that all the scenery 
of a piece can be promptly found and brought out with- 
out the slightest omission. But nowhere else are such 
conveniences provided for the work. Behind the imitation 
stage there is room for the storing of a very large quantity 
of scenery, and the task of preparation and organisation 
is greatly facilitated by the fact that every department 
of the work is done on the premises. At Paris and else- 
where a certain amount of the work is given out. Thus 
the furniture may be made in one place and the scenery 
painted in another. There is consequently much time lost 
in running to and fro, and it is much more difficult to 
push all the branches forward simultaneously. Here every- 
thing is done under the one roof, it is all centralised under 
one management, and therefore all that is needed is ready 
at the same time. Nor is there any other studio where 
scene painters work with such ease. Unlike many other 
workshops, this establishment, in spite of its three storeys 
and vast dimensions, is heated throughout. There is a 
boiler with an engineer in charge ; and in case anything 
should go wrong there is also a fireman always on the 
premises. The fireman slumbers while the fire smoulders, 



but there is no knowing when both may suddenly 

M. Visconti is a pupil of M. Lavastre, the great 
Parisian scene painter, and most of the artists he employs 
are Parisians. In all, forty assistants are engaged here, and 
there is enough work to be done to keep them employed 
all the year round. A scene is always begun by an 
ordinary drawing. A simple picture is made of a forest, 
a palace, or whatev^er it may be the author desires to put 
on the stage. When this painting is considered satisfactory, 
and is accepted, the next process is to divide the picture 
into the back and the wings. This is called the mm'quette. 
It is very carefully drawn to scale. Then comes the 
execution, life-size. The canvas for the scenery is laid 
down on the floor under the skylights. But the sunlight 
is sometimes too bright, so there is an elaborate arrange- 
ment for drawing differently tinted blinds over the panes 
of glass to suitably modify the intensity and colour of the 
light. There are also rows of electric burners, so that 
should the natural light fail, or should it be necessary 
to work at night, electricity may make up for this 
deficiency. Twelve first-class and ten second-class artists 
are employed to do the painting. The canvas used is 
daubed over with a material called inijuge, which is 
supposed to prevent its catching fire ; but the impression 
is that it wears off in about three years, and that no 
thoroughly practical means has yet been discovered to 
render scenery non-inflammable. More faith is placed in 
strict watch and prompt action when there is a fire than 
in materials that are supposed to be non-combustible and 
are yet sufficiently light to be conveniently handled. 

Needless to say the scenery is as realistic as possible. 
Thus I chanced to come upon a grass lawn rolled up 
in a corner. It was not a mere canvas painted green. 
There was an imitation of blades of grass made, I think, 
with seaweed, that bent under the foot when trodden 
upon. It really looked and felt like grass, but had the 
advantage that it would not fade and could be kept 


indefinitely ; and it was so rolled up that one man could 
carry quite a large lawn on his shoulders. Perhaps, how- 
ever, the cardboard works form one of the most ingenious 
and interesting departments. Few persons, not technically 
acquainted with these matters, realise the importance and 
usefulness of cardboard for stage purposes. This sort of 
paper paste can be promptly moulded into any shape and 
painted any colour ; while it has the sov'ereign advantage 
of being extremely light. Considering how quickly a scene 
has to be changed, the first requisite is that every object 
on the stage, whether it be the stone equestrian statue of 
the commandant in Don Juan, or the broad battlements 
of the castle at Elsinore where the ghost of the senior 
Hamlet walks and talks at night, must be capable of being 
picked up and carried away in a moment. If made of 
wood, such objects would still be too heavy ; but card- 
board, while fairly strong, is much lighter than the lightest 
wood. Therefore there is a machine for making cardboard 
paste and thus cardboard furniture, statues and an endless 
variety of things are manufactured and coloured on the 
spot. For the latter purpose an aei-ograph is employed. 
This is a sort of spray producer by which pulverised 
colour is pumped upon an object to impart any desired tone 
or complexion. The colours applied are aniline ; metallic 
colours would be too dear for such rough usage, and 
would be considered dangerous, as the assistants might 
suffer if they had to breathe dust charged with particles 
of mercury, copper or arsenic. A sort of caolin, bkinc 
(TEspagne, or blanc de meudon, as it is called, is also 
largely used for moulding. Many stage statues and 
ornaments are made of this plaster of Paris. 

Some twelve women are employed, and they work at 
the cardboard figures, make artificial flowers or garlands, 
and various kinds of decoration. Others sew the canvas 
for the scenery. There is a carpenter, an upholsterer and 
cabinet-makers. Finally five unskilled labourers are 
employed to mix the paste for the cardboard, or to mix 
the colours and carry things about. It is indeed wonderful 


to see how things are lifted and removed. At the time 
of my visit there was a considerable amount of Egyptian 
scenery in course of preparation ; two men could lift a 
giant Rameses, and Cleopatra's Needle was easily balanced 
on one man's shoulder. It would be the same were it 
necessary to put a hundred-ton gun on the stage, and this 
is a contingency likely to arise during the course of some 
as yet unwritten " Dreadnought " drama. 

In the summer, M. Visconti indulges in a brief 
absence. He dashes off to Paris to see old colleagues and 
get new ideas. Then he has to call on the authors of 
plays to be put on the boards for the first time. Together 
they have to decide on suitable scenic effects, and this is 
no easy matter. It has become more difficult of late, for 
it is determined that no trouble or expense shall be spared 
to make the scenery of the Monte Carlo theatre the most 
perfect that art and science can produce. 

Seeing all this recalls to mind the teaching of one of 
our greatest authorities on such subjects, Mr Gordon 
Craig. For instance in The English Review of October 
1911 he says: "The scene painters in London are un- 
doubtedly most admirable scene painters ; and the 
costumiers are first class. But what is the use of considering 
all these things sejxiratehi or of separate people supplying 
them to the theatre when they have to be judged as a 
whole, when united ? You may paint the most perfect 
scene in the world, and you may bring in the most perfect 
lighting apparatus in the theatre, but unless the two 
things, together with the actor and the actor's voice, have 
been considered as a unit, the most dire results must 
always be produced." 

It would seem as if these lines had been written ex- 
pressly to guide the constructors of the vast scene and 
stage property studio and workshop of Monte Carlo. 



THE more closely life in the principality is studied, 
the more clearly the duality of motives becomes 
apparent. The cynic, especially if he has been 
gambling and has lost, will probably laugh at such a 
suggestion. It is considered smart, it shows a knowledge 
of the world, to deny that there can be any good and 
disinterested motive. Therefore wherever money is 
spent, it is to bring in money and not at all for the 
purpose of rendering a useful service. Though enormous 
sums are devoted to promote sports of all kinds at Monte 
Carlo, this is not done to provide amusement, while 
encouraging healthy exercise, but to attract strangers, so 
that they may risk their money at roulette and ti-ente-et- 
qtiarante. There are persons so constituted that it makes 
them happy to attribute bad motives to what appears 
to be a good action. It is a form of personal vanity. It 
is a way of posing. Such people are too clever by far 
to be taken in by any pretence of an altruistic nature. 
Nevertheless, whether as a consequence of outside pressure, 
or of the inward awakening of conscience, the fact does 
remain that, throughout the principality, we see this 
double motive, the hope of promoting business, but also 
the desire to do good. The preceding chapters contain 
many details of the vast sums of money expended on the 
arts and sciences which cannot possibly produce a money 
return. This is also the case in regard to many, though 
not to all, of the sports. 

Some so-called sports have been encouraged though 
they are not only useless but actually degrading. There 



can be but one reason for such a derogation from more 
wholesome traditions. It attracts people, but this is not 
a sufficient excuse. Already more money is made than 
is needed. The stress of business, the fear of failure and 
poverty can no longer be adduced as an excuse for some- 
what unscrupulous action. Such argument was plausible 
when Charles III. first reigned and but few of his people 
had ever seen a gold coin. It cannot be invoked to-day. 
Why then was the Anglo-French prize fight allowed ? 
Why was a purse worth £1500 provided for such an 
unworthy object. From Monaco, the home of art and 
science, we hear that one of the champions " sent in a left- 
hand hook on the jaw." After this " a right hard " came 
and a combatant was " sent flat on his back." What then 
was the use of engaging Sarah Bernhardt to act, Caruso 
and Chaliapine to sing, Clairin to paint, Garnier to build 
and so many other leaders in art and refinement, if this is 
the language correspondents are to use when they telegraph 
to the press the latest news from Monte Carlo. All the 
traditions of the place are outraged by this prize fight. 
It happened, however, that at the next notable " event " 
of this sort, one of the combatants was killed. As the 
fight occurred in Paris, the French Government interfered, 
and fights of this kind are not likely to take place again, 
either in France or in Monaco. 

There is another so-called sport which is not destined 
to long survive the advance of civilisation and humane 
sentiments. During the month of June 1912, at Vincennes, 
Captain Baledent, commander of the 5th Company of 
the 46th line, made experiments of cinematographic pro- 
jections on a rifle range. Skirmishers seeking shelter as 
they crept forward were shown, and soldiers fired at this 
advancing force. The marks left by the bullets showed 
to what extent they had aimed correctly. Siu-ely with a 
contrivance of this sort an excellent substitute for the 
pigeon-shooting might be found. At present the peaceful 
beauty of the casino terraces is constantly disturbed by 
the report of firearms. A bridge from the lower terrace 


passes over the railroad cutting. The Une is 62 feet 
below the bridge which leads to the extreme point 
on the JMonte Carlo promontory, where formerly such 
excellent sea-urchins and other delicacies could be found 
among the rocks. Now this point is given over to the 
pigeon-shooting. There is a large grass-sown hemicycle, 
sustained by arches resting on the irregularly shaped rocks 
of the seashore. Pigeon-shooting at Monte Carlo dates 
back to 1872 and boasts of having attracted the best 
shots of Europe and America. A great portion of the 
establishment was rebuilt in 1896. The initial expenses, 
comprising the construction of the arches on the rocks, 
and partially in the sea, amounted to some £12,000. 
Since that time, more money has been spent. The pigeon- 
shooters are afforded every convenience and shelter. 
Before them on the grass lawn there are five little wooden 
boxes. At a word of command an attendant pulls a string 
and one of the little boxes falls to pieces, thus releasing 
the tame pigeon that has been placed inside. Glad to be 
liberated from dark and close confinement, but dazed 
by the sudden glare of light, the pigeon rises slowly, and 
there are " sportsmen," so-called, who have the heart to 
shoot at this tame and confiding bird. If it is not killed, 
it will fly back to the pigeon-house, which is close at hand, 
or go behind the casino to feed from the hands of more 
humane persons who throw crumbs to the birds near the 
Cafe de Paris. Here sometimes may be seen a pigeon 
that has been hit, crippled, horribly maimed, but yet 
surviving, and still showing its confidence in mankind by 
hopping up close to the cafe tables for bread, instead 
of the lead it has received from the " sportsman" on the 
other side of the casino. 

Perhaps a glowing description should be given here of 
the pigeon-shooters and the pigeon-shooting, for ]Monte 
Carlo is one of the most celebrated rendezvous in the 
world for this sort of pastime. Crowned heads, members of 
the aristocracy of most countries and plutocrats of all 
shades and colours have attempted to kill the tame pigeons 





that attendants place before them ready to be shot. 
Fortunately there are some indications that this cruel 
diversion will no longer continue to be fashionable. There 
are now so many prizes given, and some of them for such 
large sums, that the pigeon-shooting has attracted people 
who come merely for the sake of the money they hope to 
win. Worse even than this, syndicates have been formed, 
especially in Italy. A certain number of persons club 
together and practise shooting. The best shot is then 
selected and sent to compete at the Monte Carlo pigeon- 
shooting matches. His expenses are paid by his syndicate ; 
but if he wins he must share the proceeds with his 
associates. This of course means the attendance at the 
matches of a very different class of persons from the 
fashionable crowd it was the intention of the organisers 
to attract to JMonte Carlo. But really these poor Italians, 
who come in the hope of making money, are more 
excusable than the idle rich who shoot pigeons for mere 
amusement. Generally speaking, even savage wild animals 
only kill while they are hungry ; but the human animal 
goes on killing for the fun of the thing. The poor Italian, 
however, does kill because he is hungry, for he is trying 
to earn a living by shooting pigeons. He would just as 
soon shoot at a clay pipe, if there were as big a prize to 
be obtained when he hit it ; he does not necessarily take 
pleasure in killing, he is only anxious to increase his 
insufficient income. 

It is to be hoped that the time is not far distant when 
the pretty tame pigeons of Monte Carlo will be allowed 
to enjoy as peaceful a life as the pigeons that add so much 
to the charm and animation of the Piazza San Marco at 
\'enice. All true sportsmen should protest against the 
very unsportsmanlike butchery that so constantly mars 
the beautiful outlook from the terraces of the casino. In 
any case, close at hand, just on the opposite side of the 
bay that forms the ancient port of Hercules, is the old 
palace of the Grimaldis, and there lives a real sportsman 
who in more than one perilous adventure has proved his 


mettle, and he does not fail to express his contempt. In 
" La Carriere d'un Navigateur," Prince Albert devotes a 
chapter to hunting and shooting, and he speaks of the 
decadent sportsman evolved by modern customs and tame 
existence which society governs '* from the height of its 
boredom " : 

" With their suits of elegant cut, their thin and highly 
polished boots, their hair dressed with sheep-like sub- 
mission to the caprices of fashion, their fancy gloves to 
protect their feminine hands against the cold, or against 
vulgar contacts or the colouring due to exposure, with 
their virgin guns that bear neither scratch nor scar as 
witness of ardent struggles, these shooters have a fragile 
aspect that indicates their lack of character. 

" Their elegancies flourish on a soft, convenient ground 
where there is game that is not too cunning and has been 
procured purposely to suit such hunters." 

It certainly cannot be said that the tame pigeon 
placed in a small box, at a measured distance from the 
man who shoots, displays any cunning. The prince, of 
course, does not openly allude to the pigeon-shooting that 
is so extensively practised in his principality. Some of his 
very distinguished guests, who have thoughtlessly followed 
in the wake of fashion, even to the extent of shooting at 
tame pigeons, might be offended. But the prince clearly 
indicates what he considers real sport, and does not 
hesitate to express his scorn for the safe and easy shooting 
that has become fashionable. Sport, he tells us, " is in 
harmony with the laws of natui'e, which sanction the 
killing of beasts for self-defence or for food ; but to kill 
without excuse, to kill without measure and without pity, 
to kill while pampered with luxury, has always been a 
sign of decadence." 

On the other hand, many of the sports encouraged in 
the principality are obviously of direct use to the world at 
large. True to their Phoenician origin, everything that is 


connected with locomotion, be it on land or sea, but more 
especially if it is on the sea, finds favour at Monaco. At 
nearly all the Riviera resorts there is every year a battle 
of flowers ; but at Monaco there is not only a battle on 
land, there is also a battle on the sea. Instead of dressing 
up carriages with flowers, boats are thus gaily arrayed. 
Instead of carriages driving past, boats are rowed near 
enough for their occupants to bombard each other with 
flowers. The shower of flowei-s constitutes a peaceful and 
poetical way of fighting that is not devoid of charm. No 
sort of injury is inflicted unless some dirt accidentally gets 
into the eye. The great demand for flowers encourages 
floriculture, and their utilisation to ornament carriages or 
boats develops appreciation for the decorative arts. 

The open sea, the smooth harbour, naturally encourage 
all forms of aquatic sports. There are numerous regattas, 
and the moment a new means of locomotion is discovered 
it meets with encouragement at Monaco. Thus the sports 
of Monaco have really helped the cause of progress. A 
large open space that faces the harbour in the Condamine 
is kept free for all such purposes. Here an annual exhibition 
of motor boats is held, followed by numerous contests 
between these crafts. Prizes to the extent of £4000 are 
given, and this must stimulate the invention and better 
management of new methods of navigation, that will 
prove of great service. On this same spot there was 
formerly a large shelter built for dirigible balloons, and 
here it was that Santos Dumont made one of his memor- 
able flights. 

To-day, of course, it is the aeroplane that holds the 
first place, and at once its development was encouraged at 
Monaco. As a result, it is now the boast of the principality 
that the first flight ever taken over the Mediterranean was 
from Monaco. The start was made from the quay on the 
commercial side of the port. A commemorative tablet will 
be found on the spot, and it bears the following in- 
scription : — 

"On the 3rd of March 1910 the aviator H. Rougier 


started from this spot on a Voisin biplane to accomplish 
the first flight on the Mediterranean and to pass above a 
mountain, for the first time, by flying over the THe de 
Chien (600). The Communal Council decides and ap- 
proves the erection of this commemorative inscription, 
the Commandant Loth being Mayor. January 1911." 

The snapshot photograph of this memorable flight is 
here reproduced, and besides the biplane we see the prince's 
yacht, Princcsse Alice, at anchor. Behind is the Condamine 
district, and in the long, low building against the water the 
first pretence of a bathing station was established. In the 
rear is the Tvtc de Chien, 600 metres high, so called 
because it is like the head of a dog in a crouching attitude. 
The aviator, after going over the sea as far as Cap Martin 
and back, flew above this mountain. 

For other forms of locomotion we have bicycle races, 
an automobile rally and, what is very much needed, a 
competition for elegance in the construction, painting and 
decoration of automobiles. It is bad enough that motors 
should render the road untenable by reason of the people 
they kill and maim, the abominable noise and smell they 
maice, the blinding dust they raise, but their ugliness still 
further increases the sorrow with which we part from the 
beautiful and lovable horses they replace. Prizes should 
also be given for more harmonious hooters and less 
odoriferous petrol. But the principality was to the forefront 
in reducing the speed at which motors are allowed to travel 
and in tarring the roads, so that they should make less dust. 
Now a still more radical measure has been taken to liberate 
the pedestrian from the motor car nuisance, and prevent 
a few rich people from prohibiting the most wholesome 
of all exercises. A society has been formed to promote the 
" path by the sea." From Nice to Menton all local 
authorities will exercise their persuasive powers on the 
landlords whose property skirts the sea, so as to induce 
them to sell enough land for a narrow path to be made, 
which will allow the pedestrian to walk, undisturbed by 
any vehicle whatsoever, from Nice to Menton. Portions of 



this path are already constructed, and I had the pleasure 
to assist at the inauguration, in 1911, of the section that 
starts from Monte Carlo station and goes beyond the 
frontier to the Pointe de la V^ieille. Here there is an 
interruption and the pedestrian must follow the main 
road, but he will find the path again as he nears Cap 
Martin. If people come to the Riviera it is because they 
appreciate the scenery, the climate, the flowers and the 
vegetation possible only on account of the climate. But 
petrol does not enhance the perfume of the flowers. The 
dust of the motor veils the beauty of their colours, while it 
destroys the purity of the atmosphere. So that the charm 
and the principal attractions of the country shall no 
longer be sacrificed to the love of speed, the path by the 
sea is in the course of construction. All who can appre- 
ciate the joy of contemplation, where nature is so kind, 
and sky and sea combine to produce endless variety of 
colour and form, will not be disturbed as they stroll 
along this little path. Dr Guglielminetti is the secretary 
of the organisation that is thus endeavouring to save us 
from the motor car, and lovers of nature will wish him 
all success. 

Among other forms of exercise encouraged here, 
there is a golf club high up in the mountains, but it can 
be reached by motor omnibus. Close at hand, in the 
Condamine, and at the Jardins de la Festa, lawn-tennis 
is played, and international matches held. For those who 
work and have not time to go about playing like school- 
boys, gymnastics or fencing are much better than games 
which only exercise some of the muscles. With fencing 
we can exercise the largest variety of muscles and make 
the maximum effort in the minimum time. The principal 
objection, especially in the north of Europe, is that both 
gymnastics and fencing are generally practised indoors. 
Not so in Monaco, where opportunities for such exercise 
are supplied out of doors. Local and international fencing 
matches often take place, and it is a great pity that more 
Englishmen do not learn to fence, and thus acquire not 


only quickness of eye and hand, but gracefulness of 
deportment and agility. 

At Monte Carlo there are all manner of competitions, 
some of a rather eccentric character. For instance, there 
is a hat competition for ladies, and also a parasol contest. 
It is not a fight, but an exhibition, and the possessor of 
the most graceful parasol obtains a prize. If it were held in 
London it would have to be an umbrella contest ; but, 
being at Monte Carlo, and in the winter, it advertises the 
fact that this is the land of sunshine. Then there are 
international competitions of dogs ; all sorts of dogs : pet 
dogs, terrier dogs, bull dogs and, still more interesting, 
police dogs. The latter must show that they have been 
trained to refuse food offered by strangers, to pursue 
thieves and know when to bite and when to stop biting. 
Finally, the state reception of the Queens of Beauty must 
not be forgotten, for this is a well-merited homage paid 
to useful labour. The Queens of Beauty are elected at Nice, 
as in Paris, from among the laundry women, the market 
women and other hard-working women. The object is to 
show that it is possible to be a useful member of society 
without losing all claim to beauty and even to elegance. 
The women toiling in these different trades are proud to 
think that they still preserve in their midst some of the 
charms for which their sex is distinguished. So for one 
day in the year the prettiest in each trade is elected Queen 
and the authorities called upon to render her homage. 
The Queen and her Court must be received at the town 
hall and respectfully kissed by the mayor. For the whole 
day receptions and entertainments foUowin rapid succession, 
and for once in her life the laundry girl or market stall- 
keeper tastes the sweets of high office and public popu- 
larity. The photograph reproduced here gives the Queens 
of Beauty for the year 1911. They are sitting onthe platform 
within the Monte Carlo Palace of Fine Arts, where they 
were received, with all honour, by the authorities of the 
principality and the directors of the casino. 

Such are some of the sports and diversions organised 


each year for the benefit of visitors. The list given is not 
complete, for it is safe to say that barely a week passes 
during the season without some event or another taking 
place. The main purpose doubtless is to ensure that 
visitors shall enjoy themselves Avhile in the principality ; 
but their health is benefited by the motive provided for 
outdoor exercise, while encouragement is given to many 
inventions that render practical service as well as provide 



IT is a well-recognised fact that gamblers are as a class 
particularly superstitious. The wonder is that very 
shrewd, sober-minded people, and even those who 
have received a scientific training, are not exempt from this 
weakness. On the contrary, should they become habitual 
roulette-players they will develop superstitious tendencies 
and gradually sink to the level of frivolous, shallow- 
minded old dames who glory in hanging seven grotesque 
charms to their watch-chain. The higher intellects are 
preserved by their sense of pride from doing anything that 
is too obviously absurd, but they are nevertheless terribly 
troubled by superstitious apprehensions. They also have 
their lucky days, quite like common mortals, and their 
lucky numbers. They object to be spoken to or looked at 
when playing, and not a few would absolutely refuse to 
stake any money on the suicides' table. In almost every 
book or paper that has been written about Monte Carlo, 
Homburg, Wiesbaden and similar places, the superstitions 
of gamblers are described, sometimes at great length. 
Yet with all this exuberance of detail, repetition and 
gossip no one seems to have paused to inquire why 
gamblers are more superstitious than other members of 
the community ; and, when gambling, more superstitious 
than when engaged on any other occupation. 

The explanation of this phenomenon is nevertheless 
very simple and clear. The less we know, the more 
superstitious do we become. The world's history shows 
that this is a dominant chai'acteristic of human nature. 
It is notorious that the most superstitious people are the 







seafaring and agricultural populations. Both depend for 
their daily work and daily bread on the condition of the 
weather, and meteorology of all the sciences is that which 
has made the least progress. But with regard to naviga- 
tion, since the introduction of steamships and with the 
ever-increasing power of the machinery they contain we 
hear less and less of sailors' superstitions. Such ships defy 
the weather, and no one has accused firemen, stokers and 
engine-room men of being especially superstitious. It is 
the mariner of the olden days, who had to trim his sail to 
every wind, and never knew from what quarter the wind 
would blow, who naturally became extremely supersti- 
tious. He could no more tell whether there would be a long 
continuance of fine weather than the player at roulette 
can tell when to expect a long series on red. The same may 
be said about the tiller of the soil, and both depended on 
the weather for their existence. The more violent the 
phenomenon, if we are ignorant of its cause and the laws 
by which it is governed, the deeper the superstitions it 
engenders. A series of twenty on a simple or even chance is 
just as extraordinary, rare and unexpected a phenomenon 
as an earthquake would be, and we are equally at a loss 
to explain or anticipate its occurrence. Speaking of 
earthquakes and their relation to superstitions. Buckle, 
in his " History of Civilisation," says : 

" Further illustration of this may be found even in 
Europe, where such phenomena are comparatively speak- 
ing extremely rare. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 
are more frequent and more destructive in Italy, and in 
the Spanish and Portuguese peninsula, than in any other 
of the great countries ; and it is precisely there that 
superstition is most rife, and the superstitious classes 
most powerful. Those were the countries where the clergy 
first established their authority, where the worst corrup- 
tions of Christianity took place, and where superstition has 
during the longest period retained the firmest hold." 

To-day at Monte Carlo, nothing, I should imagine, 



is more likely to shock the reverently disposed Christian 
than the presence on the gambling-tables of images, 
blessed and consecrated as sacred to his faith. Of the loud 
prayers uttered in the churches, of the silent prayers 
whispered in the casino, the former are often doubtful 
in quality, Avhile the latter, born of distress, are likely to 
be more fervent. Nor is this quite as reprehensible and 
irreverent as it may seem. Many a story is told of disaster, 
sickness, unemployment, bad trade, unsuccessful specu- 
lations, the crumbling of a fortune, the menace of family 
ruin. Then, as a last chance, a few hundred or a few 
thousand francs are gathered together in the hope that 
luck, which has proved so hostile in the ordinary business 
of life, may show itself more kind in this last desperate 
venture. Such an attempt is generally made by a woman ; 
a pious and devoted woman, strongly attached to her 
family, who has never gambled in her life and has some- 
thing much better to do with her time and money than 
to waste them over games of hazard. She comes, however, 
to Monte Carlo in the extremity of her distress. Is she 
to pray to the pagan goddess of Fortune, or shall she bring 
with her the little silver image of the Virgin Mary, to 
which she has appealed with perfect faith during every 
trial and stress of her life ? Is this friend and companion 
in all her doubts and troubles to be spurned and pushed 
aside now that the greatest trial is at hand and the last 
forlorn hope must be attempted ? Obviously this is the 
moment of all others when the poor distraught woman 
will cling to that image, pathetic in its smallness and 
insignificance, but rendered strong and even beautiful 
by reason of the intensity of human love, human longing 
and agony, with which it is clothed. 

The sense of decorum, of ridicule, of inappropriateness, 
of shame, does not exist. With the Virgin's effigy firmly 
held in one hand, and a few coins or notes trembling in the 
other, this woman, strong in her simple superstition, 
approaches the tables. There is no desire to gamble, there 
is only the love that longs to save her family from distress. 






This is a holy feehng, and her hps move in correspondence 
with the sacred appeal for help and mercy that springs 
from her soul, as she throws her money on the table. 
This is a form of superstition which we may lament as 
divorced from reason, but which is too pathetic to be a 
subject of ridicule. Nor should the iconoclastic Christian 
be too utterly shocked, for there are other points of view 
than those engendered by his puritanic training. 

It was quite a different matter, however, when on one 
occasion I was disturbed at my hotel by the loud and 
angry voices of two elderly ladies. One of these fellow- 
residents had reckoned that her fortune was assured 
because, after prolonged intrigues and the exercise of the 
greatest ingenuity, she had succeeded in approaching one 
of the attendants on the Pope at Rome. Her object was to 
conceal a five-franc piece among some rosaries which the 
Pope was going to bless. Having at last, after any amount 
of trouble, surreptitiously succeeded in securing the papal 
blessing for her five francs, she took the first train to 
Monte Carlo. Unfortunately I was never able to obtain a 
clear account of the way in which she utilised the sacred 
coin at the roulette-table. It is hardly likely that the coin 
was actually staked. Perhaps it was thought sufficient to 
mix it with the other money which was put on the table. 
However this might be, the result was satisfactory and 
the amount won daily accumulated. 

The terrible dispute in which this golden adventure 
terminated arose out of excessive kindness. If the lady 
with the coin the Pope had blessed was fortunate, her 
bosom friend was equally unfortunate. Instead of rejoic- 
ing at her companion's good fortune the friend weari- 
somely bewailed her own ill-luck in staking just too soon 
or too late. At last, tired out by this oft-repeated tale of 
woe, the lady with the blessed coin lent it to her friend. 
That surely would end all the trouble. Sustained by papal 
blessings, even though they had been unintentionally 
bestowed, there could be no doubt that luck would turn. 
It did turn, but not as anticipated. The friend's bad luck 


steadily continued, it was the good luck accompanying 
the sacred five-franc piece that turned. Bad as this might 
be, worse followed. Somehow in the confusion and 
excitement of the moment, the friend proved unworthy 
of the great trust which had been reposed in her ; she 
actually allowed a sacrilegious croupier to rake up the coin 
blessed by the Pope. Paralysed by such a desecration, 
before a protest could be uttered she saw the sacred five- 
franc piece inextricably mixed with the countless mass of 
common coins. A moment later it began to share the fate 
of all other money and was tossed irreverently from hand 
to hand, resting briefly in many pockets and in vulgar 
promiscuity to ordinary filthy dross. What would become 
of the papal blessing now ? Would not such an affront 
turn it into a curse ? How could the owner or the 
borrower of the sacred five-franc piece ever return to the 
casino ? Wliat luck could they possibly expect after 
thus desecrating so holy an object ? 

Long did the passages of the hotel re-echo with re- 
criminations of this description, and they did not cease 
even though one by one various doors opened and people 
stepped out to ascertain what was the matter. There is 
no knowing how long I might have continued an amused 
spectator, but that another elderly lady touched me on 
the arm. Opening a very deep shabby leather purse the 
lady invited me to look inside, saying, " I have something 
better than that. I did not have to go to Rome for it and 
bribe a lot of people. I got it from a railway porter and it 
only cost me five francs, but it has been more lucky than 
the five-franc piece these noisy ladies have lost." For 
some time I looked down into the purse without perceiv- 
ing anything. There was not even any money, but at 
last I saw a small piece of something that looked like a 
fragment of liver about the size of a threepenny bit. 
" What is it ? " I whispered, for this was too mysterious 
a matter to admit of being discussed in louder tones. 
" I went to the Monaco railway station," the lady replied. 
" You know that there is also a goods station there and 



» f 





Till': I )i«. Snow 


not many people about, so I persuaded a railway porter 
to catch and kill one of the numerous bats that fly out at 
dark. This is the bat's heart. The porter was quite satisfied 
when I gave him five francs for it. The silly man, if he had 
only known, I would gladly have given him twenty francs. 
You see this old purse. It is very large, so I can put a lot 
of five-franc pieces on the top of the bat's heart. If I do 
occasionally lose a piece I am not in the least alarmed, 
because I know that somehow that piece must have 
failed to touch the bat's heart, for it is a very small heart 
and is wearing away like Balzac's Peau de Chagrin. Then 
I am a little greedy and hasty, and do not take sufficient 
care. But that does not matter, it makes the game more 
interesting to lose a little now and then." 

Seeing that it was necessary for the money to rub against 
the bat's heart, I inquired why smaller coins, gold coins, 
were not used, since it was only the money that had been 
in the purse and in touch for some time with the bat's 
heart which acquired magic virtue. My question, however, 
was greeted with a look of such withering scorn that I 
regretted having spoken and apologetically inquired 
what I could have said that was so obviously inappro- 
priate. " It is my mistake," the lady now answered, with 
cold politeness and measuring her words. " I thoughts — but 
I fear I am not good at thought-reading — however, the 
impression did come over me that you were a brother, 
a fellow-initiate. Otherwise, do you think I would ever 
have shown you my purse ? But there, great as is the 
world's ignorance, I did think you knew the bat was a 
night animal." 

Of course I energetically protested that of this much, 
at least, I was not ignorant ; but was fully aware that 
bats only flew about after dusk. " Then," resumed the 
mysterious lady, " the bat being a creature of the night, 
corresponds with the feminine in nature, with our Holy 
Mother, who always wears the blue star-spangled cloak 
of night, and rests her foot on the silvery moon. Of course 
her metal is silver, so how can you expect a bat to in- 


fluence gold ? Is not gold the exact opposite ? It is the 
metal of the sun, of the male in nature, of fire, of light, 
of the day as opposed to the night. If I played with gold 
I should hide my bat's heart in a dark place, keep the gold 
well away from it, use another purse and play on the day 
consecrated to the sun — on Sunday, of course ! But as I 
was born under a favourable aspect of the moon, I must 
be content with her metal, silver, and of course my best 
day for winning is her day, the moon's day, as you say in 
English, the jour de la lune, or lundi, as we say in French." 
Thereupon the old lady made me a dignified curtsy, and 
with a somewhat sardonic laugh strolled away. This was 
not Isis unveiled, but it seemed to me as if I had been 
privileged to catch a glimpse through a minute rent in 
the veil. 

It would be an error to conclude from the above 
incidents that only persons brought up in Roman Catholic 
countries have so little reverence and sense of what is 
appropriate as to bring to the gaming-tables something 
derived from their Church. A few steps beyond the 
frontier line of the principality there is an English 
chapel where a duly ordained clergyman of the Church of 
England officiates every Sunday to a Monte Carlo con- 
gregation. A well-known story, familiar to most fre- 
quenters, is told of an English visitor who after attending 
Church service went as usual to the casino. On approach- 
ing the tables, however, he felt a singular hesitation. 
The even chances, the columns, the numbers, the dozens 
seemed to have lost their charm. There was not even a 
favourite transversale that could tempt him. But all of a 
sudden a luminous idea came to his mind. He remembered 
that the clergyman had called upon the congregation to 
sing the hymn numbered 36 in the hymn-book, and there 
was no resisting such an inspiration. Without a moment's 
hesitation he threw a louis on No. 36. Round went the 
wheel and a minute later the croupier, having announced 
trente-six, rouge, pair, passe, handed over the thirty-five 
louis won. This was too good a stroke of luck to be passed 


over in silence. The fortunate player told his friends, and 
they told their friends. Thus it came about that on the 
following Sunday there was an extraordinary increase in 
the congregation attending the English church. Greatly 
wondering and nothing doubting, the clergyman in due 
time gave out hymn No. 27, and this met with ready 
response from the congregation. No sooner was the service 
over than quite an exceptional number of the faithful 
strolled from the church to the casino. Entering the gaming- 
rooms, they showed equal unanimity in staking on No. 
27. It so happened, however, that this number was not 
to the fore at this particular moment. Nevertheless, for 
there is no limit to the hopefulness of gamblers, there was 
again an exceptionally large attendance at the church on 
the ensuing Sunday. But by this time the clergyman 
had begun to suspect the origin of the sudden popularity 
his church had acquired, so he gave out hymn 47 ! The 
blank, disappointed look of many among the congrega- 
tion confirmed his suspicions, and henceforth he selected 
hymns above No. 36. It was not long before his congre- 
gation dwindled back to its small and normal proportions. 

Nevertheless if these gamblers who associated the 
chants of their Church with the chances of roulette had 
known the lady with the bat's heart, she would soon have 
shown them how to bet on No. 47 or any other number, 
whatever its length, even if it exceeded 47 millions. 
It does not need a very terrible, dangerous, mysterious 
initiation to know what is sometimes called theosophic 
reduction, by which any and every figure can be brought 
down to the first nine numbers. Thus, in this case, it was 
only necessary to count that 4 + 7 = 11 and then to play 
on eleven. But by going a step farther we get 1 + 1=2 ; 
and, as two is female, it would be preferable to stake 
silver coins. After that, if the player had not won, even 
the lady with the bat's heart would have been forced to 
admit it was not from want of knowledge. 

A great deal might be said about numbers and many 
superstitions traced back to Pythagorean theories, to 


the Tarot or the twenty-two principal letters of the 
Hebrew alphabet. But the vast majority of gamblers are 
shallow-minded pleasure-seekers, and are not prone to 
reason over what they do ; otherwise they would not 
play so often. If a person bets on a particular number it is 
more likely to be the date of his birthday or the number 
of his cloakroom ticket than a number that has an 
esoteric meaning which corresponds with some particular 
and to him favourable influence. In this respect I had a 
curious experience. Some years ago, a scare was raised 
that American coals were exported to Mediterranean 
ports, and the rate of wages paid to British miners might 
be reduced in consequence. Thereupon two Labour 
members of the House of Commons, who had been elected 
to represent mining districts, asked me to accompany 
them to the Mediterranean so as to verify this statement. 
Needless to say, the talk about American exports of coal 
was but a stratagem based on the supposed ignorance of 
the working miners. This unscrupulous manoeuvre was, 
however, very effectively defeated by the investigation we 
made on the spot. Having visited the coal depots at 
Marseilles, Toulon, Nice, without finding any American 
coals, it was necessary to travel through Monaco on the 
way to Genoa. Such an opportunity was not to be lost. 
Obviously one or two days' holiday must be taken to visit 
this beauty spot. But as the force of circumstances had 
imposed on me the responsible position of guide, philos- 
opher and friend, I felt bound to deliver an urgent and 
solemn homily on the folly and fatal consequences of 

Duly impressed by my earnest exhortation and 
evident experience, my friends agreed that we should each 
risk ten francs — a sum we could afford to lose without a 
tinge of regret. This would suffice for playing six times, 
even if we lost each time, and we would share alike in 
profit or loss. At this juncture I noticed that the 
number of the railway carriage in which we were approach- 
ing Monte Carlo was 2031. Pointing this out, I explained 


that according to local traditions and superstitions we 
should stake on les quatres premiers — i.e. the zero and the 
numbers 1, 2, 3. But we should have only one chance of 
winning out of nine, so it would be a great risk. My 
companions, however, were delighted. What did the risk 
matter, since I had so carefully taught them to expect 
to lose and to risk only what they could without the 
slightest reluctance afford to lose ? After going round 
the rooms and watching the play at sevei'al tables, I 
called upon my companions to select the table at which 
we were to try our fortunes. This done, my consternation 
may well be imagined when, on approaching the table, 
I found the marble resting peacefully on No. 2 as the 
wheel turned lazily round while people laid out fresh 
stakes. We had arrived just too late ; the four first had 
already won ! What were we to do ? It was most unlikely 
so slender a chance would turn up twice running. My 
companions were inexorable. They were just as interested 
in Monte Carlo superstitions as in roulette ; the stake on 
the number of our railway carriage must be made, and 
I made it. A still greater surprise was in store, for the 
quatres premiers turned up a second time and therefore 
we won eight pieces. W^e had by one single coup more than 
doubled our capital. Such extraordinary luck, my com- 
panions readily recognised, was not likely to happen again. 
Though we had only risked one out of our six five-franc 
pieces, we all agreed to rest satisfied with our very good 
fortune. Triumphantly we marched out and proceeded to 
exercise our arithmetical faculties in the attempt to 
divide the eight big silver pieces we had won into three 
equal parts. 

Superstitions with regard to numbers are very wide- 
spread, and this not merely among ignorant people. 
In London I am acquainted with a West-End book- 
dealer, a thoughtful, well-read man, who is also a great 
explorer. For some reason he is unable to explain he has 
always associated his existence and any strong feeling he 
may experience with the number 8. Instead of swear- 


ing when agitated he will mutter to himself, 8, 18, 80, 88, 
800 and so on till he has recovered his equanimity. Of 
course on hearing this I reminded him that the eighth Tarot 
card meant justice, and he was greatly surprised, for not 
only is justice his highest ideal but a paper with which 
he was much concerned is called Justice. He then related 
that in his exploring expeditions he had visited a London 
gambling hell where they were playing roulette. Seeing 
the numbers, he at once placed a coin on No. 8, and No. 8 
won. He was paid thirty-five times the amount he had 
risked and this was the first time and the last time he had 
ever played at roulette. 

Perhaps no superstition is so widespread as the dread 
of No. 13, and yet how few people know why. How few 
people know anything about that earlier form of scripture, 
those philosophical tablets that became the twenty-one 
numbered Tarot cards and the one unnumbered card. 
It is in them, and they are probably three or four thou- 
sand years old, that the fear of thirteen originated. This 
is obviously due to the fact that the thirteenth card is the 
death card, though not necessarily a bad card. Death is 
impossible without its natural counterpart, birth. It is the 
card of birth or rebirth as well as of death ; and thus it 
is essentially a revolutionary card. The death of the old, 
the birth of the new ; how else shall we rid ourselves of 
the many time-worn abuses ? Strange to say, if we look 
about the wealthy quarters of Paris, where the inhabit- 
ants have much to preserve and do not welcome the 
idea of death, the number 13 is not often seen. In the 
Place Vendome, where are situated the Hotel Bristol, fre- 
quented by kings, and the Hotel Ritz, there is no No. 13. 
Nor is there a No. 13 in the rue le Peletier, the Avenue 
Matignon, the Avenue de Villiers, the rue Poussin, the 
Faubourg St Honore, the Faubourg Montmartre, the rue 
Montaigne, the rue Blanche, the rue Balzac, the rue 
Chateaubriand, the rue Boissy d'Anglas, the Avenue 
Jules Janin, the rue Dosne, the rue de la Pompe, the rue 
Nicolo, the rue Boissonnade, the rue d'Astorg, the rue 


Faraday and many others. On the other hand, at Belle- 
ville, at La Villette, and different working men's and 
revolutionary quarters of Paris, no one objects to No. 13, 
and it may be found in every street. 

Thirteen was never intended to be an unlucky number. 
All that has life must die, whether it be an individual, a 
dynasty, or an institution, and when it disappears to 
make room for something that is better the event may be 
considered fortunate rather than unfortunate. Neverthe- 
less, this does not do away with the fact that there are 
some persons who will not occupy the thirteenth seat 
from the croupier, and who refuse to play at all on the 
13th of the month. And all these things are likely to be 
more unlucky if the player is on the left side of the 
croupier. But there are many other considerations. Thus 
a lady who had been warned by a fortune-teller that 
she would be reduced to " black despair " {miscre noire) 
would play on red alone, and this only when a fair-haired 
croupier was manipulating the wheel. Others will not 
play unless they have just taken the precaution to put 
out their tongue at their left-hand neighbour. It is as well 
to be acquainted with such practices so as not to take 
offence when no offence is meant. The jettatore is also used 
to ward off the spirits that bring bad luck, and is not 
intended as a hostile act aimed at some fellow-player. 

The great puzzle is to know what a player must do if 
he perceives a priest. This infallibly betokens bad luck, 
unless some very energetic means is adopted to counter- 
act such an unfortunate influence. The horn, the pagan 
symbol of male virility, to this day is believed to be the 
best antidote against unmarried priests ; and women on 
meeting a priest will curl the first finger of each hand on 
the sides of their forehead, thus pretending to have horns. 
But if the priest brings bad luck, nothing can excel the 
good luck that as invariably accompanies the hump- 
back. On this subject an amusing story is told about 
the late M. Alfred Naquet, the learned deputy who 
succeeded in persuading the French Parliament to enact 


a law authorising divorce. While the controversy this 
occasioned was at its height, M. Naquet came to Monte 
Carlo. To his surprise, he was received with marked 
attention and even familiarity. Some, ladies in particular, 
found various pretexts for touching or caressing him, and 
especially for stroking him on the back. M. Naquet was 
delighted. He had been told that women were strongly 
opposed to his Divorce Bill, but here at Monte Carlo 
women of all sorts greeted him with affectionate mani- 
festations of approval. Poor M. Naquet ! He forgot that he 
was a humpback, and he did not know that to stroke the 
hump of a humpback is a sure way of winning at roulette. 
The belief that humpbacks bring good luck to gamblers 
has prevailed in many parts of the world and for many 
centuries, but there is a superstition which can only 
apply to Monte Carlo. Travelling from Nice to Monte Carlo, 
and passing through the big tunnel between Eze and La 
Turbie, there is to be seen a large hole on the right about 
ten feet wide, through which a glimpse of the sea can be 
obtained. This is called the " troii de la veine.'' Here dwell 
the pretty fairies who put us in the lucky vein. It is of no 
use to look for this hole, but should the traveller chance to 
see it when he is not on the look-out, then he may stake 
his money without fear ; he is sure to win. With regard to 
the railway journey from Nice to Monte Carlo, it may be 
mentioned that a smaller number of tickets are issued on 
the Friday. This proves the prevalence of the superstition 
that Friday is an unlucky day. Vendredi is the day of the 
Latin Venus ; Friday the day of Freya, the Scandinavian 
Venus. Of all the days of the week, it is more especially 
the woman's day, and woman, as the guardian of the 
home, is most concerned in resisting the devastation 
wrought by gambling. Then it is well known that those 
who lose at play win at love-making ; so, as Friday is the 
woman's day, it follows that at least the men who play 
should lose. On the other hand, iron is the metal of Mars, 
the god of war and the lover of Venus. Accidentally to 
touch iron before playing is a sign of good luck. It is also 


very lucky indeed inadvertently to step on dirt. Then if 
a coin, clumsily thrown on the table, bounds into the 
cylinder, the number into which it falls is sure to be 
heavily backed by those who have seen the accident. 
How could such mishaps more clearly indicate the winner? 
Every conceivable sort of charm or talisman is 
brought to the tables. Little pigs in silver, gold or bog- 
wood are thought very lucky. In the olden days, when 
there were fewer people and more latitude allowed to 
players, one lady preferred real pig, and this she brought 
with her in the form of a large piece of ham. At regular 
intervals in her play she cut off a formidable mouthful, 
being convinced that so long as she was eating pig she 
had a better chance of winning. Another lady with a more 
refined palate preferred pastry, but objections were 
raised because it made the table sticky. This was in no 
wise surprising. The waiters brought the cakes on a tray 
and were careful to select dirty trays with plenty of burnt 
sugar or other sticky material underneath. Thus if the 
tray could be put down near a pile of gold, perhaps one 
or two stray coins might stick to the sugar under the tray. 
Nothing similar could happen to-day. The rooms and the 
tables are far too crowded for trays to be handed about. 
But if refreshments are not carried round by waiters, 
superstitious gamblers often bring in all manner of 
strange and uncanny things. One visitor had great faith 
in a small living tortoise which he placed in his pocket. 
This is rather awkward for the neighbours, for such little 
animals are apt to make their escape and crawl from one 
person to another. A tale is told of a gentleman who had 
a spider with him. He kept it in a box painted inside half 
red and half black. He did not watch the game but he 
watched the spider, and he always played on the colour 
the spider had selected. It is a pity no explanation was 
given as to the why and wherefore of the affinity he evi- 
dently believed must exist between roulette and spiders. 
" Come into my parlour, said the spider to the fly " 
seems more appropriate to the bank than to the player. 


Nevertheless, according to the legend, the man with the 
spider always won, till one day this sagacious insect 
escaped and selected a domicile in some inaccessible part 
of the ceiling. 

If a neighbour at roulette has a pocket out of shape 
because it contains something very hard and heavy, the 
presence of a revolver need not be feared ; it is much 
more likely to be a horseshoe. This symbol of fertility is 
very appropriate for those who anticipate gathering a 
large harvest at the gaming-tables. Less cumbrous but 
far more sinister is the authentic piece of hangman's rope 
or the skin of a venomous snake. Some bring locks of hair, 
pieces of coral and even rats' tails. But undoubtedly the 
most interesting of all the luck-bearers is the mascotte. 
Apart from the game, what a delightful subject of ro- 
mance ! Nobody presumably has ever heard of an ugly 
mascotte ; yet, however beautiful and fascinating the 
mascotte may be, the person who employs her must not 
pay her the slightest compliment or engage even in the 
mildest flirtation. Nor must he allow anyone else to pay 
court to his mascotte. It is dreadfully dull work for her, 
and therefore it is not surprising that she should insist 
on a large share of the profits. Mascottes, and very beauti- 
ful mascottes, abound at Monte Carlo. How far they abide 
by the laws of mascotte magic is another matter. Among 
many others there used to be a supremely pretty Alsatian 
mascotte who always insisted on 25 per cent, of the 
profits, and she is credited with having thus obtained close 
upon £3000 without risking a penny of her own money. 
It is difficult to say how a woman gains the reputation of 
being a mascotte, but once acquired it cannot be easily 
lost, especially if the mascotte is really very charming. 
Should the gentleman lose instead of winning, she can 
always recall a moment when he looked at her somewhat 
too admiringly or was a little over-attentive. It is not the 
mascotte's fault if men will be so silly, so weak as not to 
be able to restrain themselves. If they will break the 
charm they must not blame the mascotte. 


ENOUGH perhaps has now been said to convey the 
purport of this book. The first object, of course, 
was to give useful information, both in regard to the 
past and the present of Monaco and Monte Carlo. Much 
still remains to be said ; interesting features of life in the 
principality have been omitted but many of its less-known 
phases are fully described. The second purport is to 
make it quite clear that this life bears a double aspect. 
The one has become too notorious, the other is still 
insufficiently known. But if the austere critic would blame 
the first, it may be said, in mitigation, that it has rendered 
the other possible. However great the evil consequences 
of the gambling at Monte Carlo, this has provided the 
means for the succour of the poor, the abolition of 
taxation, the encouragement of art, science and sport. 
As in England we have never succeeded in preventing 
gambling, may we not learn a useful lesson from Monaco ? 
Why not canalise this vice and make it pay our taxes ? 
The desire to gamble is a force in nature. It should not be 
wasted by being allowed to run wild. In France one of the 
principal sources of revenue for the maintenance of the 
hospitals is the percentage deducted from all bets made 
on horse-racing. A gambler is a person who hopes to obtain 
money without having the trouble to work for it. He wants 
to receive without giving, to consume without producing. 
This is a proceeding which confers no benefit to society 
and is demoralising in its general effects. If it cannot be 
prevented, we can at least compel these useless persons to 
become useful by making them contribute to the public 

On the 4th of July 1912, M. Empereur stated in the 



French Senate that there were 123 thermal stations or 
watering-places in France with casinos where gambling 
was sanctioned. Some of these are so insignificant that 
only a few hundred francs were made during the course of 
the year. In other resorts very large sums were lost by the 
public and won by the concessionaires for these games. 
In 1910 the total receipts of the 123 casinos amounted 
to £1,746,400. The most prosperous casino was that of 
Englien, near Paris, with gross receipts of £376,000. 
The three casinos of Nice came next. Their receipts were 
£320,000 between them. The gambling at Cannes only 
brings in £44,000. In 1911 the total gross receipts of the 
French casinos derived from gambling amounted to 
£1,921,022. Petit Chevaux, and such games, yielded 
£598,410, and baccarat £1,322,612. On this gross income 
the State takes 15 per cent. Therefore, in 1911, the 
French authorities obtained from the gamblers at French 
casinos the sum of £268,193. It is understood that, like 
the receipts from the racecourses, all such revenue is to 
be employed for social purposes that benefit the masses. 

In England it is the betting on horse-racing, rowing, 
football and cricket matches that needs the imposition of 
a heavy tax. Above all the "cover" speculations on the 
Stock Exchange and the " bucket shop " transactions 
should be abolished altogether, or taxed at a prohibitive 
rate. Roulette is absolutely honest and the brokerage 
charged very moderate, but these speculations on 
'Change are accompanied by multifarious forms of lying 
and deception. They are in every sense more mischievous 
and should be dealt with unmercifully. 

Then, when we have heavily taxed what we cannot 
suppress, we might enjoy in England some of the luxuries 
which are the commonplace of everyday existence in 
Monaco. There would be money to run theatres for the 
sake of art and not for profit, to issue publications 
because they are needed and not because they are likely 
to have a profitable sale, to subsidise original research, to 


enlarge museums, to establish new chairs at the uni- 
versities. These and many other things of local and 
universal advantage are done in the principality because, 
before anyone can gamble, provision is made that a part 
of the proceeds shall be so employed. 

Unfortunately many, it is to be feared most, of the 
visitors to Monte Carlo do not realise this. They are too 
busy doing nothing, for talking about roulette can scarcely 
be considered an occupation. The treasures of art and 
science are heaped up around them, but the only treasure 
they perceive is the hard cash thrown on the tables. 

Yet there is a minority, a growing minority, which 
frequents the principality because they love Monaco and 
the surrounding country. If anything could keep them 
away it is the gambling and the talk of gambling. At best, 
it is viewed as a necessary evil and endured because it is 
a very easy and bountiful source of revenue. In any case, 
no one in London refused to cross the first Westminster 
Bridge because it was built from the proceeds of a lottery. 
Nor would we to-day refrain from utilising the British 
Museum because the libraries of Sir Hans Sloan, Sir 
Robert Cotton and the Harleian, which formed the 
nucleus of the British Museum, were all obtained by 
lotteries. Mr Maberly Phillips, F.R.A., in a recent lecture 
on the South Sea Bubble, explained that, from the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth onwards, the spirit of speculation and 
gambling has been utilised to raise revenue and the 
English Government, between 1710 and 1795, obtained 
£11,000,000 by that means. Since lotteries, however, have 
been abolished, no one would desire to see them re- 
established. The brilliant success of Monte Carlo must not 
tempt us to provide increased facilities for gambling. 
It does, on the other hand, suggest that better use might 
be made of all the forms of gambling that survive, and 
indeed abound, in this country. Let us tax what we have 
not been able to prevent. 

In the meanwhile, much better use might be made of 
the advantages created at Monaco by the application of this 



policy. Personally, and as an Englishman, I feel absolutely 
humiliated when I watch the frivolous behaviour of my 
fellow-countrymen at Monte Carlo. Sports, gambling, 
scandal, what else do they talk about ? The German 
gambles also. He is very fond of gambling and became 
familiar with the games played at Monte Carlo when they 
were allowed in his own country. But he also goes out with 
a reference-book in one pocket and a notebook in the 
other. He examines, he studies, and returns to his own 
country with more knowledge than he had on leaving 
home. He has brought wider experience and instruction 
back with him and therefore is likely to be a more useful 
member of the community to which he belongs. 

As compared with the forty-five million inhabitants of 
these islands, very few English men and women have the 
means to visit the principality of Monaco. Those few who 
can afford to go so far are indeed fortunate. But surely, if 
they have actually visited this favoured centre of art, 
science, sociology, where so many questions of universal 
interest can be advantageously studied, they owe it to 
the community from which they emerge to take back 
with them such increase of knowledge as will prove they 
were worthy of the privileges they enjoyed. 




Accursi, Romeo, first distinguished 
conductor of Monte Carlo 
orchestra, 309 

Agitation against the governor and 
the prince, 228 

Air ventilation, necessary amount 
and velocity per head per 
second, 328 

Algeciras Treaty, the prince's 
action, 145, 146 

Altamira Caves of Spain, 212 

America, gambling in, 279 

Anthropological craftsmanship, 206, 

Anthropological International Con- 
gress at Monaco, 205 

Anthropological research, new 
methods established by the 
prince, 204 

Antoine, Fort, 88-89 

Aquarium, 186 

Archives of Monaco pubUshed for 
universal use, 213 

Armstrong, Miss Jane, the thirty- 
year-old suicide story, 384, 

Arsenic and oceanography, 158 
Ash, Robert S., saves the aquarium, 

Astronomy and religions, 25, 27 
Aubert, Albert, of the Charivari, 

founds first casino, 299 

Baden-Baden, 281, 283 

Bank shares, gambUngon, 276 

Barbavera foresees defeat at 

I'Ecluse, 59 
Barma Grande explored by Prince 

Albert, 204 
Bamett, H. ViUiers, 163, 188, 424 


Bastille, fall of ; Monegasques sup- 
port revolution, 95 

Bathymetrical researches, 157 

Beauty, " Queens of Beauty,'' 
official reception, 446 

Beer, Bavarian, Monaco brewery, 

Bennet, Dr Henry, of Mentone, 203 

Bergen, meeting of German and 
French sailors, 147 

Bernhardt, Sarah, sculpture by an 
actress, 319 

Blanc, Fran9ois, and his brother, 
Louis Joseph, 283 ; obtains 
gambling concession at Hom- 
burg, 284 ; marries a descend- 
ant of exiled Huguenots, 285 ; 
buys the Monaco Casino Con- 
cession, 305 ; death of, 310, 
335 ; lends money to complete 
Paris Opera, 311 ; theory on 
the responsibility of wealth, 
311 ; his genius missed, 330 

— Madame, foresees suppression 

of German casinos, 286 ; suc- 
ceeds to the management, 310 ; 
death of 335 

— CamUle.appointed Chief Director, 

334 ; insists on securing the 
best in aU things, 427 

Bombardment of Casino threatened, 

Boule, Prof. Marcellin, organises 
Monaco Museum of Anthropo- 
logy, 205, 212 

Boulogne a Ligurian Republic, 


Bouree, Lieutenant, colour photo- 
graphy of specimens, 156, 179 

Bourgeois, Mons., new French 
Premier, the prince and the 
Kaiser, 146 

Bretonnerie, Mons. Godineau de la, 
architect of first Monte Carlo 
casino, abandons the work, 303 



Breuil, Prof. H:, copies prehistoric 

paintings, 211, 212 
Brignole, Mademoiselle de, marries 

Honore III., 92 
— Catherine, separated wife of 

Honore III., dies in London, 93 
British Government behind time, 

160, 162, 168 
British Museum founded on the 

proceeds of gambhng, 465 
Brittany, War of Succession, 60 
Broca, Prof ., at the Red Rock, 202 
Brokerage on 'Change and at rou- 
lette, 277 
Bruce, David, escorted by Mone- 

gasque fleet, 56 
Buchanan, Prof. J. Y., 168, 170, 

Budget Extraordinary, 129 
Budgets of the principality, 128 

Caesar, Augustus, battle trophy at 
La Turbie, 38, 39 

— Juhus, at Monaco, 38 

Cafe du Soleil for penny gamblers, 

Canossa, the road to, 218 

Carisbrooke Castle alone resists, 65 

Carnegie's diplodocus, Carnegie and 
the Mentone troglodyte, 203 

Camot pleads for the Prince of 
Monaco, 97 

Carr, R.N., Captain H, in com- 
mand of prince's yacht, 154 

Carthage, 36 

Cartinac, Prof., prehistoric archaeo- 
logy, 20s 

Casier-Sanitaire, sanitary history 
of each house, 249 

Casino as a technique, 299 

Casino failures at Monaco, 299, 

Casino open to all once a year, now 
closed, 350 

Casino subventions, 335 

Casino workmen march on Monaco, 

Castles, prehistoric, n 
Cavaillie-CoU decorates museum, 

Cercle Prive, 325, 326 

Challenger, the, 160, 177, 188 
Charcot, Dr, the explorer, 177 
Charlemagne, 41, 70 
Charles V. of Spain visits Monaco, 76 
Charles II. of England first to claim 

a Civil List, 128 
Childhood and gambhng, 258, 259 
Choiseul - StainviUe, Fran9oise - 

Therese, wife of Joseph Gri- 

maldi, guillotined, 98, 99 
Church and State, separation and 

disendowment, 150 
Cinematograph, substitute for 

pigeon-shooting, 439 
Civil List not needed, 128 
Clairin's paintings, dance at the 

theatre, etc., 317, 322 
Claudine, heiress to the principaUty, 

and affianced at the age of six. 

Clubs and games, great need of, 

Code Louis, 86 

Colombe, ViUa, successful specula- 
tion, 119 
Colstoun, Admiral Brown de, 160 
Communal or municipal life 

abolished, 86 
Concordat abolished, 1 50 
Condamine violets for Rimmel's, 

Conde, Prince de, marries widow of 

Honore HI., 93 
Congresses, International, held at 

Monaco, 139 
Constituent Assembly vote a 

pension to the Grimaldis, 96 
Constitution, the new, of Monaco, 

Constitutional agitation, views of 

the foreign colony, 233 
Convicts render Monte Carlo fertile, 

Council of State, constitution of, 

. 232 
Craig, Mr Gordon, on stage scenery, 

Cr6cy, battle of, Charles Grmialdi 

wounded at, 61 
Crockford loses and gains, 272, 273 
Cromwell, Mazarin obtains his help 

and friendship, 82, 83 
Cromwell, Oliver, seizes French fleet 

in time of peace, 215 



Croupiers, honesty and tempta- 
tions of, 348 
Croupiers, salaries and pensions of, 

Croupier's lesson to a prince, 388 
Cruelty to animals, strict preven- 
tion of, 248, 249 
Crusades and Monegasque ships, 50 
Ciif)enick, Captain, on dangers of 

discipline, 341 
Customs Union with France, 123- 


Darnborough, Mr, great gains of, 288 

d'Axncsano, iVLarquis, starts second 
casino at Monaco, 300 

Daval, third Monaco casino con- 
cessionaire, 300 

Death-rate, the Monaco, 399 

Decadent sports, 442 

Decorations of the Casino Theatre, 

317, 318 
Deep water exploration, 154-155 
Demagogy, the prince's apprehen- 
sions, 137 
Destructor, the, prompt cremation 

of household refuse by, 247 
Detectives in hotels, 240 
Directors of the Casino, 336 
Disinfection, compulsory insurance, 

Dogs, police dog contest, 446 
Dog-show, 446 
Domesday Book, 56 
Domestic drainage, inefficient in- 
spection of, 250 
Dore, Gustave, sculpture by a 

painter, 319 
Dreyfus Affair and the prince, 148 
Dukes, the Grand, Nicholas, Michael, 

Serge, at roulette, 287 
Dupuis, origin of cults, etc., 23 
Dutrou, architect of the Salle 
Mauresquc, 307 

Edward III. sees C. Grimaldi carry 
off his ships, 62 ; pays high 
ransom for Rainier Grimaldi, 64 

Electors, paucity of, 230 
Elephants, primitive, 207, 208 
EUzabeth, Princess of Homburg, 

daughter of George III., 283 
Elysee Alberto, first name of Monte 

Carlo Casino, 303 
Embassies as gambling hells, 267 
Endowment of Oceanographic 

Institute, 164, 165 
English frigate attacks Monaco, 

blows up powder magazine, 

100- 10 1 
Enghsh travellers unpopular, 381 
Enriette, photographer, snap-shot 

of prince's joke, 219 
Enticus and St Devote, 29 
Entrance cards to the gambling- 
rooms, number issued, 372 
E. O., the game of, 270 
Examination, daily, inspection of 

the roulettes, 363 

Fallieres, President, opens Oceano- 
graphic Institute, 175 ; colour- 
photographed on palace terrace, 

Farine, Theotime, police officer, 237 

Fascicules, 158-159 

Faure, Maurice, Minister of Public 
Instruction, 177 

Faure, President, French Republic 
receives the prince an hour 
before his death, 148 

Faure, M., death of, 149 

Fencing, 445 

Feudal system and the fleet, 69 

Finance, what the casino pays, 126, 

Fine Arts Palace and Exhibition, 

Fontenoy, battle of, 91 
Food supply control, 249 
Foreigners, hostility against foreign 

tradesmen and financiers, 224, 

Foreshore reclamation, Monegasque 

objections, 229 
Frdgose, Pomelline, Joan Grimaldi's 

heroic wife, 72 
Frey, Mons. Eugene, 434 
Fuhrmcistcr, Adolphe, 156 



Gamblers, the actual numbers 

admitted, 372 
Ganne, Mons. Louis, 327 
Garcia's extraordinary luck at 

Homburg, 293 
Gardeners, number employed, 412 
Gardens, Casino, 407-422 
Gamier, Charles, 313 
Gatermoole, Mr, popular English 

first violin, 430, 431 
Gaumates. See St Devote, 30 
Gautier, Armand, President of 

Academy of Science, 178 
George III. receives Honore III. at 

court in London, g^ 
German invasion of the principality, 

Geryon, 188 

Glacial period on the Riviera, 209 
Golf, 445 

Government enterprise, 136 
Green-rooms, the overcrowded, 254, 

Grimaldi, Catalan, reigns three 
years, 7^ 

— Charles, storms Southampton, 

55 ; his letters in the archives, 
214 ; wounded at Crecy, 61 

— Giballin, 43 

— Jean, prisoner of Duke of 

Savoy, 72 

— Lambert, of Antibes reigns as 

the husband of Claudine, y^ 

— Jean II., killed by his brother, 


— Lucien, murdered by his rela- 

tions, 75 

— Augustin, defeats his brother's 

assassins, 76 

— Augustin, objects to Spanish 

protectorate and is poisoned, 

— Honore I., succeeds at the age 

of ten, 76 

— Etienne, "Father Elect" to 

Honore I., able administrator, 


— Charles II. (1581), 77 

— Honore II., beautifies the 

palace, 78 

— Hercules I., murdered in the rue 

du Milieu, 78 

Grimaldi, Louis I. (1662), intrigues 
with exiled Stuarts, 82 

— Antoine I. (1701), fortifies 

Monaco, 88 

— Louis-Hippolyte, reigns only 

eleven months (1713), 90 

— Honore III. (1733), Jacques I. 

abdicates in his favour, 91 

— Chevalier de, governs prin- 

cipality for fifty years, 90, 


— Honore-Gabriel, ser\'es with dis- 

tinction under Grouchy and 
Murat, 101-102 

— Honore IV., at restoration is 

too old to reign, 103 

— Honore-Gabriel, appointed Re- 

gent, meets Napoleon I., 


— Florestan I. (1841), 106 

— Charles III. (1856), 107 

— Florestan as an actor, 113, 114 

— Florestine, sister of Charles 

III., m. the Prince of Wurtem- 
berg, 125 

— Albert I., membre de ITnsti- 

tut, 132; joins French Fleet 
during Franco-German War, 133 

— Albert, chapters viii. to xiv. 

— Rainier, 51, 52 ; protests against 

in London Record Ofiice, 214 
Guelfs and Ghibellines fight for 

Monaco, 45 
Gulf Stream, 193 
Gunsbourg, Monsieur Raoul, 173, 

Gj-mnastics, 445 


Hebe confers spring on Monaco, 26- 

Hells, gambling hells in France 
under Henry IV., 262 ; pro- 
prietors branded and flogged, 
267 ; the Duke of Buckingham's 
favourite hell, 269 ; Crockford's 
in St James's Street, 272 ; 
Panton Street built with win- 
ings from a Haymarket hell, 

Henry IV., Emperor, general strike 
against, 217 



Henry IV. of France as a gambler, 

Henzal, Gaspard, father of Madame 

F. Blanc, 285 
Heraklean road, 49 
Herakles, 21, 22, 23; Monaco and 

the apples, 26 
Hercules, port of Hercules, 25 ; 

modem worship of, 187 
Hesen, the Kurfsiirst von, provides 

the first step to fortune, 288 
Hippopotamus at Monaco, 206, 208 
Htrondelle, No. I., 134 
Hirondelle , No. II., 155 
Historians at Monaco, special 

attractions for, 216 
Homburg, early struggles of, 283 ; 

prosperity, 296 ; statistics of 

visitors, 284, 290, 295, 296 
Home Rule granted to Monaco by 

Genoa, 45, 68 
Hospital for the wealthy, the VUla 

Albert, 252 
Hostile demonstration at the palace, 

228, 229 
Huguenot colony and Franfois 

Blanc, 285 
Hunchbacks of the rue Quincam- 

poix and Monte Carlo, 265 
Hundred Years' War, 53 
Hyeres, the first palm-trees, 417 

Independence of Monaco, first 

official record, 53 
Industries of the sea, 196 
Industries, naoney value of all, 227 
Institute of Oceanography, text of 

the offer made, 163 
IphigSnie and Hohenzollern, 147 
Isolation or fever hospital paying 

wards, 252 
Isolation of England, 5 1 
ItaUan tradesmen, 225 
Itahan invasion of the principaUty, 

378. 379 
Izard, Mons. E., 217 

Jacques I., widower of Louise- 
Hippolyte Grimaldi, abdication 
of, 91 

James II. of England, 88 
Jehin, Leon, 169, 172, 175, 179 
— Mons. Leon, chief leader of 
orchestra and musical com- 
poser, 431 
Jewel robbery, 241 
Joint stock and hmited companies 

controlled, 138 
Josephine, Empress, faithfully 
served by Joseph Grimaldi, 



Kaiser, 144, 189 

Keltic, Mr Scott, R.G.S., 174 

Koester, Grand Admiral von, 172 

Labande, Mons. L. H., the archivist, 

Labour, homage to, prince's speech, 

Labouchere, the late Mr Henry, and 

his system, 346 
Lankester, Sir Ray, 212 
Landmark, Garnier's towers, 316 
Landowners, vast majority 

foreigners, 23 1 
Langlois, Napoleon, starts the first 

casino at Monaco, 299 
La Turbie Trophy, 38, 39 
Law, John, 264 
Lawn-tennis, 445 
Lef^vre, Griois and Jagot, successors 

to M. Daval, 303 
Lemons, the trade in, 121 
Lentheric, Charles, early history of 

the Riviera by, 20-21 
Leorenzi, Frederic, nine years' work 

in the caves of, 205-206, 207 
Liard, Dean of the Paris University, 

Library, Municipal, 159 
Lombards, 41 

London gambling houses, 274 
Losses counteracted, 390, 391 
Louis XIII. confers great honours 

on Honore II., 81 
Louis XIV., godfather to Louis Is 

of Monaco, 82 
Luminous fish 156, 184, 189 



Lviminous stage effects, 434 
Luminous water, 185 


Macaroni, the Monaco manufactory, 

Manufacturing enterprise, unsuit- 

abUity of the principality for, 

Maritime power, decline of Mone- 

gasque navy, jy 
Marriage, 230 
Marseilles, Phocian origin, 34 ; 

rivalry with Monaco, 36 
Martel, Charles, 41 
Martiny, A., director for exterior 

services, 336 
Mary Magdalene, 40 
Mascottes, 462 
Matignon family alliance with the 

Grimaldis, 90 
Maubert, L., director for the in- 
terior services, 336 
Maximum, the law of, applied to 

bread and meat, 220 
Mayhew, Horace, 292 
Meat supply, public abattoirs, 248 
Medecin, M., architect of the new 

wing and concert-room, 326, 327 
Medusa lustre at Museum, 189 
Melkarth, 23, 24 
Mentone placed under dukes of 

Savoy, Ti 
Milanese occupy Monaco, 72 
Militarism and the Kaiser, 146 
Mihtary intervention in case of riot, 

MUk supply and control, 249 
Minarets or steeples for a theatre, 

Miracles and the climate, 27, 28 
Mistral wind a boisterous friend, 244, 

Moch, M. Gaston, 216 
Monaco, surprise attack on behalf 

of France in 1581, jj\ night 

surprise attack on behalf of 

Savoy, 78 
Monks, origin of the monks on the 

arms of Monaco, 46 
Morocco crisis, 145, 146 
Mosaics of the Monte Carlo theatre, 

315. 316 

Munster, Count von, 159 
Murray, Sir John, 170, 177 
Museum of Oceanography, its origin, 

Myths, their historic value, 22 


Naquet, Mons. Alfred, 456 
Names, French and Italian, 123 
Napoleon III. favoured Monte 

Carlo, 273, 274 ; the opera and 

the hospital, 312 
Negroid man, 209 
Nenot, architect of Oceanographic 

Institute, 176, 177 
New York, 86 
Nice and Savoy given to France, 

effect on Monaco, 107 
Nursery rhymes on roulette, 296 

Oceanography, 155, 157, 158, 159, 

16s, 170, 185, 191, 192, 201 
Operation, surgical, great success 

at the Monaco hospital, 250, 

Organisms in the sea-water and in 

man, 201 

Paintings, prehistoric, 210 

Palace, entertainments at, 218, 

Palaeontology, Institute of Human, 
founded by the prince, 212 

Palmaria, ramshackle steamer from 
Nice, 304 

Pascal, Blaise, supposed to have 
invented roulette, 260, 261 

Peace, International Peace Institute 
at Monaco, 216; papal inter- 
vention in favour of, 217 

Pensions for musicians, 428 

Peronne, Treaty of, re-establishing 
French pretectorate, 1641, 79 

Perrier, director of Paris Museum of 
Natural History, 178 

Phoenicians, 35 

Photography, colour, 2ig 



Pichon, French Minister of Foreign 

Affairs, 171 
Pichot, Abbe, victim of Dreyfus 

Affair at St Devote's, 150 ; the 

pojjes and the prevention of 

war, 217 
Pickpockets, 235, 236 
Pigeon-shooting, 440, 441 
Pilfering, 357-358 
Plague at Monaco, 163 1, 79 
Plankton, and the origin of life, 19, 

Pontevis, Jeanne de, wife of Lucien, 

Pope, the, circular of, M. Jaures and 

the prince, 151; the, and 

President Loubet, 151 
Population, decrease of Monegasque 

inhabitants, 230 
Popular resort projected, 351 
Poverty and rebellion, 298 
Prickly-pear instead of wire en- 
tanglement, 89 
Princesse Alice picture by Monch- 

ablon at museum, 190 
Prison, Honore III., and all the 

Grimaldis in, 98 
Prize fight between Anglo-French 

champions, 439 
Proctor, Richard A. brokerage 

and Stock Exchange gambling, 

Property owners, vast majority 

foreigners, 231 
Provence, claim over Monaco, 68 
Puech, D., statue of the prince by, 



Refail at irente-et-quarante a smaller 
brokerage than the zero, 356 

Regnard, Professor, 193 

Regnault, Mons. F., archaeologist, 

Rhinoceros of the Riviera, 203, 207, 

Richard, Dr Jules, 156 

Richeheu's pro-f^rotestant anti- 
German unity policy, 81 

Richet, Professor Charles, and the 
Peace Party, 143 

Riviere, the geologist at the Red 
Rocks, 203 

Roccabruna placed under the dukes 

of Savoy, 73 
Roman emperors at Monaco, 39 
Rothschild, the late A. de, 382-383 
Rouleaux of gold and of wood, 287 
Roulette and the early Briton, 257 ; 
the reaction against robbery, 
260, 261 ; not the roulette of 
Pascal, 261 ; the great Ency- 
clopeedia and the prevention of 
cheating, 262 ; nursery rhymes, 
293 ; Les Voisins, 361 ; daUy 
examination, 363 ; hfting ofi 
the wheel and seeing inside, 
364 ; the pivot and the deli- 
cate part, 364 ; constructor's 
drawing of the wheel, 365 ; 
pretended tampering with the 
wheel, 366 ; width of the 
partitions and size of the 
marble, 366 ; the central dome 
defeats all manoeuvres, 367 ; 
breaking the bank, amount held 
in reserve, 369 ; bank broken 
every day at Monte Carlo, 370 ; 
and the Russian grand dukes, 
386 ; royal players, 387; sacred 
emblems at, 430 
Rouvier's views presented to the 

Kaiser by the prince, 145 
Roux, Consfcmt, Grand Prix de 

Rome, 189 
Rye, naval battle won at, by Rainier 
Grimaldi, 64 

St Devote, 28-33 

St George, Banner of England, 60 

Sainte-Marie, M., chief organiser of 

the orchestra, 427 
Saint-Germain, Mons. Marie de, 

305, 306 
Sala, George Augustus, and his 

system, 291 
Santuola, M. de, discovers Alta- 

mira cave, 210 
Sardinia, protection of, 104 ; foments 

discontent in the principality, 

1 06 
Sardou, Victoricn, 108 
Sartincs, M. dc, celebrated prefect 

who legalised gambling, 265,266 



Sanssure's researches at the Red 

Rocks, 202 
Science as the worship of Hercules, 


Sea -water, its composition, 194 

Seattle, U.S.A., gambling scandal, 

Security, personal, one of the attrac- 
tions of Monaco, 242, 243 

Sereron, J., director for the finan- 
cial department, 336 

Sforza, Francisco, employs Jean 
Grimaldi on the seas, 72 

Shone system of drainage, 246, 


Silver, the day to play \\dth, 454 

Silver in the sea, 195 

Simard, Joseph H., chief of the 
police, 236 

Skeleton, the first found in the 
Mentone caverns, 203 

Slaughter houses, private, pro- 
hibited, 248 

SnufE, 359 

Society, 442 

Sorbonne, the, 176 

Spider, a spider as a guide at 
roulette, 461 

Sporting Club, 326, 357 

Stables, constant inspection of, 

State industries organised, 105 

State socialism and Honore, 105 

Statistics, criniinal, of the princi- 
pality, 242 

Stock Exchange gambling, 276 

Strike, proposed international, 217 

Succession, the Spanish, 87 

Suffrage, universal, granted, 232 

Suicides at No. 113 Palais Royal 
and Frascati's, 268 ; of Lord 
Montford and Sir John Bland, 
271 ; Stock Exchange suicides, 
278, 279 ; the one-suicide-a- 
day legend, 393 ; gross ignor- 
ance and incompetence in deal- 
ing with vital statistics, 394 ; 
late Bishop of Gibraltar's 
action, 396 ; the Prince of 
Monaco's explanation, 397 ; 
suicide a rare cause of death, 
398 ; Buckle on the regularity 
of suicides, 399 ; the Monaco 
death-rate, 399 ; analysis of 

Suicides — continued 

the suicides in 191 1, 400; 
nationality, domicile and age 
of the victims, 400, 401 ; 
suicide rate per thousand 
gamblers, 402, 403 ; suicide 
rate per thousand non- 
gamblers, 402, 403 ; excessive 
prevalence of suicide through- 
out the Riviera, 404 ; when 
the casino prevents suicide, 
404 ; number per thousand of 
gamblers who commit suicide 
and of sailors, miners and 
railway servants who are killed , 
405, 406 

Superstition, Buckle on supersti- 

!f tion, 449 

Suspects, Honore III. arrested 
under the " law of suspects,"- 

Tarot, the, 458 

Taxation, agitation in favour of, 
223. 233 

Taxation, exorbitant, imposed by 
Honore v., 104 ; abolished, 125, 
126 ; indirect taxes, revenue 
from, 127 

Telephony, wireless, 155, 156 

Texel, naval battle (1666), 84, 85 

The Trente et Quarante conspiracy, 
359, 360 

Thermal establishment, 332, 333 

Thieves, high-class and refined, 
236, 238, 239 

Tinayre, L., 157, 176 

" Tips " to croupiers, 347, 348 

Titles, Prince of Monaco's numer- 
ous, 132 

Titta-Ruffo, the baritone, as 
Hercules, 175 

TordesUlas, declaration of the 
Spanish overlordship by, 76 

Touzet Salle buUt, 323 

Trade, retail, gambling tendencies, 

Troglod>-te, 208 

Tuberculosis, compulsory notifica- 
tion and disinfection of, 248 

Turbie Trophy blown up by the 
French, 88 




Urach, Duke of, and Prince of 
Wurtemberg marries Charles 
III.'s sister, 125 

Valdetare, Prince Regent, devoted 

to Spain, 78 
Van den Daele, chief gardener, 409 
VanderbUt and family, 384 
Veille, Pointe de la, the woman in 

white and the Duke of York, 

Ventilation, mechanical and scien- 
tific, of paying part of Casino, 

Vemeau, Prof., 205 
Victoria, Empress Frederick, of 

Germany, redeems the orange- 
trees, 290 
Villeneuve, Chanoine L., director 

of Anthropological Museum, 

205, 210 
Violence, scarcity of crimes with, 

Visconti, Mons., stage property and 

scenery department, 433 
Vizetelly, 292 
Voltaire on Monaco's prince at 

Fontenoy, 91 


Water cisterns, inspection and 
danger of, 250 

Water-supply, ozone and ultra- 
violet rays, 249 

Waterloo, battle of, disastrous efiect 
on Monaco, 104 

Whales, 191 

White Terror, the, 102 

Wicht, Frederic, general director, 

Wight, Isle of, seized and ransomed 
by French and Monegasques, 

WiUiam of Provence, 43 
Wurtemberg Royal family allied 

to the Grimaldis, 125 

York, Duke of, brother of George 
III., dies in the palace at 
Monaco, 93 

Zierikzee, Flemish fleet defeated 
by Rainier at, 278 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


UEC 2 G 1963 


^ 1 1 


«**«^ JAN3 019B7 ^Jvm^^ 



APR 2196I7 

DMin- OCT 3 015?? 
REC'D LD "^ 


^^^ te'O LO-UW 

TfrfM5 OJ-URt 

NIAY 261985 



AUG 91986 


Form L9-32m-8,'58(5876s4)444 

j^xSUIBkAKV/y/ _^v,UIBRA 

i]jNvsoi'<^~ ^/j;a3AiNnmv 

if rNI\[R.V//^. 








'^6'Ayvjiaiii\'^'^ '^■^omn 



*fCAllFOff^ ^.OFCAll FOff^ 

C7 ^ 








nj'jNvsoi^"^" "^/iajAiNn juv" 







^ ^-'J I. £n 





^;^l•llBRARYar ^^^^l■llBRAf 

^OF CAjIFOff^^ ^OFCAll F 

^OAavaaiH'^^ ^(JAavaai 

. ^\\E UNIVERi-//,